Pope Innocent VIII (Latin: Innocentius VIII; 1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo), was Pope from 29 August 1484 to his death in 1492. Born into a prominent Genoese family, he entered the church and was made bishop in 1467, before being elevated to the rank of cardinal by Pope Sixtus IV. He was elected Pope in 1484, as a compromise candidate, after a stormy conclave.
|Bishop of Rome|
|Papacy began||29 August 1484|
|Papacy ended||25 July 1492|
|Consecration||28 January 1467|
|Created cardinal||7 May 1473|
by Sixtus IV
|Birth name||Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo)|
Genoa, Republic of Genoa
|Died||25 July 1492 (aged 59–60)|
Rome, Papal States
|Other popes named Innocent|
|Papal styles of|
Pope Innocent VIII
|Reference style||His Holiness|
|Spoken style||Your Holiness|
|Religious style||Holy Father|
Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo) was born in Genoa of Greek ancestry, the son of Arano Cybo or Cibo (c. 1375–c. 1455) and his wife Teodorina de Mari (c. 1380–?), of an old Genoese family. Arano Cybo was viceroy of Naples and then a senator in Rome under Pope Calixtus III (1455–58). Giovanni Battista's early years were spent at the Neapolitan court. While in Naples he was appointed a Canon of the Cathedral of Capua, and was given the Priory of S. Maria d'Arba in Genoa. After the death of King Alfonso, friction between Giovanni Battista and the Archbishop of Genoa decided him to resign his Canonry, and to go to Padua and then to Rome for his education.
In Rome he became a priest in the retinue of cardinal Calandrini, half-brother to Pope Nicholas V (1447–55). In 1467, he was made Bishop of Savona by Pope Paul II, but exchanged this see in 1472 for that of Molfetta in south-eastern Italy. In 1473, with the support of Giuliano Della Rovere, later Pope Julius II, he was made cardinal by Pope Sixtus IV, whom he succeeded on 29 August 1484 as Pope Innocent VIII.
The papal conclave of 1484 was riven with factions, while gangs rioted in the streets. In order to prevent the election of the Venetian Cardinal Barbo, Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, on the evening before the election, after the cardinals had retired for the night, the Dean of the College of Cardinals, Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, nephew of the late Pope, and Cardinal Borgia, the Vice-Chancellor, visited a number of cardinals and secured their votes with the promise of various benefices.
It was claimed that Cardinal della Rovere met secretly with Cardinal Marco Barbo in order to secure him more votes to become pope if he was promised a residence, though Barbo refused in fear it would make the conclave invalid due to simony. Cardinal della Rovere then met with Borgia, who disliked Barbo and wished to block his election, with an offer to turn their votes over to Cibò, promising them benefits for doing so.
Shortly after his coronation Innocent VIII addressed a fruitless summons to Christendom to unite in a crusade against the Turks. A protracted conflict with King Ferdinand I of Naples was the principal obstacle. Ferdinand's oppressive government led in 1485 to a rebellion of the aristocracy, known as the Conspiracy of the Barons, which included Francesco Coppola and Antonello Sanseverino of Salerno and was supported by Pope Innocent VIII. Innocent excommunicated him in 1489 and invited King Charles VIII of France to come to Italy with an army and take possession of the Kingdom of Naples, a disastrous political event for the Italian peninsula as a whole. The immediate conflict was not ended until 1494, after Innocent VIII's death.
Bayezid II ruled as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512. His rule was contested by his brother Cem, who sought the support of the Mamluks of Egypt. Defeated by his brother's armies, Cem sought protection from the Knights of St. John in Rhodes. Prince Cem offered perpetual peace between the Ottoman Empire and Christendom. However, the sultan paid the Knights a large amount to keep Cem captive. Cem was later sent to the castle of Pierre d'Aubusson in France. Sultan Bayezid sent a messenger to France and requested Cem to be kept there; he agreed to make an annual payment in gold for his brother's expenses.
In March 1489, Cem was transferred to the custody of Innocent VIII. Cem's presence in Rome was useful because whenever Bayezid intended to launch a military campaign against the Christian nations of the Balkans, the Pope would threaten to release his brother. In exchange for maintaining the custody of Cem, Bayezid paid Innocent VIII 120,000 crowns, a relic of the Holy Lance and an annual fee of 45,000 ducats. Cem died in Capua on February 25, 1495 on a military expedition under the command of King Charles VIII of France to conquer Naples.
