Pope Innocent V

Pope Innocent V (Latin: Innocentius V; c. 1225 – 22 June 1276), born Pierre de Tarentaise, was pope from 21 January to 22 June 1276. He was a member of the Order of Preachers and was a close collaborator of Pope Gregory X during his pontificate. He was beatified in 1898 by Pope Leo XIII.

Pope Blessed

Innocent V
InnocenzoV
Papacy began21 January 1276
Papacy ended22 June 1276
PredecessorGregory X
SuccessorAdrian V
Orders
Ordinationc. 1259
Consecration1272
Created cardinal3 June 1273
by Pope Gregory X
Personal details
Birth namePierre de Tarentaise
Bornc. 1225
Near Champagny-en-Vanoise or La Salle, County of Savoy, Kingdom of Arles, Holy Roman Empire
Died22 June 1276
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Previous post
Coat of armsInnocent V's coat of arms
Sainthood
Feast day22 June
Venerated inCatholic Church
Title as SaintBlessed
Beatified9 March 1898
Rome, Kingdom of Italy
by Pope Leo XIII
Attributes
Other popes named Innocent
Papal styles of
Pope Innocent V
C o a Innocenzo V
Reference styleHis Holiness
Spoken styleSanctissime et reverende pater ac domine
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous styleBlessed

Biography

Early life

He was born around 1225 near Moûtiers in the Tarentaise[1] region of the County of Savoy. An alternative popular hypothesis, however, suggests that he was born in La Salle in the Aosta valley in Italy.[2] Both places were then part of the Kingdom of Arles in the Holy Roman Empire, but now the first is in southeastern France and the second in northwestern Italy. Another hypothesis, favored by some French scholars, is that Peter originated in a Tarantaise in Burgundy, or Tarantaise in the Department of the Loire in the Arrondisement of S. Etienne.[3] In early life, around 1240, he joined the Dominican Order, at their convent in Lyons.[4] In the summer of 1255, he was transferred to the studium generale of the Convent of S. Jacques in Paris. This move was essential for someone who was likely to study at the University of Paris. He obtained the degree of Master of Theology,[5] and quickly acquired great fame as a preacher.

Professor and Provincial

Between 1259 and 1264 he held the "Chair of the French", one of the two chairs (professorships) that were allocated to the Dominicans.[6]

In 1259, Peter took part, perhaps because of his status as a Master at Paris, perhaps as an elected Definitor (delegate) for the Province of France,[7] in the General Chapter of the Dominican Order at Valenciennes, under the leadership of the Master General, Humbertus de Romans.[8] Peter participated together with Albert the Great, Thomas Aquinas, Bonushomo Britto,[9] and Florentius.[10] This General Chapter established a ratio studiorum, or program of studies, which was to be implemented for the entire Dominican Order,[11] that featured the study of philosophy as a preparative for those not sufficiently trained to study theology. This innovation initiated the tradition of Dominican scholastic philosophy which was to be put into practice in every Dominican convent, if possible, for example, in 1265 at the Order's studium provinciale at the convent of Santa Sabina in Rome.[12] Each convent was expected to have an elected Lector to supervise the preparative studies and an elected Master for theological studies. In the next year he was assigned the title of Preacher General.

In 1264 a new Master General of the Order of Preachers was elected, John of Vercelli. It was taken as an opportunity to engage in some academic politics, since Humbertus de Romans, Peter's patron, was dead. One hundred and eight of Peter's statements in his Commentary on the Sentences of Peter Lombard were denounced as heretical.[13] But, though Peter withdrew from his professorship, John of Vercelli appointed Thomas Aquinas to write a defense of the 108 propositions.[14] Peter's reputation was such that he was immediately elected Provincial of the French Province for a three-year term (1264-1267). He was granted his release from office at the General Chapter, which was held in Bologna in May, 1267.[15] At the conclusion of his term, and after Thomas of Aquinas' rejoinder to his critics was circulated, Peter returned to his Chair at the University of Paris (1267). In 1269 he was reelected to the office of Provincial of the French Province, and he held the post until he was named Archbishop of Lyons.[16]

