Pope Innocent VII

Pope Innocent VII (Latin: Innocentius VII; 1339[1] – 6 November 1406), born Cosimo de' Migliorati, was Pope from 17 October 1404 to his death in 1406.

He was pope during the period of the Western Schism (1378–1417) while there was the rival Antipope Benedict XIII at Avignon. Despite good intentions, he did little to end the schism, owing to the troubled state of affairs in Rome, and his distrust of the sincerity of Benedict XIII in Avignon, and Ladislas of Naples.

Pope

Innocent VII
Bishop of Rome
Innocent VII
Papacy began17 October 1404
Papacy ended6 November 1406
PredecessorBoniface IX
SuccessorGregory XII
Opposed toAvignon claimant:
Benedict XIII
Orders
Consecration5 December 1387
Created cardinal18 December 1389
by Pope Boniface IX
Personal details
Birth nameCosimo de' Migliorati
Born1339
Sulmona, Kingdom of Naples
Died6 November 1406 (aged 66–67)
Rome, Papal States
Previous post
Other popes named Innocent
Papal styles of
Pope Innocent VII
C o a Innocenzo VII
Reference styleHis Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous styleNone

Early life

Migliorati was born to a simple family of Sulmona in the Abruzzi. He distinguished himself by his learning in both civil and Canon Law, which he taught for a time at Perugia and Padua. His teacher Giovanni da Legnano sponsored him at Rome, where Pope Urban VI (1378–89) took him into the Curia, sent him for ten years as papal collector to England,[2] made him Bishop of Bologna in 1386 at a time of strife in that city, and Archbishop of Ravenna in 1387.

Pope Boniface IX made him cardinal-priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme (1389) and sent him as legate to Lombardy and Tuscany in 1390.[3] When Boniface IX died, there were present in Rome delegates from the rival Pope at Avignon, Benedict XIII. The Roman cardinals asked these delegates whether their master would abdicate if the cardinals refrained from holding an election. When they were bluntly told that Benedict XIII would never abdicate (indeed he never did), the cardinals proceeded to an election. First, however, they each undertook a solemn oath to leave nothing undone, and, if need be, lay down the tiara to end the schism.

Papacy

Papal bulla of Pope Innocent VII (FindID 602224)
Papal bulla of Innocent VII

Migliorati was unanimously chosen – by eight cardinals – on 17 October 1404 and took the name of Innocent VII. There was a general riot by the Ghibelline party in Rome when news of his election got out, but peace was maintained by the aid of King Ladislaus of Naples, who hastened to Rome with a band of soldiers to assist the Pope in suppressing the insurrection. For his services the king extorted various concessions from Innocent VII, among them the promise that Ladislaus' claim to Naples would not be compromised,[3] which claim had been challenged until very recently by Louis II of Anjou. That suited Innocent VII, who had no intention of reaching an agreement with Avignon that would compromise his claims to the Papal States. Thus Innocent VII was laid under embarrassing obligations, from which he freed himself.

Innocent VII had made the great mistake of elevating his highly unsuitable nephew Ludovico Migliorati – a colorful condottiero formerly in the pay of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan – to be Captain of the Papal Militia, an act of nepotism that cost him dearly.[4][5] Following his elevation to head of the militia his uncle would also name him the rector of Todi in April 1405.[6] In August 1405, Ludovico Migliorati, using his power as head of the militia, seized eleven members of the obstreperous Roman partisans on their return from a conference with the Pope, had them assassinated in his own house, and had their bodies thrown from the windows of the hospital of Santo Spirito into the street. There was an uproar. Pope, court and cardinals, with the Migliorati faction, fled towards Viterbo. Ludovico took the occasion of driving off cattle that were grazing outside the walls, and the Papal party were pursued by furious Romans, losing thirty members, whose bodies were abandoned in the flight, including the Abbot of Perugia, struck down under the eyes of the Pope.

