Pope Hyginus

Pope Hyginus (died c. 142) was the Bishop of Rome from c. 138 to c. 142.[1] Tradition holds that during his papacy he determined the various prerogatives of the clergy and defined the grades of the ecclesiastical hierarchy.

He also decreed that all churches be consecrated. He is said to have died a martyr, though no records verify this. The chronology of the early bishops of Rome cannot be determined with any degree of exactitude today.

Pope Saint

Papa Igino
Papacy beganc. 136
Papacy endedc. 142
SuccessorPius I
Personal details
Birth nameHyginus
BornAthens, Greece
Rome, Roman Empire
Feast day11 January


According to the Liber Pontificalis, Hyginus was a Greek by birth.[2] Irenaeus says that the gnostic Valentinus came to Rome in Hyginus' time, remaining there until Anicetus became pontiff (On the Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called Gnosis, III, iii).

Cerdo, another Gnostic and predecessor of Marcion of Sinope, also lived at Rome in the reign of Hyginus; by confessing his errors and recanting, he succeeded in obtaining readmission into the Church but eventually fell back into heresy and was expelled from the Church.[3]

The Liber Pontificalis also relates that this pope organized the hierarchy and established the order of ecclesiastical precedence (Hic clerum composuit et distribuit gradus).[2] This general observation recurs also in the biography of Pope Hormisdas, but has no historical value. According to Louis Duchesne, the writer probably referred to the lower orders of the clergy.[2]

The ancient sources contain no information as to his having died a martyr. At his death he was buried on the Vatican Hill, near Saint Peter's tomb. His feast is celebrated on 11 January.

See also


  1. ^ The chronology of these Popes cannot be determined with any degree of exactitude by the help of the extant sources. (Catholic Encyclopedia: Pope St. Hyginus) According to Eusebius (Church History, IV, xv.) Hyginus succeeded Telesphorus during the first year of the reign of Emperor Antoninus Pius, i.e. in 138 or 139. Eusebius (Church History, IV, xvi) states that Hyginus's pontificate lasted four years.
  2. ^ a b c Kirsch, Johann Peter. "Pope St. Hyginus." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 7. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 13 Mar. 2015
  3. ^ Butler, Alban. "St. Hyginus, Pope and Martyr", The Lives of the Saints, vol.1, 1866

External links

  • Opera Omnia
  • Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Hyginus (pope)" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  • Fontes Latinae de papis usque ad annum 530 (Papa Felix IV)
  • Liber pontificalis
Titles of the Great Christian Church
Preceded by
Bishop of Rome

Succeeded by
Pius I

The 130s decade ran from January 1, 130, to December 31, 139.

== Events ==

=== 130 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

A law is passed in Rome banning the execution of slaves without a trial.

The Temple of Olympian Zeus is completed at Athens.

Emperor Hadrian visits the cities Petra and Gerasa (Jerash).

A Triumphal Arch for Hadrian is built in Gerasa.

Canopus, Hadrian's Villa, Tivoli, Italy, is started to be built.

====== Asia ======

Huviska becomes king of the Kushan Empire in India.

The Scythian king Rudradaman I reconquers from the Andhra the lands annexed by Gautamiputra.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Claudius Ptolemaeus tabulates angles of refraction for several media.

The Antinous Mondragone is sculpted.

c. 130–138 – Hadrian Hunting Boar and Sacrificing to Apollo, sculptural reliefs on the Arch of Constantine, Rome, are made.

c. 130–138 – Antinous, from Hadrian's Villa at Tivoli, Italy, is made. It is now kept at Museo Gregoriano Egizio, Rome.

=== 131 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Hadrian builds the city Aelia Capitolina on the location of Jerusalem.

The Praetor's Edict is definitively codified by Salvius Julianus on Hadrian's orders. This change means that senatorial decrees become a mere confirmation of the imperial speech (oratio principis) which initiated them.