On 6 June 1272, Pope Gregory X himself named Peter of Tarantaise to be Archbishop of Lyons, a post he held until he was appointed to be Bishop of Ostia.[17] It is said, however, that Peter was never consecrated.[18] He did, however, take the oath of fealty in early December, 1272, to King Philip III of France.[19] Pope Gregory himself arrived in Lyons in mid-November, 1273, intent upon bringing as many prelates as possible to his planned ecumenical council.[20] He met immediately with King Philip III of France. Their conversations were obviously harmonious, since Philip ceded to the Church the Comtat Venaissin, which he had inherited from his uncle Alphonse, Count of Toulouse. The Second Council of Lyons opened on 1 May 1274. The first session was held on Monday, 7 May. The principal items on the agenda were the Crusade, and the reunion of the Eastern and Western Churches.

Cardinal Bishop of Ostia

Peter of Tarantaise was elevated to the cardinalate on 3 June 1273, in a Consistory held at Orvieto by Pope Gregory X, and named Bishop of the suburbicarian See of Ostia. He participated in the Second Ecumenical Council of Lyons.[21] During the Council, he sang the Funeral Mass and delivered the sermon at the funeral of Cardinal Bonaventure, Bishop of Albano, who had died on 15 July 1274, and was buried on the same day in the Church of the Franciscans in Lyons. Pope Gregory, the Fathers of the Council and the Roman Curia all attended.[22] After the conclusion of the Council, Pope Gregory spent the Autumn and Winter in Lyons. He and his suite departed Lyons in May, 1275; he left Vienne shortly after 30 September 1275, and arrived in Lausanne on 6 October.[23] There he met with the Emperor-elect Rudolph, King of the Romans, and on October 20 received his oath of fealty.[24] There were seven cardinals with the Pope at the time, and their names are mentioned in the record of the oath-taking: Petrus Ostiensis, Ancherus Pantaleone of S. Prassede, Guglelmus de Bray of S. Marco, Ottobono Fieschi of S. Adriano, Giacomo Savelli of S. Maria in Cosmedin, Gottifridus de Alatri of S. Giorgio in Velabro, and Mattheus Rosso Orsini of S. Maria in Porticu. The party reached Milan on Tuesday, 12 November 1275, and Florence on 18 December. The papal party reached Arezzo in time for Christmas, but the Pope was weak and ill. The stay in Arezzo was prolonged until Gregory X died, on 10 January 1276. Only three cardinals were at his deathbed: Peter of Tarantaise, Peter Juliani of Tusculum, and Bertrand de Saint-Martin of Sabina, all cardinal-bishops.[25] According to the Constitution "Ubi Periculum" which had been approved by the Council of Lyons, the Conclave to elect his successor should begin ten days after the pope's death.

Papacy: January—June, 1276

Papal conclave

After the required ten days had passed, the Cardinals assembled on the Vigil of St. Agnes (20 January) to hear the customary Mass of the Holy Spirit. There were twelve cardinals present.[26] Two cardinals, Simon de Brion, who was Papal Legate in France, and Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, did not attend.[27] The next morning, 21 January, Cardinal Petrus was the unanimous choice of the electors, on the first ballot (scrutiny).[28] Peter of Tarantaise was the first Dominican to become Pope. He chose the pontifical name of "Innocent". His decision was to be crowned in Rome, which had not seen a pope since the departure of Gregory X in the third week of June, 1272. By 7 February the Papal Curia had reached Viterbo. King Charles of Naples rode up to Viterbo to meet the new Pope and escort him to Rome.[29] On 22 February 1276, the Feast of S. Peter's Chair, he was crowned at the Vatican Basilica by Cardinal Giovanni Gaetano Orsini.