His protector Ladislaus sent a squad of troops to quell the riots, and by January 1406 the Romans again acknowledged Papal temporal authority, and Innocent VII felt able to return. (In March, Innocent VII made Ludovico a marchese and conte di Fermo.) But Ladislaus, not content with the former concessions, desired to extend his authority in Rome and the Papal States. To attain his end he aided the Ghibelline faction in Rome in their revolutionary attempts in 1405. A squad of troops which King Ladislaus had sent to the aid of the Colonna faction was still occupying the Castle of Sant' Angelo, ostensibly protecting the Vatican, but making frequent sorties upon Rome and the neighbouring territory. Only after Ladislaus was excommunicated did he yield to the demands of the Pope and withdraw his troops.[3]

Shortly after his accession in 1404 Innocent VII had taken steps to keep his oath by proclaiming a council to resolve the Western Schism. King Charles VI of France, theologians at the University of Paris, such as Pierre d'Ailly and Jean Gerson, and Rupert III, King of the Germans, were all urging such a meeting. However, the troubles of 1405 furnished him with a pretext for postponing the meeting, claiming that he could not guarantee safe passage to his rival Benedict XIII if he came to the council in Rome. Benedict, however, made it appear that the only obstacle to the end of the Schism was the unwillingness of Innocent VII. It is hardly necessary to say that Innocent VII was unreceptive to the proposal that he as well as Benedict XIII should resign in the interests of peace.

It is said that Innocent VII planned the restoration of the Roman University, but his death brought an end to such talk.

Death

Pope Innocent VII
Innocent VII, 19th century engraving

His death in Rome on 6 November 1406 was so sudden[7] at Rome that there were rumors of foul play, which have been denied ever since: there is no evidence that he did not die of natural causes. His successor was Pope Gregory XII.

See also

References

  1. ^ The single contemporary source that refers to his age (chronicle of Dietrich von Nieheim) says that he became Pope at the age of 65. A. Kneer: Zur Vorgeschichte Papst Innozenz VII., Historisches Jahrbuch, 1891, p. 347-348. Several modern sources (incl. The Catholic Encyclopedia or Encyclopædia Britannica) put his birth ca. 1336
  2. ^ There he is considered one of the connections through whom Chaucer came to know of "Lynyan", one of the "worthy clerks" mentioned in the Clerk's prologue in Canterbury Tales. (A.S. Cook, "Chauceriana II: Chaucer's 'Linian'", Romanic Review 8 (1917:375f).
  3. ^ a b c Ott, Michael. "Pope Innocent VII." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 8. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 19 December 2018
  4. ^ Italian Biographical Dictionary, http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/lodovico-migliorati_(Dizionario-Biografico)/
  5. ^ Cipolletti, Carlo. "Migliorati, Ludovico." Studies on Fermo. http://ilfermano.blogspot.com/2014/01/ludovico-migliorati_11.html
  6. ^ Italian Biographical Dictionary, http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/lodovico-migliorati_(Dizionario-Biografico)/
  7. ^ “Pope Innocent VII”. New Catholic Dictionary. CatholicSaints.Info. 13 August 2018

External links

  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope Innocent VII" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Boniface IX
Pope
17 October 1404 – 6 November 1406
Avignon claimant: Benedict XIII
Succeeded by
Gregory XII
1400s (decade)

The 1400s ran from January 1, 1400, to December 31, 1409.

1404

Year 1404 (MCDIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

1404 papal conclave

The papal conclave of 1404 (October 10 to October 17) – the papal conclave of the time of the Great Western Schism, convened after the death of Pope Boniface IX, it elected Cardinal Cosimo Gentile Migliorati, who under the name of Innocent VII became the third pope of the Roman Obedience.

1406

Year 1406 (MCDVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

1406 papal conclave

The papal conclave of 1406 (November 18–30), the papal conclave of the time of the Great Western Schism, convened after the death of Pope Innocent VII. It elected Cardinal Angelo Correr, who under the name of Gregory XII became the fourth pope of the Roman Obedience.

1431 papal conclave

The papal conclave of 1431 (March 2–3) convened after the death of Pope Martin V, elected as his successor cardinal Gabriele Condulmer, who took the name Eugene IV. It was the first papal conclave held after the end of the Great Western Schism.

Antonio Correr (bishop)

Antonio Correr, O.P. (1378–1445) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Ceneda (1409–1445) and Bishop of Asolo (1406–1409).

Antonio Correr (cardinal)

Antonio Correr (July 15, 1359 – January 19, 1445) was a Roman Catholic Cardinal who was appointed cardinal by his uncle Pope Gregory XII during the period of the Great Western Schism.