The bull was written in response to the request of Dominican Heinrich Kramer for explicit authority to prosecute witchcraft in Germany, after he was refused assistance by the local ecclesiastical authorities, who disputed his authority to work in their dioceses. Some scholars view the bull as "clearly political", motivated by jurisdictional disputes between the local German Catholic priests and clerics from the Office of the Inquisition who answered more directly to the pope.
Nonetheless, the bull failed to ensure that Kramer obtained the support he had hoped for, causing him to retire and to compile his views on witchcraft into his book Malleus Maleficarum, which was published in 1487. Kramer would later claim that witchcraft was to blame for bad weather. Both the papal letter appended to the work and the supposed endorsement of Cologne University for it are problematic. The letter of Innocent VIII is not an approval of the book to which it was appended, but rather a charge to inquisitors to investigate diabolical sorcery and a warning to those who might impede them in their duty, that is, a papal letter in the by then conventional tradition established by John XXII and other popes through Eugenius IV and Nicholas V (1447–55).
Also in 1487, Innocent issued a bull for the extermination of the heretics the Waldensians (Vaudois), offering plenary indulgence to all who should engage in the Crusade against them. Alberto de' Capitanei, archdeacon of Cremona, responded to the bull by organizing a crusade to fulfill its order and launched an offensive in the provinces of Dauphiné and Piedmont. Charles I, Duke of Savoy eventually interfered to save his territories from further confusion and promised the Vaudois peace, but not before the offensive had devastated the area and many of the Vaudois fled to Provence and south to Italy.
The noted Franciscan theologian Angelo Carletti di Chivasso, whom Innocent in 1491 appointed as Apostolic Nuncio and Commissary, conjointly with the Bishop of Mauriana, was involved in reaching the peaceful agreement between Catholics and Waldensians.
In Rome, he ordered the Belvedere of the Vatican to be built, intended for summer use, on an unarticulated slope above the Vatican Palace. His successor would later turn the building into the Cortile del Belvedere. In season, he hunted at Castello della Magliana, which he enlarged. Constantly confronted with a depleted treasury, he resorted to the objectionable expedient of creating new offices and granting them to the highest bidders. The fall of Granada in January 1492, was celebrated in the Vatican and Innocent granted Ferdinand II of Aragon the epithet "Catholic Majesty."
Minnich (2005) notes that the position of Renaissance popes towards slavery, a common institution in contemporary cultures, varied. Minnich states that those who allowed the slave trade did so in the hope of gaining converts to Christianity. In the case of Innocent he permitted trade with Barbary merchants in which foodstuffs would be given in exchange for slaves who could then be converted to Christianity.
King Ferdinand of Aragon gave Innocent 100 Moorish slaves who shared them out with favoured Cardinals. The slaves of Innocent were called "moro", meaning "dark-skinned man", in contrast to negro slaves who were called "moro nero".
Innocent VIII named eight cardinals in one consistory which was held on 9 March 1489; the pope named three of those cardinals in pectore (one of whom being a successor in Giovanni de' Medici who became Pope Leo X) with two of them having their names released after the pope died to ensure that they could vote in the 1492 conclave.
In July 1492 Innocent fell into a fever. He was said to have been given the world's first blood transfusion by his Jewish physician Giacomo di San Genesio, who had him drink the blood of three 10-year-old boys. The boys subsequently died. The evidence for this story, however, is unreliable and may have been motivated by antisemitism. Innocent VIII died himself on the 25th of July.
A mysterious inscription on his tomb in Saint Peter in Rome states: “Nel tempo del suo Pontificato, la gloria della scoperta di un nuovo mondo” (transl. "During his Pontificate, the glory of the discovery of a new world."). The fact is that he died seven days before the departure of Christopher Columbus for his supposedly first voyage over the Atlantic, raising speculations that Columbus actually traveled before the known date and re-discovered the Americas for the Europeans before the supposed date of October 12, 1492. The Italian journalist and writer Ruggero Marino, in his book Cristoforo Colombo e il Papa tradito (transl. Christopher Columbus and the betrayed Pope) is convinced of this after having studied Columbus's papers for over 25 years.
