Pope Innocent II (Latin: Innocentius II; died 23 September 1143), born Gregorio Papareschi, was Pope from 14 February 1130 to his death in 1143. His election was controversial and the first eight years of his reign were marked by a struggle for recognition against the supporters of Antipope Anacletus II. He reached an understanding with Lothair II, Holy Roman Emperor who supported him against Anacletus and whom he crowned King of the Romans. Innocent went on to preside over the Second Lateran council.
|Papacy began||14 February 1130|
|Papacy ended||24 September 1143|
|Ordination||22 February 1130|
|Consecration||23 February 1130|
by Giovanni Vitale
by Pope Urban II
|Birth name||Gregorio Papareschi|
|Born||Rome, Papal States|
|Died||24 September 1143|
Rome, Papal States
|Other popes named Innocent|
|Papal styles of|
Pope Innocent II
|Reference style||His Holiness|
|Spoken style||Your Holiness|
|Religious style||Holy Father|
Pope Urban II made him a cardinal deacon in 1088. In this capacity, he accompanied Pope Gelasius II when he was driven into France. He was selected by Pope Callixtus II for various important and difficult missions, such as the one to Worms for the conclusion of the Concordat of Worms, the peace accord made with Holy Roman Emperor Henry V in 1122, and also the one to France in 1123 that made peace with King Louis VI.
In 1130, as Pope Honorius II lay dying, the cardinals decided to entrust the election to a commission of eight men led by papal chancellor Haimeric, who had his candidate Cardinal Gregory Papareschi hastily elected as Pope Innocent II. He was consecrated on 14 February, the day after Honorius' death. The other cardinals announced that Innocent had not been canonically elected and chose Cardinal Pietro Pierleoni, a Roman whose family were the enemy of Haimeric's supporters, the Frangipani; Pierleoni took the name Pope Anacletus II. Anacletus' mixed group of supporters were powerful enough to take control of Rome while Innocent was forced to flee north. Based on a simple majority of the entire college of cardinals, Anacletus was the canonically elected pope, and Innocent was the anti-Pope. However, the legislation of Pope Nicholas II pre-empted the choice of the majority of the cardinal priests and cardinal deacons. This rule was changed by the Second Lateran council of 1139.
Anacletus had control of Rome, so Innocent II took ship for Pisa, and thence sailed by way of Genoa to France, where the influence of Bernard of Clairvaux readily secured his cordial recognition by the clergy and the court. In October of the same year he was duly acknowledged by Holy Roman Emperor Lothair III and his bishops at the synod of Würzburg. In January 1131, he had also a favourable interview with Henry I of England, and in August 1132 Lothar III undertook an expedition to Italy for the double purpose of setting aside Anacletus as antipope and of being crowned by Innocent. Anacletus and his supporters being in secure control of St. Peter's Basilica, the coronation ultimately took place in the Lateran Church (4 June 1133), but otherwise the expedition proved abortive. At the investiture of Lothair as Emperor he gained the territories belonging to Matilda of Tuscany in return for an annuity to be paid to the pope, in consequence of which the curial party based the contention that the Emperor was a vassal of the Papal see.
A second expedition by Lothar III in 1136 was not more decisive in its results, and the protracted struggle between the rival pontiffs was terminated only by the death of Anacletus II on 25 January 1138.
Innocent took as cardinal-nephew first his nephew, Gregorio Papareschi, whom he elevated to cardinal in 1134, and then his brother Pietro Papareschi, whom he elevated to cardinal in 1142. Another nephew, Cinzio Papareschi (died 1182), was also a cardinal, raised to the cardinalate in 1158, after Innocent's death.