Cardinals created by Boniface IX

Pope Boniface IX (r. 1389-1404) created 8 cardinals in two consistories held during his pontificate including his future successor Pope Innocent VII and the Antipope John XXIII.

Cardinals created by Innocent VII

Pope Innocent VII (r. 1404–1406), the third Pope in the obedience of Rome during the Great Western Schism, created eleven new cardinals in one consistory celebrated on 12 June 1405:

Corrado Caraccioli, archbishop of Mileto and camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church − cardinal-priest of S. Crisogono, † 15 February 1411

Angelo Correr, Latin Patriarch of Constantinople, administrator of the see of Coron and governor of the March of Ancona − cardinal-priest of S. Marco (received the title on 20 October 1406), then Pope Gregory XII in the obedience of Rome (30 November 1406 until his abdication on 4 July 1415); became cardinal-bishop without the title after his abdication (15 July 1415), † 18 October 1417

Francesco Uguccione, archbishop of Bordeaux − cardinal-priest of SS. IV Coronati, † 14 July 1412

Giordano Orsini, archbishop of Naples − cardinal-priest of SS. Silvestro e Martino, then cardinal-bishop of Albano (23 September 1412), cardinal-bishop of Sabiny (14 March 1431), † 29 May 1438

Giovanni Migliorati (nephew of the Pope), archbishop of Ravenna − cardinal-priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme (received the title on 20 October 1406), † 16 October 1410

Pietro Filargo, OFM, archbishop of Milan − cardinal-priest of SS. XII Apostoli, then Antipope Alexander V in the obedience of Pisa (26 June 1409), † 3 May 1410

Antonio Arcioni, bishop of Ascoli Piceno − cardinal-priest of S. Pietro in Vincoli, † 21 July 1405

Antonio Calvi, bishop of Todi − cardinal-priest of S. Prassede, then cardinal-priest of S. Marco (2 July 1409), † 2 October 1411

Oddone Colonna, administrator of the suburbicarian see of Palestrina − cardinal-deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro (received the title on 12 July 1405), became Pope Martin V on 11 November 1417, † 20 February 1431

Pietro Stefaneschi, protonotary apostolic − cardinal-deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria, then cardinal-deacon of SS. Cosma e Damiano (2 June 1409) and again cardinal-deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria (1410), † 30 October 1417

Jean Gilles, papal legate in the ecclesiastical provinces of Cologne, Reims and Trier − cardinal-deacon of SS. Cosma e Damiano (received the title on 12 January 1406), † 1 July 1408

Giacomo Ciera

Giacomo Ciera was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Chiron (1406–?).

Giovanni Sanfelice

Giovanni Sanfelice was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Muro Lucano (1423–1443)

and Bishop of Alessano (1405–1423).

Guglielmo della Vigna

Guglielmo della Vigna, O.S.B. (died 1407) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Todi (1405–1407) and Bishop of Ancona (1386–1405).

Jacopo d'Angelo

Giacomo or Jacopo d'Angelo, better known by his Latin name Jacobus Angelus, was an Italian scholar and humanist during the Renaissance. Named for the village of Scarperia in the Mugello in the Republic of Florence, he traveled to Venice where Manuel Palaeologus's ambassador Manuel Chrysoloras was teaching Greek, the first such course in Italy for several centuries. Da Scarperia returned with Chrysoloras to Constantinople (Istanbul)—the first Florentine to do so—along with Guarino da Verona. In the Byzantine Empire, he studied Greek literature and history under Demetrios Kydones. Coluccio Salutati wrote to urge Da Scarperia to search the libraries there, particularly for editions of Homer and Greek dictionaries, with the result that he translated Ptolemy's Geography into Latin in 1406. He first dedicated it to Pope Gregory IX and then (in 1409) to Pope Alexander V. He also brought new texts of Homer, Aristotle, and Plato to the attention of western scholars.

Ladislaus of Naples

Ladislaus the Magnanimous (Italian: Ladislao il Magnanimo di Napoli; Hungarian: Nápolyi László; 15 February 1377 – 6 August 1414) was King of Naples and titular King of Jerusalem and Sicily, titular Count of Provence and Forcalquier (1386–1414), and titular King of Hungary and Croatia (1390–1414). He was the last male of the senior Angevin line.