Reorganization of the Imperial Council: Central administration is reinforced, and administrative positions are entrusted to Knights according to a very strict hierarchy. Under the reorganization, the Roman Senate is excluded from controlling the business of state.

Hadrian restores the monarchist policy of Claudius and Domitian. The equestrian order is given full legal status and attains the second order of the state.

Italy is divided into legal districts managed by consuls, a direct blow to the power and prestige of the Senate.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Edict of Hadrian prohibiting the practice of circumcision. Additionally, Hadrian prohibits public reading of the Torah under penalty of death, as well as observance of festivals and the Sabbath, the teaching of Judaic Law, and the ordination of rabbis.

The Temple of Baalshamin is built in Palmyra.

=== 132 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

The Temple of Olympian Zeus (Athens) is completed using Cossutius' design.

The messianic, charismatic Jewish leader Simon bar Kokhba starts a war of liberation for Judea (Bar Kokhba revolt) against the Romans, which is eventually crushed (in 135) by emperor Hadrian. Rabbi Akiva is supportive of the rebellion.

The legion X Fretensis must evacuate Jerusalem, returning to Caesarea. The Jews enter the city and re-establish their system of sacrifices. They strike coins to celebrate their independence, which would last for only 30 months. The legion XXII Deiotariana, which advanced from Egypt, is completely destroyed.

Merchants in Britain build structures outside the forts of Hadrian's Wall and offer goods and services (including brothels) to Roman soldiers, who receive salaries in a region that otherwise has virtually no ready money.

Construction begins on the Mausoleum of Hadrian in Rome, today known as Castel Sant'Angelo.

====== Asia ======

Change of era name from Yongjian (7th year) to Yangjia of the Chinese Han Dynasty.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Chinese scientist Zhang Heng invents the first seismometer for determining the exact cardinal direction of earthquakes hundreds of miles away; the device employs a series of complex gears around a central swinging pendulum.

=== 133 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Sextus Julius Severus, governor of Britain, is sent to Judea (from 136 renamed Syria Palaestina) to quell a revolt.

==== Ongoing events ====

Roman Empire. The Bar Kokhba revolt in Judea (132–135).

=== 134 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

A law improving the lot of free workers is passed in Rome.

Arrianus, Roman governor of Cappadocia, repulses an attack of the Alani, a nomadic tribe from southeastern Russia.

Sextus Julius Severus, governor of Judea, begins in the summer a campaign against the Jewish rebel strongholds in the mountains.

The Romans retake Jerusalem. The largely destroyed city is renamed Aelia Capitolina.

====== Asia ======

Ilseong becomes ruler of the Korean kingdom of Silla.

==== By topic ====

====== Architecture ======

Hadrian's Villa in Tivoli, Italy is completed.

=== 135 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

A Jewish diaspora begins as emperor Hadrian bars Jews from Jerusalem and has survivors of the massacre dispersed across the Roman Empire. Many join Mediterranean ports.

Jerusalem is renamed Colonia Aelia Capitolina, in honor of Hadrian. Legio VI Ferrata rebuilds the legionary fortress in the city and constructs a Roman temple at Golgotha.

An altar to Jupiter is erected on the site of the Temple in Jerusalem.

Canopus, Hadrian's Villa, Tivoli, Italy, is finished.

Alans threaten Cappadocia, repulsed by Arrian.

====== Asia ======

Last (4th) year of Yangjia era of the Chinese Han Dynasty.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Epictetus writes the Enchiridion (approximate date).

=== 136 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

The war against the Suebi begins. They will be defeated by the senator Tiberius Haterius Nepos Atinas, governor of Pannonia, in 138.

Emperor Hadrian chases the Jews from Galilee and receives a triumphal arch near Scythopolis.

The Roman province of Iudaea (plus Galilee) becomes Syria Palaestina, the name Palestine as a designation for this land was used since at least 5th century BC (mentioned by Herodotus).

Hadrian dictates his memoirs at his villa near Tivoli (Tibur) outside Rome.