Actions and Policies

On 2 March 1276, Pope Innocent granted to King Charles I of Sicily the privilege of retaining the Senatorship of Rome, the government of the city, and the Rectorship of Tuscia.[30] In a letter of 4 March, the Pope testifies that King Charles had sworn fealty for the Kingdom of Naples and of Sicily.[31] On 9 March, he wrote to Rudolf, King of the Romans, begging him not to come to Italy, and if he had already started his journey, to break it off, until an agreement between him and the Papacy could be finalized. This meant that Rudolf's coronation, which had been agreed to by Gregory X, would not immediately take place. On the 17th, he wrote to the King of the Romans again, advising him to meet with the papal nuncios, and that, in their negotiations, he should by no means introduce the topic of the Exarchate of Ravenna, the Pentapolis, and the Romandiola. This looked like extortion. The French Innocent's favoritism toward King Charles, the brother of Louis IX and uncle of Philip III, and his harshness toward Rudolf was beginning to change the balance of power in Italy again, and was pointing in the direction of war. Pope Gregory's efforts to bring about peace had been ruined.[32]

On the 26th he ordered the Bishops of Parma and Comacchio to see to it that Boniface de Lavania (Lavagna) be installed as Archbishop of Ravenna, as Pope Gregory X had decided.[33] Innocent was able to arrange a peace treaty between Genoa and King Charles I, which was signed on 18 June 1276.[34]

On 18 May 1276, Pope Innocent V notified King Philip III of France that he had appointed his friend Fr. Guy de Sully, OP, the Dominican Provincial of Paris (a post that Innocent himself had held until 1272, when he was appointed Archbishop of Lyon), to the See of Bourges.[35]

A noteworthy feature of his brief pontificate was the practical form assumed by his desire for reunion with the Eastern Church. He wrote to Michael Palaeologus, informing him of the death of Gregory X, and apologizing for the fact that the Emperor's representatives, George, the Archdeacon of Constantinople,[36] and Theodore, the Dispensator of the Imperial Curia, had not yet been released to return to Constantinople. He was proceeding to send legates to Michael VIII Palaeologus, the Byzantine emperor, in connection with the recent decisions of the Second Council of Lyons, hoping to broker a peace between Constantinople and King Charles I of Sicily.[37] King Charles, however, was interested in conquest, not in concord. Innocent was interested in sending people to negotiate the reunion. He appointed Fr. Bartolommeo, O.Min., of Bologna, a Doctor of Sacred Scripture, to travel to the East, but he ordered him to come to Rome first, so that a suitable suite could be chosen for him.[38]

Death intervened. Pope Innocent V died at Rome on 22 June 1276, after a reign of five months and one (or two) days. He was buried in the Lateran Basilica, in a magnificent tomb built by King Charles. Unfortunately, the tomb was destroyed by the two fourteenth century fires at the Basilica, in 1307 and 1361.[39]

Innocent V had created no new cardinals at all, and therefore the cast of characters at the Conclave of July, 1276, was the same as in January. King Charles, however, was in Rome the entire time, and was in the position as Senator of Rome, to be the Governor of the Conclave. His wishes could not be ignored.

Writings

Pope Innocent V was the author[40] of several works of philosophy, theology, and canon law,[41] including commentaries on the Pauline epistles,[42] and on the Sentences[43] of Peter Lombard. He is sometimes referred to as famosissimus doctor.

Beatification

Pope Leo XIII beatified Peter of Tarantaise (Innocent V) on 9 March 1898, on account of his reputation for holiness and saintliness.

See also

External links

  • Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope Bl. Innocent V" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  • Maxwell-Stuart, P. G. Chronicle of the Popes: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Papacy from St. Peter to the Present, Thames & Hudson, 2002, p. 118. ISBN 0-500-01798-0
  • Pope Innocent V at Find a Grave Edit this at Wikidata
  • Paolo Vian, "Innocenzo V, beato." Enciclopedia dei papi (2000). (in Italian)
  • Sede Vacante and Conclave, January 1276 (Dr. J. P. Adams).