Innocent had two illegitimate children born before he entered the clergy "towards whom his nepotism had been as lavish as it was shameless". In 1487 he married his elder son Franceschetto Cybo (d. 1519) to Maddalena de' Medici (1473–1528), the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici, who in return obtained the cardinal's hat for his thirteen-year-old son Giovanni, later Pope Leo X. His daughter Teodorina Cybo married Gerardo Usodimare and had a daughter. Savonarola chastised him for his worldly ambitions.
CHARACTER OF INNOCENT VIII... Cardinal John Baptist Cibo,' who was elected as Innocent VIII. (1484–1492)...His family was of Greek origin, but had been long settled at Genoa and Naples by the name of Tomacelli that to which Boniface IX. belonged. The name of Cibo was taken from the chess-board pattern (itii/30s) in their arms. The father of Innocent had been Viceroy of Naples under King Rene, and Senator of Rome under Calixtus III.
Cybo or Cibo, che-bo', (Arano or Aaron,) the ancestor of a noble Genoese family, was born of Greek origin at Rhodes in 1377. He was Viceroy of Naples about 1442, and died in 1457, leaving a son, who became Pope Innocent VIII. in 1485.
INNOCENT VIII (John Baptist Cibo), pope, died. He was a Genoese nobleman of Greek descent; employed his influence to reconcile the quarrels of the Christian princes with one another, and left behind him the character of a high minded and benevolent man..)
+ Innocent VIII.—John Baptista Cibo, a noble Genoese, but originally of Greek extraction. He was called, prior to his elevation to the papacy, the cardinal of Melfe. He had several children before ho entered holy orders, and did not neglect them during his reign.)CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
|Catholic Church titles|
| Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals
29 August 1484 – 25 July 1492
The papal conclave of 1484 (August 26–29), elected Pope Innocent VIII after the death of Pope Sixtus IV.Alessandro Carafa
Alessandro Carafa (died 1503) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Archbishop of Naples (1484–1503).Alvise Cippico
Alvise Cippico or Ivan Cippicus (16 September 1456 – 2 March 1504) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Archbishop of Zadar (1503) and Bishop of Famagusta (1488–1503).Antonio da San Gimignano
Antonio da San Gimignano (died 1496) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Bagnoregio (1488–1496).Belvedere (structure)
A belvedere or belvidere (from Italian for "fair view") is an architectural structure sited to take advantage of a fine or scenic view. While a belvedere may be built in the upper part of a building the actual structure can be of any form, whether a turret, a cupola, or an open gallery. Or it may be a separate pavilion in a garden, or the term may be used for a paved terrace with a good viewpoint, but no actual building.
It may also be used for a whole building, as in the Belvedere, Vienna, a huge palace, or Belvedere Castle, a folly in New York.
On the hillside above the Vatican Palace, Antonio Pollaiuolo built a small pavilion (casino in Italian) named the palazzetto or the Belvedere for Pope Innocent VIII. Some years later Donato Bramante linked the Vatican with the Belvedere, under a commission from Pope Julius II by creating the Cortile del Belvedere ("Courtyard of the Belvedere"), in which stood the Apollo Belvedere, among the most famous of antique sculptures. This began the fashion in the 16th century for the belvedere.Cardinals created by Innocent VIII
Pope Innocent VIII (r. 1484–1492) created eight new cardinals in one consistory on 9 March 1489, although the names of two of them have been published only after his death:
Lorenzo Cybo de Mari, nephew of the Pope and archbishop of Benevento – cardinal priest of S. Susanna (received the title on 23 March 1489), then cardinal priest of S. Cecilia (1490), cardinal-priest of S. Marco (1496), cardinal bishop of Albano (14 May 1501) and cardinal bishop of Palestrina (29 November 1503), † 21 December 1503
Ardicino della Porta, bishop of Aleria and papal secretary – cardinal priest of SS. Giovanni e Paolo (received the title on 23 March 1489), † 4 February 1493
Antonio Pallavicini Gentili, papal datary and bishop of Orense – cardinal priest of S. Anastasia (received the title on 23 March 1489), then cardinal priest of S. Prassede (31 August 1492), cardinal bishop of Tusculum (10 April 1503), cardinal bishop of Palestrina (22 December 1503), † 10 September 1507