Hadrian uncovers a new conspiracy among certain senators. He adopts Lucius Aelius as his heir.

====== Asia ======

First year of Yonghe era of the Chinese Han Dynasty.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Pope Hyginus succeeds Pope Telesphorus as the ninth pope.

Change of Patriarch of Constantinople from Patriarch Eleutherius to Patriarch Felix.

=== 137 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Tax laws are passed for trade in Palmyra. The caravan city grows rich by importing rare products from the Persian Gulf, and by exporting items manufactured by the Mediterranean world to the East.

=== 138 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

February 25 – Emperor Hadrian makes Antoninus Pius his successor, on condition that he adopts Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus.

July 10 – Hadrian dies after a heart failure at Baiae and is buried at Rome in the Gardens of Domitia beside his wife, Vibia Sabina.

Antoninus Pius succeeds Hadrian as Roman Emperor and asks the Senate to confer divine honors for Hadrian.

Construction begins on the Theater of Philadelphia (Amman).

Hadrian's Villa, Tivoli, Italy, is finished.

==== By topic ====

====== Commerce ======

The silver content of the Roman denarius falls to 75 percent under emperor Antoninus Pius, down from 87 percent under the reign of Hadrian.

=== 139 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

The Tomb of Hadrian in Rome is completed; emperor Antoninus Pius cremates the body of Hadrian and places his ashes together with that of his wife Vibia Sabina and his adopted son, Lucius Aelius, in the mausoleum.

Marcus Aurelius is named Caesar. He marries Faustina the Younger, daughter of Antoninus Pius.

Antoninus Augustus Pius and Gaius Bruttius Praesens become Roman Consuls.


Year 136 (CXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Commodus and Civica (or, less frequently, year 889 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 136 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.


Year 140 (CXL) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Hadrianus and Caesar (or, less frequently, year 893 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 140 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.


The 140s decade ran from January 1, 140, to December 31, 149.

== Events ==

=== 140 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Antoninus Augustus Pius and Marcus Aurelius Caesar become Roman Consuls.

Antoninus Pius recognizes the king of the Quadi, who becomes an ally of Rome.

King Mithridates IV dies; Vologases III claims the throne and extends his rule throughout the Parthian Empire.

The export of olive oil from Hispania Baetica to Rome peaks.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Pope Pius I succeeds Pope Hyginus as the tenth pope.

Marcion arrives in Rome, bringing Evangelikon and Apostolikon to the Christian community.

====== Arts and sciences ======

Ptolemy completes his Almagest (approximate date).

=== 141 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

The Temple of Antoninus and Faustina is constructed in Rome; the temple is dedicated to Faustina the Elder.

====== Asia ======

Last (6th) year of Yonghe era of the Chinese Han Dynasty.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Change of Patriarch of Constantinople from Felix of Byzantium to Polycarpus II of Byzantium.

====== Arts and Science ======

6th recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet.

=== 142 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Antoninus Pius orders the construction of the Antonine Wall. The wall stretch 39 miles (63 km) from Old Kilpatrick in West Dunbartonshire on the Firth of Clyde to Carriden near Bo'ness on the Firth of Forth (Scotland). The Romans built nineteen forts and smaller fortlets (milecastles), to protect the border against the Caledonians.

Municipal doctors are named throughout the Roman Empire.

====== Asia ======

First year of the Hanan era of the Chinese Han Dynasty.

The Chinese Taoist alchemist Wei Boyang, author of the Kinship of the Three, is the first to describe an early form of gunpowder solution.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Marcion proclaims that the Old Testament is incompatible with Christianity.

=== 143 ===

Antoninus Pius serves as Roman Consul.

A revolt of the Brigantes tribe in Britannia is suppressed by Quintus Lollius Urbicus.

==== By topic ====

====== Medicine ======

The Roman doctor Antyllus performs the first arteriotomy.

=== 144 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Lucius Hedius Rufus Lollianus Avitus and Titus Statilius Maximus become Roman Consuls.