References

  1. ^ The localisation of Peter's birth to the valley of Tarantaise is found already in the biography by Bernardus Guidonis, a contemporary and fellow Dominican. Ludovico Antonio Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores III (Milan 1733), p. 605.
  2. ^ Jean Prieur and Hyacinte Vulliez, Saints et saintes de Savoie (éditions Le Vieil, Annecy, 1999), pages 87-88. In support of this hypothesis, it is pointed out that a street in Aosta has been dedicated to Pope Innocent V—which is quite irrelevant.
  3. ^ Ghislain Brunel, p. 793.
  4. ^ Paolo Vian, "Innocenzo V, beato." Enciclopedia dei papi (2000). (in Italian) His residence in Lyons may have been the occasion for him acquiring the name Burgundus: Benedictine Monks of S. Maur (editors), Gallia christiana 4 (Paris 1728), p. 149. If Peter were Italian Savoyard, his presence in the French Province of the Dominicans must be convincingly explained.
  5. ^ P. Glorieux, Répertoire des maîtres en théologie de Paris au XIIIe siècle I (Paris 1933), pp. 107-112.
  6. ^ Pierre Feret, La faculté de Théologie de Paris, et ses docteurs les plus célèbres. Moyen Age. II (Paris 1895), pp. 487-494. Paolo Vian, "Innocenzo V, beato." Enciclopedia dei papi (2000). (in Italian)
  7. ^ A. Touron, Histoire ddes hommes illustres de l'Ordre de S. Dominique Tome premier (Paris 1743), p. 347.
  8. ^ The Acta of this General Chapter are printed by Benedictus Maria Reichert, Acta Capitulorum Generalium Ordinis Praedicatorum Vol. I (Rome-Stuttgart 1898), pp. 95-101. The sections on studies are on pp. 99-100.
  9. ^ Histoire littéraire de la France: XIIIe siècle, Paris, Firmin-Didot, 1838, Volume 19, p. 103 [1] Accessed October 27, 2012
  10. ^ Reichert, p. 95, note 1. Florentius was probably Florentius de Hidinio, also called Florentius Gallicus, Histoire literaire de la France: XIIIe siècle, Volume 19, p. 104, Accessed October 27, 2012. The presence of these scholars was due to the proximity of Valenciennes to the University of Paris.
  11. ^ Reichert, p. 98-99. Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, Volume 10, p. 701. Accessed 9 June 2011
  12. ^ "The Place of Study In the Ideal of St. Dominic" Archived 2010-12-29 at the Wayback Machine, J. A. Weisheipl, O.P. (1923-1984), 1960. Accessed 19 March 2013
  13. ^ B. Smeraldo, Intorno all'opuscolo IX di san Tommaso d'Aquino. Pietro da Tarantasia ha errato in teologia? (Roma 1945).
  14. ^ Responsio ad fr. Ioannem Vercellensem de articulis 108 sumptis ex opere Petri de Tarentasia: M. Védrine, M. Bandel, M. Fouret (translators), Opuscules de Saint Thomas d'Aquin Tome deuxième (Paris 1857), pp. 50-91 (bilingual, Latin and French). Eleonore Stump, Aquinas (New York: Routledge 2003), xvii.
  15. ^ Benedictus Maria Reichert, Acta Capitulorum Generalium Ordinis Praedicatorum Vol. I (Rome-Stuttgart 1898), p. 139. Potthast, no. 20022.
  16. ^ Paolo Vian, "Innocenzo V, beato." Enciclopedia dei papi (2000). (in Italian)
  17. ^ Conradus Eubel, Hierarchia catholica medii aevi Vol. 1 editio altera (Monsterii 1913), p. 316.
  18. ^ Benedictine Monks of S. Maur (editors), Gallia christiana 4 (Paris 1728), p. 150, quoting Ptolemy of Lucca: factus fuit archiepiscopus Lugdunensis, et nondum consecratus in ea dignitate, factus est per eundem episcopus Ostiensis.