By the Second Lateran council of 1139, at which King Roger II of Sicily, Innocent II's most uncompromising foe, was excommunicated, peace was at last restored to the Church. Aside from the complete rebuilding of the ancient church of Santa Maria in Trastevere, which boldly features Ionic capitals from former colonnades in the Baths of Caracalla and other richly detailed spolia from Roman monuments, the remaining years of this Pope's life were almost as barren of permanent political results as the first had been. His efforts to undo the mischief wrought in Rome by the long schism were almost entirely neutralized by a quarrel with his erstwhile supporter, Louis VII of France over the candidate for archbishop of Bourges, in the course of which that kingdom was laid under an interdict to press for the papal candidate, and by a struggle with the town of Tivoli in which he became involved. As a result, Roman factions that wished Tivoli annihilated took up arms against Innocent.
It was also in 1139 that, in the Omne Datum Optimum, Innocent II declared that the Knights Templar—a religious and military organization then twenty-one years old—should in the future be answerable only to the papacy. This was a keystone in the Templars' ever increasing power and wealth, and ironically helped to bring about their violent suppression in October 1307.
On 22 July 1139, at Galluccio, Roger II's son Roger III, Duke of Apulia, ambushed the papal troops with a thousand knights and captured Innocent. On 25 July 1139, Innocent was forced to acknowledge the kingship and possessions of Roger with the Treaty of Mignano. In 1143, Innocent refused to recognise the Treaty of Mignano with Roger of Sicily, who sent Robert of Selby to march on papal Benevento. The terms agreed upon at Mignano were then recognised. Innocent II died on 24 September 1143 and was succeeded by Pope Celestine II.
In 1143, as the Pope lay dying, the Commune of Rome, to resist papal power, began deliberations that officially reinstated the Roman Senate the following year. The Pope was interred in a porphyry sarcophagus that contemporary tradition asserted had been the Emperor Hadrian's.
|Catholic Church titles|
Year 1139 (MCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.1139 in Ireland
Events from the year 1139 in Ireland.1143
Year 1143 (MCXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.1143 papal election
The papal election of 1143 followed the death of Pope Innocent II and resulted in the election of Pope Celestine II.Anselm of St Saba
Anselm (died 1148) was a medieval bishop of London whose election was quashed by Pope Innocent II. He was a monk of Chiusa, abbot of Saint Saba in Rome, papal legate to England, and abbot of Bury St Edmunds.Antipope Anacletus II
Anacletus II (died January 25, 1138), born Pietro Pierleoni, was an Antipope who ruled in opposition to Pope Innocent II from 1130 until his death in 1138. After the death of Pope Honorius II, the college of cardinals was divided over his successor. A majority of cardinals elected Pietro, while a minority elected Papareschi (Innocent II). This led to a major schism in the Roman Catholic Church. Anacletus had the support of most Romans, and the Frangipani family, and forced Innocent to flee to France. North of the Alps, Innocent gained the crucial support of St. Bernard of Clairvaux, Peter the Venerable, and Emperor Lothar III, leaving Anacletus with few patrons. Anacletus, with little remaining support, died in the middle of the crisis. In 1139 the second Lateran Council ended the schism, though opinion remained divided.Bull of Gniezno
Ex commisso nobis, more commonly known as the Bull of Gniezno, was a papal bull issued on July 7, 1136 by Pope Innocent II. The bull split off the Bishopric of Gniezno from the Archbishop of Magdeburg. From a historical perspective, the bull is especially important as it contains the earliest written record of the Polish language. Slavic language scholar Aleksander Brückner called the document a "złota bulla języka polskiego" (the golden bull of the Polish language).Cardinals created by Innocent II
Pope Innocent II (r. 1130-43) created 76 cardinals in twelve consistories held throughout his pontificate. The pope created as cardinals his future successor Lucius III and the antipope Victor IV.Gregorio della Suburra
Gregorio della Suburra (died 1162/63) was an Italian cardinal, created by Pope Innocent II in 1140 as priest of the title of S. Maria in Trastevere. He was nephew of Pope Anastasius IV, who promoted him to suburbicarian see of Sabina in September 1154. After the double papal election in September 1159 he supported the obedience of Pope Alexander III. He became Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals in 1159, after the deposition of Cardinal Icmar of Tusculum, who had consecrated Antipope Victor IV (1159-1164) and joined his obedience. He was papal vicar at Rome in 1160. His name appears for the last time in the papal bull dated 20 September 1162.Grigor III Pahlavuni
Grigor III Pahlavuni (Armenian: Գրիգոր Գ. Պահլավունի; also Catholicos Grigor III Pahlavuni or Gregory III of Cilicia) (1093–1166) officially became catholicos of the Armenian Apostolic Church in the year 1113. He is known for his sharakans, which are collections of hymns, and for the several lays he had written during his lifetime. The sharakans written by Pahlavuni typically have strong doctrinal influences and several relate to either the Feast of the Annunciation or Palm Sunday. Two of his better known sharakans are Khorhudn Hanchar and Metsahrash. Pahlavuni earned the nickname “the younger lover of martyrs” because of his love for translating martyrologies from Greek and Latin to Armenian. During his time as catholicos, Grigor III and Pope Innocent II occasionally had some correspondence with one another. Only one of the letters aforementioned still survives as an Armenian translation of a letter from Pope Innocent II to the catholicos.