The Roman campaigns in Mauretania begin.

====== Asia ======

Change of era name from Hanan (3rd year) to Jiankang era of the Chinese Han Dynasty.

Change of emperor from Han Shundi to Han Chongdi of the Chinese Han Dynasty.

Reign of Kanishka, emperor of the Kushan Empire.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Change of Patriarch of Constantinople from Patriarch Polycarpus II to Patriarch Athendodorus.

Marcion of Sinope is excommunicated; a sect, Marcionism, grows out of his beliefs.

=== 145 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Antoninus Augustus Pius and Marcus Aurelius Caesar become Roman Consuls.

Marcus Aurelius marries Faustina the Younger, a daughter of Antoninus Pius.

Arrian becomes archon in Athens.

====== Asia ======

Change of era name from Jiankang (1st year) to Yongxi era of the Chinese Han Dynasty.

Change of emperor from Han Chongdi to Han Zhidi of the Chinese Han Dynasty.

Ajmere, India, is founded.

=== 146 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Faustina the Younger is given the title Augusta and becomes Roman Empress.

Marcus Aurelius receives the imperium proconsular.

====== Asia ======

Change of era name from Yongxi (1st year) to Benchu era of the Chinese Han Dynasty.

Change of emperor from Han Zhidi to Han Huandi of the Chinese Han Dynasty.

Chadae becomes ruler of the Korean kingdom of Goguryeo.

=== 147 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Marcus Aurelius receives imperial powers from the Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius.

Festivals to celebrate the 900th anniversary of the founding of Rome begin.

Vologases III dies after a 42-year reign in which he has contended successfully with his rivals.

King Vologases IV, son of Mithridates IV of Parthia, unites under his rule the Parthian Empire.

====== Asia ======

First year of Jianhe of the Chinese Han Dynasty.

=== 148 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

The Emperor Antoninus Pius hosts a series of grand games to celebrate Rome's 900th anniversary.

====== Asia ======

An Shigao arrives in China.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Change of Patriarch of Constantinople from Patriarch Athendodorus to Patriarch Euzois.

=== 149 ===


== Events ==

=== AD 70 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Vespasian and his son Caesar Vespasian (the future emperor Titus) become Roman consuls.

Panic strikes Rome as adverse winds delay grain shipments from Africa and Egypt, producing a bread shortage. Ships laden with wheat from North Africa sail 300 miles to Rome's port of Ostia in 3 days, and the 1,000 mile voyage from Alexandria averages 13 days. The vessels often carry 1,000 tons each to provide the city with the 8,000 tons per week it normally consumes.

Sextus Julius Frontinus is praetor of Rome. Legio II Adiutrix is created from marines of Classis Ravennatis.

Pliny the Elder serves as procurator in Gallia Narbonensis.

14th of Xanthikos (14th of Nisan, about April 14) – Siege of Jerusalem: Titus surrounds the Jewish capital, with three legions (V Macedonica, XII Fulminata and XV Apollinaris) on the western side and a fourth (X Fretensis) on the Mount of Olives to the east. He puts pressure on the food and water supplies of the inhabitants by allowing pilgrims to enter the city to celebrate Passover and then refusing them egress.

About April 21 – Titus opens a full-scale assault on Jerusalem, concentrating his attack on the city's Third Wall (HaHoma HaShlishit) to the northwest. The Roman army begins trying to breach the wall using testudos, mantlets, siege towers, and battering rams.

7th of Artemisios(7th of Iyar, about May 6) – The Third Wall of Jerusalem collapses and the Jews withdraw from Bezetha to the Second Wall, where the defences are unorganized.

12th of Artemisios (12th of Iyar, about May 11) – Titus and his Roman legions breach the Second Wall of Jerusalem. The Jewish defenders retreat to the First Wall. The Romans start building a circumvallation; all trees within 90 stadia (ca. fifteen kilometres) of the city are cut down.