  19. ^ P. Clerjon, Histoire de Lyon III (Lyon 1830), p. 284. The document was signed on the Thursday after the Feast of S. Andrew (which was celebrated on November 30), 1272.
  20. ^ Potthast, p. 1672.
  21. ^ Benedictine Monks of S. Maur (editors), Gallia christiana 4 (Paris 1728), p. 150. Joannes Dominicus Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio Tomus 24 (Venice 1780), 37-136, at p. 62.
  22. ^ Mansi, p. 67.
  23. ^ Augustus Potthast, Regesta pontificum Romanorum II (Berlin 1875), p. 1700.
  24. ^ Pietro Maria Campi, Dell' historia ecclesiastica di Piacenza parte seconda (Piacenza 1651), p. 483.
  25. ^ Richard Sternfeld, Der Kardinal Johann Gaetan Orsini (Papst Nikolaus III) 1244-1277 (Berlin 1905), p. 239.
  26. ^ Eubel I, p. 9 n.4; Sternfeld, 241. Sede Vacante and Conclave, January 1276 (Dr. J. P. Adams).
  27. ^ Eubel suggests, p. 9, n.4, that a third cardinal might not have attended. He indicates it might have been Cardinal Riccardo Annibaldi.
  28. ^ Peter of Tarantaise, Innocent V, remarks on the event in his Electoral Manifesto, Nuper Sanctae (A. Tomassetti, Bullarium Romanum Turin edition Vol. IV, pp. 35-36).
  29. ^ Paul Durrieu, Les archives angevines de Naples II (Paris 1887), p. 180. On 4 January, the King was at Frosinone; on 5 January he was at Viterbo. On 8 January he was in Rome, where he stayed until 6 February. He is attested at Viterbo on 9 February, and on February 10 he was back in Rome, where he stayed continually until July.
  30. ^ Augustinus Theiner (editor), Codex Diplomaticus dominii temporalis S. Sedis I (Rome 1861), p. 197 no. 349.
  31. ^ Augustus Potthast, Regesta pontificum Romanorum II (Berlin 1875), no. 21104.
  32. ^ Ferdinand Gregorovius, History of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages V. 2 (London 1906), pp. 473-474. J. N. D. Kelly, "Innocent V," The Oxford Dictionary of Popes (Oxford 1986), p. 199. Ghislain Brunel, p. 794.
  33. ^ Potthast, nos. 21113-21114. Gregory's appointment: nos. 21066-21068 (4 September 1275).
  34. ^ Brunel, p. 794.
  35. ^ Potthast, no. 21131.
  36. ^ Marie-Hyacinthe Laurent, Georges le Métochite, ambassadeur de Michel VIII paléologue auprès du B.Innocent V (Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, 1946).
  37. ^ Potthast, no. 21136.
  38. ^ Potthast, nos. 21136-21145.
  39. ^ Potthast, p. 1708.
  40. ^ Jacobus Quetif and Jacobus Echard, Scriptores Ordinis Praedicatorum recensiti Tomus I (Paris 1719), pp. 351-354.
  41. ^ L.J. Bataillon, "Nouveaux témoins des questions "De lege et praeceptis" de Pierre de Tarentaise," Archivum Fratrum Praedicatorum 35 (1965), pp. 325-33.
  42. ^ W. Affeldt, Die weltliche Gewalt in der Paulus-Exegese. Römer. 13, 1-7 in den Römerbriefkommentaren der lateinischen Kirche bis zum Ende des 13. Jahrhunderts (Göttingen 1969), pp. 212-18, 278-79.
  43. ^ B. Smeraldo, Intorno all'opuscolo IX di san Tommaso d'Aquino. Pietro da Tarantasia ha errato in teologia? (Roma 1945). O. Lottin, "À propos du Commentaire des Sentences de Pierre de Tarentaise," Recherches de Théologie ancienne et médiévale 13 (1946), pp. 86-98. E. Marchisa, "Saggio sull'antropologia filosofica di Pietro da Tarentaise (Beatus Innocentius V) nel commento alle "Sentenze" di Pier Lombardo," Divus Thomas. Commentarium de Philosophia et Theologia 71 (1968), pp. 210-70.