Grigor III held office as catholicos for a little more than fifty years, and his younger brother Nerses Shnorhali assisted him greatly during this time. Pahlavuni was able to maintain peace within the Cilician Kingdom and the catholicate during a time of instability due to raids from foreign invaders. Because of these foreign invasions, Grigor III chose to seek refuge and moved the catholicate two times; once in 1116 from Karmir Vank at Kesun to its new location in Tsovak, and again in 1149 to Hromgla. Nerses was elected co-catholicos in 1165. After Grigor III retired from his position in office in 1166, Nerses, who would be later referred to as Nerses IV the Gracious or Saint Nerses the Graceful was elected unanimously to succeed him.Guido de Castro Ficeclo
Guido de Castro Ficeclo (died 1147) was Italian Cardinal Deacon of S. Apollinare created by pope Innocent II in 1139. In 1139 he was governor of Benevento. He subscribed the papal bulls between March 27, 1140 and December 27, 1146. From 1142 until 1144 he served as papal legate in the Duchy of Bohemia. He participated in the papal election, 1145.Jakub ze Żnina
Jacob of Żnin (Polish: Jakub ze Żnina) was an early archbishop of Gniezno in Poland. He was archbishop from c. 1124 until 1148.Although the twelfth century was a formative time for the Polish state, the historical records of the time are sparse and there is much that is not known about him.
It was during his time as Bishop that Innocent II issues a bull giving the metropolitan power over Poland to the Archbishopric of Magdeburg. This was annulled in 1136 when Innocent II restored as Gniezno with archbishop authority.On 7 July 1136 Pope Innocent II granted Archbishop Jacob twenty-nine villages in Pałuki and the town of Żnin, which also became property of the Roman Catholic Church.Omne datum optimum
Omne datum optimum (Latin for "Every perfect gift", a quotation from the Epistle of James) was a papal bull issued by Pope Innocent II in 1139 that initially endorsed the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Knights Templar), in which the Templar Rule was officially approved, and papal protection given. Additionally, Omne datum optimum promised all spoils from Muslim conquest to the Order, and made the Order exempt from tithes and taxes:
As for the things that you will receive from the spoils, you can confidently put them to your own use, and we prohibit that you be coerced against your will to give anyone a portion of these.