He was named in honor of the King Saint Ladislaus I of Hungary, who was highly venerated by the Angevin Kings Charles I of Hungary and Louis I of Hungary, considered the model of the perfect King, Knight, and Christian man in Central Europe during that time. Ladislaus of Naples became a skilled political and military leader, protector and controller of Pope Innocent VII; however, he earned a bad reputation concerning his personal life. He profited from disorder throughout Italy to greatly expand his kingdom and his power, appropriating much of the Papal States to his own use. Moreover, he murdered many of his enemies.

Marco de Teramo

Marco de Teramo (died 1439) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Sarno (1418–1439), Bishop of Bertinoro (1404–1418), and Bishop of Monopoli (1400–1404).

Pope Gregory XII

Pope Gregory XII (Latin: Gregorius XII; c. 1326 or 1327 – 18 October 1417), born Angelo Corraro, Corario, or Correr, was Pope from 30 November 1406 to 4 July 1415 when he was forced to resign to end the Western Schism. He succeeded Pope Innocent VII and in turn was succeeded by Pope Martin V.

Pope Innocent

Pope Innocent may refer to:

Pope Innocent I, saint (401–417)

Pope Innocent II (1130–1143)

Antipope Innocent III (1179-1180)

Pope Innocent III (1198–1216)

Pope Innocent IV (1243–1254)

Pope Innocent V (1276)

Pope Innocent VI (1352–1362)

Pope Innocent VII (1404–1406)

Pope Innocent VIII (1484–1492)

Pope Innocent IX (1591)

Pope Innocent X (1644–1655)

Pope Innocent XI (1676–1689)

Pope Innocent XII (1691–1700)

Pope Innocent XIII (1721–1724)

Robert Hallam

Robert Hallam (a.k.a. Alum or Halam; died 4 September 1417) was an English churchman, Bishop of Salisbury and English representative at the Council of Constance. He was Chancellor of the University of Oxford from 1403 to 1405.Hallam was originally from Cheshire in northern England and was educated at Oxford University. As Chancellor he, the Proctors, and all others in the University were pardoned by King Henry IV. On leaving the chancellorship, he was nominated in May 1406 by Pope Innocent VII as Archbishop of York, but the appointment was vetoed by King Henry IV in the same year. However, in 1407 he was consecrated by Pope Gregory XII at Siena as Bishop of Salisbury. As bishop, Hallam supported various churches and shrines in his diocese with grants of episcopal indulgences.At the Council of Pisa in 1409, Hallam was one of the English representatives. On 6 June 1411, Antipope John XXIII (Baldassare Cardinal Cossa) purported to make Hallam a pseudocardinal, but this title was not recognised.

At the Council of Constance, in November 1414, Hallam was the chief English envoy. There he took a prominent position, as an advocate of Church reform and of the superiority of the council to the pope. He played a leading part in the discussions leading to the deposition of Antipope John XXIII on 29 May 1415, but was less concerned with the trials of Jan Hus and Jerome of Prague. Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, through whose influence the council had been assembled, was absent during the whole of 1416 on a diplomatic mission in France and England; but when he returned to Constance in January 1417, as the open ally of the English king, Hallam as Henry V's trusted representative obtained increased importance, and contrived to emphasise English prestige by delivering the address of welcome to Sigismund. Afterwards, under Henry's direction, he supported the emperor in trying to secure a reform of the Church, before the council proceeded to the election of a new pope. This matter was still undecided when Hallam died suddenly on 4 September 1417. His executors were Masters Richard Hallum, John Fyton, John Hikke, with William Clynt, Thomas Hallum, Thomas Faukys, clerk, & Humfrey Rodeley After Hallam's death the cardinals were able to secure the immediate election of a new pope, Martin V, who was elected on 11 November: it has been said that the abandonment of the reformers by the English was due entirely to Hallam's death; but it is more likely that Henry V, foreseeing the possible need for a change of front, had given Hallam discretionary powers which the bishop's successors used. Hallam himself had the confidence of Sigismund and was generally respected for his straightforward independence. He was buried in Constance Cathedral, where his tomb near the high altar is marked by a brass of English workmanship.

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