Bibliography

  • Charles-François Turinaz, La Patrie et la famille de Pierre de Tarentaise, pape sous le nom d'Innocent V, par Mgr Turinaz,... dissertation historique, lue à la 4e réunion du congrès des sociétés savantes savoisiennes, tenu à Moûtiers... les 8 et 9 août 1881 (Nancy: Librairie Notre-Dame 1882). (in French. The author was Bishop of Nancy, and author of the Catéchisme du Diocèse de Tarentaise)
  • J. Mothon, Vie du Bienheureux Innocent V (Rome 1896).
  • Augustin Demski, Papst Nikolaus III, Eine Monographie (Münster 1903) 34-37.
  • Richard Sternfeld, Der Kardinal Johann Gaetan Orsini (Papst Nikolaus III.) 1244-1277 (Berlin: E. Ebering 1905).
  • F. Gregorovius, History of Rome in the Middle Ages, Volume V. 2, second edition, revised (London: George Bell, 1906).
  • H. D. Sedgwick, Italy in the Thirteenth Century Volume II (Boston-New York 1912).
  • P. Glorieux, Répertoire des maîtres en théologie de Paris au XIIIe siècle I (Paris 1933), pp. 107–112.
  • Beatus Innocentius PP. V (Petrus de Tarantasia O.P.). Studia et documenta (Rome 1943).
  • Marie-Hyacinthe Laurent, Ciro Giannelli and Louis Bertrant Gillon, Le Bienheureux Innocent V (Pierre de Tarentaise) et son temps [Studi e testi, 29] (Città del Vaticano: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 1947).
  • Th. Kaeppeli, Scriptores Ordinis Praedicatorum Medii Aevi III (Rome 1980), pp. 261–264.
  • Ghislain Brunel, "Innocent V," in Philippe Levillain, The Papacy: An Encyclopedia Volume 2: Gaius-Proxies (NY: Routledge 2002), pp. 793–794.
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Henry of Segusio
Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia
1273–1276
Succeeded by
Latino Malabranca Orsini
Preceded by
Gregory X
Pope
1276
Succeeded by
Adrian V
1276

Year 1276 (MCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

It is the only Year of Four Popes.

Bernard de Castanet

Bernard de Castanet (c. 1240 – 14 August 1317) was a French lawyer, judge, diplomat, bishop and cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.

Castanet was not a Dominican, though he had an excellent relationship with the order of the Preachers and occasionally exercised the office of inquisition as a bishop of Albi and a representative of the inquisitor of Carcassonne.

Cardinals created by Gregory X

Pope Gregory X (1271–1276) create five cardinals in one consistory.

Directorium Inquisitorum

The Directorium Inquisitorum is Nicholas Eymerich's most prominent and enduring work, written in Latin and consisting of approximately 800 pages, which he had composed as early as 1376. Eymerich had written an earlier treatise on sorcery, perhaps as early as 1359, which he extensively reworked into the Directorium Inqusitorum In compiling the book, Eymerich used many of the magic texts he had previously confiscated from accused sorcerers. It can also be considered as an assessment of a century and half of official Inquisition in the "albigensian" country.

Friburge

Friburge is a small hamlet in Champagny-en-Vanoise in the French Alps.

The nearest towns are Champagny, Brides-les-Bains, and Moûtiers. Friburge is historically significant as the possible birthplace of Pope Innocent V, and for the fact that it is commonly confused with the town of Freiburg. The heavy stone-built dwellings, bafflingly described by Pevsner as Tirolean vernacular, are situated under a large bluff. Many of the houses have been refurbished as second residences. In the winter, the road becomes impassable, and is groomed for cross country skiing between Le Bois and Laisonnay. The hills around Friburge are full of marmots.

January 1276 papal conclave

The papal conclave of January 1276 (January 21–22), was the first papal election held under the rules of constitution Ubi periculum issued by Pope Gregory X in 1274, which established papal conclaves. According to Ubi periculum Cardinals were to be secluded in a closed area; they were not even accorded separate rooms. No cardinal was allowed to be attended by more than one servant unless ill. Food was to be supplied through a window; after three days of the meeting, the cardinals were to receive only one dish a day; after five days, they were to receive just bread and water. During the conclave, no cardinal was to receive any ecclesiastical revenue. These provisions were regularly disregarded, at the discretion of the cardinals, particularly the requirement of being incommunicado.

Although several times before papal elections were held in the circumstances similar to those described by Ubi periculum, for the first time such situation was formally required by a papal Constitution. For this reason, the Conclave of January 1276 can be considered the first papal conclave in history in the strictly legal sense of this word.