Although Omne datum optimum was an unusual bull in and of itself, it was followed by Pope Celestine II's Milites Templi in 1144 and Pope Eugene III's Militia Dei in 1145, which together gave the Templars an extraordinary range of rights and privileges. Among other things, the Order was permitted to build its own churches, bury their dead on those church grounds and collect taxes on Templar properties once a year. The unique cemeteries constructed by the Templars proved to be extremely controversial.Papareschi
Papareschi is an Italian surname, and may refer to:
House of Papareschi (also De Papa or Paparoni) a noble family of medieval Rome. To it belong:
Gregorio Papareschi (cardinal) (12th century), cardinal-nephew of Pope Innocent II
Gregorio Papareschi (died 1143), Italian pope (Innocent II)
Pietro Papareschi (12th century), cardinal-nephew of Pope Innocent II
Romano Bonaventura (died 1243), also listed as Romano PapareschiPietro Papareschi
Pietro (Papareschi?) was an Italian cardinal created by Pope Innocent II on 17 September 1143. He is often referred to as brother of Innocent II and member of the Roman family of Papareschi but this is not attested in the contemporary sources. He signed the papal bulls as Cardinal-Bishop of Albano between 9 December 1143 and 28 April 1145. He participated in the papal elections in September 1143, March 1144 and February 1145. He died after April 1145.Robert II of Capua
Robert II (died 1156) was the count of Aversa and the prince of Capua from 1127 until his death .
He was the only son and successor of Jordan II of Capua. According to the Lombard chronicler Falco of Benevento, he was "of delicate constitution, he could endure neither labour nor hardship."
In the final month of 1127, Pope Honorius II came to Benevento to preach a crusade against Count Roger II of Sicily in order to prevent the union of his county with the duchy of Apulia (Duke William II being recently deceased). At the start of 1128, Honorius II granted investiture to Robert which made the principalities of Capua independent from Apulia. The pope endeavoured to gain Robert's loyalty to help defeat Roger II of Sicily in return for remissions of his sins. He was quickly recruited for the endeavour by the pope, who went to Capua for the ceremony. The pope probably hoped to use Capua as a counterpoise against Apulia, as in the days of Robert's grandfather and great grandfather. Likewise, Robert may have intended to be the chief papal protector, as his ancestors had been. However, he was weak-willed and he soon fell ill and wanted out. Eventually, the coalition commenced negotiations on Roger's arrival with an army. Honorius even successfully negotiated the independence of Capua. In 1129, however, Robert submissively surrendered suzerainty to the duke of Apulia and, the next year (on 25 December 1130) it was believed by Falco of Benevento that, as Roger's vassal-in-chief, laid the crown on his head at his royal coronation. This is difficult to believe as it was such a crucial role and Roger II would not have wanted Robert, as one of his vassals, to perform such an important task, even if he was one of the highest rank.In 1132, Robert rebelled with many other south Italian vassals of the king of Sicily and with the support of Pope Innocent II and his coalition of Louis VI of France, Henry I of England, and the Emperor Lothair II. Robert defeated Roger at the Battle of Nocera on 24 July, but Roger burnt Aversa and, by 1134, forced Ranulf, count of Alife, and the nominally Byzantine Duke Sergius VII of Naples to submit. Robert was given an ultimatum; if he wanted to keep his title, he must submit to Roger. After the death of Roger's wife, Elvira, and the false news of Roger's death, Robert went to Naples from Pisa with 8000 men. He was met by Rainulf and Duke Sergius when Roger arrived in June 1135, he again offered Robert a choice to keep his title. Roger made his third son Alfonso prince in his stead (1135).