André d'Espinay, archbishop of Bordeaux – cardinal priest of SS. Silvestro e Martino (received the title on 23 March 1489), † 10 November 1500
Pierre d'Aubusson, O.S.Io.Hieros., Grand Master of his Order on Rodos – cardinal deacon of S. Adriano (received the title on 23 March 1489), † 3 July 1503
Giovanni de' Medici, protonotary apostolic, son of Lorenzo de Medici (in pectore, published on 26 March 1492) – cardinal deacon of S. Maria in Domnica, on 11 March 1513 became Pope Leo X, † 1 December 1521
Federico di Sanseverino, protonotary apostolic (in pectore, published on 26 July 1492, after the death of the Pope) – cardinal deacon of S. Teodoro (received the title in 1492), then cardinal deacon of S. Angelo (17 March 1511); deposed and excommunicated on 24 October 1511, reinstated as cardinal deacon of S. Angelo on 27 June 1513, † 7 August 1516
Maffeo Gherardi, O.S.B.Cam., patriarch of Venice (in pectore, published on 3 August 1492, after the death of the Pope) – cardinal priest of SS. Sergio e Bacco (received the title in 1492), † 14 September 1492Cybo
The Cybo, Cibo or Cibei family of Italy is an aristocratic family from Genoa of Greek origin. They came to the city in the 12th century. In 1528 the Cybos formed the 17th "Albergo", a union of noble families of Genoa. The family split in many branches, some living in Genoa, other in Naples by the name of Tomacelli. Its most famous members were Pope Boniface IX. and Pope Innocent VIII.
The Cybo married with the most famous Italian families including Medici of Tuscany, Della Rovere of Urbino and Este of Modena and had blood relationship with the banking family Altoviti. Innocent VIII was the uncle of La Papessa Dianora Cybo Altoviti. Her son Bindo Altoviti was one of the most influential bankers and patron of the arts of the Renaissance as well as a close ally of his cousin cardinal Innocenzo Cybo.
Innocent VIII illegitimate son was Franceschetto Cybo, son in law to Lorenzo Il Magnifico de' Medici and brother-in-law to Pope Leo X. He was given by his father the title of Count of the Lateran Palace. Later Pope Julius II award him with the title Duke of Spoleto. His son Lorenzo Cybo, married Ricciarda Malaspina d'Este and became marquis of Massa and Carrara, founding the Cybo-Malaspina branch, later elevated to the dukes of Massa and Carrara.Fountains of St. Peter's Square
The Fountains of St. Peter's Square (Italian: Fontane di Piazza San Pietro) are two fountains in St. Peter's Square in Vatican City, created by Carlo Maderno (1612–1614) and Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1667–1677) to ornament the square in front of St. Peter's Basilica. The older fountain, by Maderno, is on the north side of the square.Franceschetto Cybo
Franceschetto Cybo (baptized Francesco) (c. 1450 – July 25, 1519) was an Italian nobleman, noteworthy for being the illegitimate son of Pope Innocent VIII (Giovanni Battista Cybo).Francesco Adami
Francesco Adami or Francesco de Adamo de Lucharo (1457–1497) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Isernia (1486–1497).Francesco Maria Scelloni
Francesco Maria Scelloni, O.F.M. was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Viterbo e Tuscania (1472–1491) and twice as Bishop of Terni (1472 and 1491–1494).Gabriele Setario
Gabriele Setario was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Avellino e Frigento (1507–1510) and Bishop of Nardò (1491–1507).Georg Fabri
Georg Fabri, O.P. (died 1498) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Auxiliary Bishop of Mainz (1490–1498).Giacomo Antonio Leofanti
Giacomo Antonio Leofanti (died 1494) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Patti (1486–1494).Giacomo Carduini
Giacomo Carduini (died 1506) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Lipari (1489–1506).Juan Ruiz de Medina
Juan Ruiz de Medina (died 30 January 1507) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Segovia (1502–1507), Bishop of Cartagena (1495–1502), Bishop of Badajoz (1493–1495), and Bishop of Astorga (1489–1493).Pedro Beltrán (bishop)
Pedro Beltrán (died 1505) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Tui (1487–1505) and Bishop of Ciudad Rodrigo (1485–1505).Simone Chiavari
Simone Chiavari was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Brugnato (1492–1502).Summis desiderantes affectibus
Summis desiderantes affectibus (Latin for "Desiring with supreme ardor"), sometimes abbreviated to Summis desiderantes was a papal bull regarding witchcraft issued by Pope Innocent VIII on 5 December 1484.
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