John of Vercelli

Blessed John of Vercelli, O.P. (Giovanni da Vercelli) (c. 1205 – 30 November 1283), was the sixth Master General of the Dominican Order (1264-1283).

July 1276 papal conclave

The papal conclave of July 1276 (2–11 July) was the second of three conclaves in 1276 and elected Pope Adrian V to succeed Pope Innocent V.

June 22

June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 192 days remain until the end of the year.

On this day the Summer solstice may occur in the Northern Hemisphere, and the Winter solstice may occur in the Southern Hemisphere.

List of French popes

Seventeen popes have had French ancestry, all in the second half of the medieval era. The seven popes of the Avignon Papacy were French and are bolded. Since the end of the Avignon Papacy, no French person has been elected pope.

French is the most common non-Italian papal ancestry.

Pope Silvester II, 999–1003: Gerbert of Aurillac

St. Pope Leo IX, 1049–1054: Bruno, Count of Dagsbourg

Pope Stephen IX, 1057–1058: Frederick of Lorraine

Pope Nicholas II, 1058–1061: Gerard of Burgundy

Bl. Pope Urban II, 1088–1099: Otho of Lagery (or Otto or Odo)

Pope Callistus II, 1119–1124: Guido of Vienne

Pope Urban IV, 1261–1264: Jacques Pantaléon

Pope Clement IV, 1265–1268: Guy Foulques

Bl. Pope Innocent V, 1276: Pierre de Tarentaise

Pope Martin IV, 1281–1285: Simon de Brie

Pope Clement V, 1305–1314: Bertrand de Got

Pope John XXII, 1316–1334: Jacques d'Euse

Pope Benedict XII, 1334–1342: Jacques Fournier

Pope Clement VI, 1342–1352: Pierre Roger

Pope Innocent VI, 1352–1362: Stephen Aubert

Bl. Pope Urban V, 1362–1370: Guillaume de Grimoard

Pope Gregory XI, 1370–1378: Pierre Roger de Beaufort

List of canonised popes

This article lists the Popes who have been canonised or recognised as Saints in the Roman Catholic Church they had led. A total of 83 (out of 266) Popes have been recognised universally as canonised saints, including all of the first 35 Popes (31 of whom were martyrs) and 52 of the first 54. If Pope Liberius is numbered amongst the Saints as in Eastern Christianity, all of the first 49 Popes become recognised as Saints, of whom 31 are Martyr-Saints, and 53 of the first 54 Pontiffs would be acknowledged as Saints. In addition, 13 other Popes are in the process of becoming canonised Saints: as of December 2018, two are recognised as being Servants of God, two are recognised as being Venerable, and nine have been declared Blessed or Beati, making a total of 95 (97 if Pope Liberius and Pope Adeodatus II are recognised to be Saints) of the 266 Roman Pontiffs being recognised and venerated for their heroic virtues and inestimable contributions to the Church.

The most recently reigning Pope to have been canonised was Pope John Paul II, whose cause for canonisation was opened in May 2005. John Paul II was beatified on May 1, 2011, by Pope Benedict XVI and later canonised, along with Pope John XXIII, by Pope Francis on April 27, 2014. Pope Francis also canonised Pope Paul VI on October 14, 2018.

List of papal conclaves

There have been 110 papal elections that have produced popes currently recognized by the Catholic Church as legitimate. There was no fixed process for papal succession before 1059 and popes were often selected with substantial secular involvement, if not outright appointment. Since the promulgation of In nomine Domini (1059), however, suffrage has been limited to the College of Cardinals.Papal elections since 1276 have taken the form of papal conclaves, which are elections that follow a set of rules and procedures developed in Ubi periculum (1274) and later papal bulls; observance of the conclave varied until 1294, but all papal elections since have followed relatively similar conclave procedures.