Robert fled to Pisa, where he gathered a navy and made war against Roger in Sicily, but it was a stalemate. The Pisan fleet ravaged Amalfi and took much loot. Laden with this plunder and accompanied by a papal legation, Robert went to Germany to plead for the aid of the emperor. In Spring 1137, the emperor came down with Pope Innocent II; Henry the Proud, duke of Bavaria; and a large force. They took Benevento, Bari, and Capua itself, installing Ranulf as duke of Apulia and Robert in Capua, vindicating these actions in battle. But when the emperor left Italy, Roger sacked Capua yet again. On 25 July 1139, Robert and the pope were defeated in battle on the Garigliano, at Galluccio, ambushed by Roger. The pope was captured, though Robert escaped. They thereafter acknowledged him as principatus Capuae. He spent most of the next fifteen years in exile in Germany. When Alfonso died in 1144, Roger made his fourth son William prince. However, following Roger's death in 1154, there was a revolt on the mainland, led by Robert II of Basunvilla, cousin of the new king William I.When William was excommunicated by Pope Adrian IV, and with (unjustified) rumours that the Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa was set to invade southern Italy, Prince Robert was tempted to make a comeback. He swore homage to Adrian retook Capua (1155), taking advantage of William's serious illness. However, in the spring of 1156 William recovered and took a fleet to the mainland. He dealt, first, with the more serious threat from Robert of Basunvilla and the other Apulian and Campanian rebels, but then he turned to Capua. Robert was captured. He might have been executed as a traitor, but instead William sent him as a prisoner to Palermo, where he was possibly blinded.Robert left a son named Jordan who lived in Constantinople, where he served the Emperor Manuel I Comnenus as sebastos and diplomat. He journeyed to Rome in 1166-1167 to try and aid the reunion of the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches.Second Council of the Lateran
The Second Council of the Lateran is believed to have been the tenth ecumenical council held by the Roman Catholic Church. It was convened by Pope Innocent II in April 1139 and attended by close to a thousand clerics. Its immediate task was to neutralise the after-effects of the schism which had arisen after the death of Pope Honorius II in 1130 and the papal election that year that established Pietro Pierleoni as the antipope Anacletus II.Simon I, Duke of Lorraine
Simon I (1076 – 13 or 14 January 1139) was the duke of Lorraine from 1115 to his death, the eldest son and successor of Theodoric II and Hedwig of Formbach.
Continuing the policy of friendship with the Holy Roman Emperor, he accompanied the Emperor Henry V to the Diet of Worms of 1122, where the Investiture Controversy was resolved.
He had stormy relations with the episcopates of his realm: fighting with Stephen of Bar, bishop of Metz, and Adalberon, archbishop of Trier, both allies of the count of Bar, whose claim to Lorraine against Simon's father had been quashed by Henry V's father Henry IV. Though Adalberon excommunicated him, Pope Innocent II lifted it. He was a friend of Bernard of Clairvaux and he built many abbeys in his duchy, including that of Sturzelbronn in 1135. There was he interred after his original burial in Saint-Dié.Spycimierz
Spycimierz [spɨˈt͡ɕimjɛʂ] is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Uniejów, within Poddębice County, Łódź Voivodeship, in central Poland. It lies approximately 4 kilometres (2 mi) south-west of Uniejów, 15 km (9 mi) west of Poddębice, and 52 km (32 mi) west of the regional capital Łódź.The village has a population of 380. It is famous for a beautiful celebration of the Corpus Domini feast when the inhabitants create flower carpets along the 2 km long route of the procession.
The name of the village comes from a Slavic given name Spycimir, also spelled Spycimierz. The village was first mentioned as Spicimir in the chronicle of Gallus Anonymus, written in 1112–1116. Gallus wrote that it was attacked in a Pomeranian raid in 1108.
In the Middle Ages, a fortified Slavic gord existed in the location of the present village. Spycimierz was located at the junction of two important trails, from Pomerania to Rus, and from Łęczyca to Kalisz. The gord was ring-shaped, with wood and earth fortification, topped by a wooden palisade. Here, Duke Boleslaw Krzywousty imprisoned Archbishop Martin in ca. 1106. Spycimierz was regarded as a ducal property, mentioned in 1136 in a bull of Pope Innocent II.
The gord was the seat of a castellan, and remained one until the early 14th century. The Spicymierz Castellany belonged to the Duchy of Sieradz, and was located along right bank of the Warta river. Some time before 1331, in unknown circumstances, the gord became private property of a local nobleman, Pawel Ogonczyk.
Spycimierz was burned to the ground in 1331, when a unit of Teutonic Knights crossed the Warta, and set the gord on fire. A wooden castle was built in the location of the former gord, but Spycimierz lost its importance to the adjacent town of Uniejów. The gord is still visible. It lies on a meadow, near the Warta river Oxbow lake.
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