Although the cardinals have historically gathered at a handful of other locations within Rome and beyond, only five elections since 1455 have been held outside the Apostolic Palace. Twenty-eight papal elections have been held outside Rome, in: Terracina (1088), Cluny (1119), Velletri (1181), Verona (1185), Ferrara (October 1187), Pisa (December 1187), Perugia (1216, 1264–1265, 1285, 1292–1294, 1304–1305), Anagni (1243), Naples (1254, 1294), Viterbo (1261, 1268–1271, July 1276, August–September 1276, 1277, 1281–1282), Arezzo (January 1276), Carpentras/Lyon (1314–1316), Avignon (1334, 1342, 1352, 1362, 1370), Konstanz (1417) and Venice (1799–1800). Three elections moved between locations while in progress: the elections of 1268–71, 1292–94, and 1314–16.

Philip Benizi de Damiani

Philip Benizi de Damiani (sometimes St Philip Benitius, and in Italian Filippo Benizzi) (August 15, 1233 – August 22, 1285) was a general superior of the Order of the Servites, and credited with reviving the order. Pope Leo X had beatified him in 1516; and Pope Clement X canonized him as a saint in 1671.

Pierre de Tarentaise

Pierre de Tarentaise may refer to:

Peter of Tarentaise (1102–1174), Cistercian abbot

Pope Innocent V (c. 1225–1276)

Pope Innocent

Pope Innocent may refer to:

Pope Innocent I, saint (401–417)

Pope Innocent II (1130–1143)

Antipope Innocent III (1179-1180)

Pope Innocent III (1198–1216)

Pope Innocent IV (1243–1254)

Pope Innocent V (1276)

Pope Innocent VI (1352–1362)

Pope Innocent VII (1404–1406)

Pope Innocent VIII (1484–1492)

Pope Innocent IX (1591)

Pope Innocent X (1644–1655)

Pope Innocent XI (1676–1689)

Pope Innocent XII (1691–1700)

Pope Innocent XIII (1721–1724)

Pope Nicholas III

Pope Nicholas III (Latin: Nicolaus III; c. 1225 – 22 August 1280), born Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, was Pope from 25 November 1277 to his death in 1280.

He was a Roman nobleman who had served under eight popes, been made Cardinal-Deacon of St. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano by Pope Innocent IV (1243–54), protector of the Franciscans by Pope Alexander IV (1254–61), inquisitor-general by Pope Urban IV (1261–64), and succeeded Pope John XXI (1276–77) after a six-month vacancy in the Holy See resolved in the papal election of 1277, largely through family influence.

Sargenroth

Sargenroth is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Rhein-Hunsrück-Kreis (district) in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It belongs to the Verbandsgemeinde of Simmern, whose seat is in the like-named town.

Servite Order

The Servite Order is one of the five original Catholic mendicant orders. Its objectives are the sanctification of its members, preaching the Gospel, and the propagation of devotion to the Mother of God, with special reference to her sorrows. The members of the Order use O.S.M. (Ordo Servorum Beatae Mariae Virginis) as their post-nominal letters. The male members are known as Servite Friars or Servants of Mary.

The Order of Servants of Mary (The Servites) religious family includes friars (priests and brothers), contemplative nuns, a congregation of active religious sisters, and lay groups.

Uberto Coconati

Uberto Coconati (Cocconato, de Coconatis) (died 13 July 1276), a Roman Catholic Cardinal, was born at Asti in the Piedmont region of Italy, a member of the family of the Counts of Cocconato, who were vassals of the Marchese di Monferrato. Thierry de Vaucouleurs calls him "Lombardus nomine, stirpe potens" ('Lombard in name, from a powerful family'). Uberto had a brother named Manuel (Emmanuele). Two of his relatives became Bishop of Asti. He was not connected with the d'Elci of Siena.He had two nephews in holy orders, Bonifacio di Cocconato and Alberto.Nothing is known about his education, beyond the fact that he held the title Master (Magister) when he first appears in the sources. He had an advanced university education, therefore, and, considering his career, it must have been in law. For what it is worth, there was a fellow Piedmontese in the College of Cardinals, the influential Henry of Segusio, "Hostiensis", the most celebrated canon lawyer of his day, who had been a Professor at Bologna and Paris.Nothing is known about Uberto Coconati's ecclesiastical status, except that he was an Apostolic Subdeacon. There is no evidence as to whether he proceeded to the Diaconate, the Priesthood, or the Episcopate.

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