21st of Artemisios (about May 20 or 21) – A "certain prodigious and incredible phenomenon", "chariots and troops" seen running in the clouds around Jerusalem

Pentecost (Shavuot, 6th of Sivan, about June 4) – Priests in the Temple in Jerusalem feel a quaking and hear "a sound as of a great multitude saying, Let us remove hence".

17th of Panemos (17th of Tammuz), about July 14) – Sacrifices cease in the temple.

24th of Panemos (about July 20) – Romans set fire to a cloister after the capture of the Fortress of Antonia, north of the Temple Mount. The Romans are drawn into street fighting with the Zealots.

10th of Loios (9th or 10th of Av, about August 4) – Titus destroys the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. Roman troops are stationed in Jerusalem and abolish the Jewish high priesthood and Sanhedrin. This becomes known as the Fall of Jerusalem, a conclusive event in the First Jewish–Roman War (the Jewish Revolt), which began in 66 AD. Following this event, the Jewish religious leadership moves from Jerusalem to Jamnia (present day Yavne), and this date is mourned annually as the Jewish fast of Tisha B'Av.

August – Titus lays siege to the Upper City of Jerusalem.

8th of Gorpiaios (8th of Elul, about September 2) – Romans gain control of all of Jerusalem and proceed to burn it and kill its remaining residents, except for some who are taken captive to be killed later or enslaved.

Neapolis (present day Nablus) is founded in Iudaea Province.

Naval clashes on the Rhine during the Batavian Revolt; the crew of a captured Roman flagship is imprisoned at Augusta Treverorum (modern Trier).

Roman legions V Alaudae and XV Primigenia are destroyed by the Batavi. Later, Quintus Petillius Cerialis puts down the Batavian rebellion of Gaius Julius Civilis.

Vespasian disbands four Rhine legions (I Germanica, IV Macedonica, XV Primigenia and XVI Gallica), disgraced for having surrendered or lost their eagles during the revolt of Julius Civilis.

Later Roman emperor Domitian marries Domitia Longina.

Romans make a punitive expedition against the Garamantes – they are forced to have an official relationship with the Roman Empire.

Annexation of the island of Samothrace by the Empire under Vespasian.

====== Asia ======

India sees the end of the Hellenistic dynasties.

====== Africa ======

Expedition by the Roman Septimius Flaccus to southern Egypt. He probably reaches Sudan.

Ze-Hakèlé (Zoskales in Greek) becomes king of Aksum.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Members of the Oneida Community, a now non-existent religious group formed in the nineteenth century, believed this was the year Jesus Christ returned.

=== AD 71 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

The Romans establish a fortress at York (Eboracum), as a base for their northern forces. Initially established solely for Legio IX Hispana, it expands later to include public housing, baths and temples.

Battle of Stanwick: Quintus Petillius Cerialis, governor of Britain, puts down a revolt by the Brigantes.

Emperor Vespasian and Marcus Cocceius Nerva are Roman Consuls.

Cerialis defeats Claudius Civilis at the Battle of Treves, thus quelling the Batavian rebellion.

Titus is awarded with a triumph, accompanied by Vespasian and his brother Titus Flavius Domitian. In the parade are Jewish prisoners and treasures of the Temple of Jerusalem, including the Menorah and the Pentateuch. The leader of the Zealots, Simon Bar Giora, is lashed and strangled in the Forum.

Titus is made praetorian prefect of the Praetorian Guard and receives pro-consular command and also tribunician power, all of which indicates that Vespasian will follow the hereditary tradition of succession.

Herodium, a Jewish fortress south of Jerusalem, is conquered and destroyed by Legio X Fretensis on their way to Masada.

====== Asia ======

Reign of Rabel II, king of Nabataea. He makes Bostra, Syria, his second capital.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Use of locks with keys of clever design begins in Rome.

====== Religion ======

Mithraism begins to spread throughout the Roman Empire.

=== AD 72 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Antiochus IV of Syria is deposed by emperor Vespasian.

Vespasian and Titus are Roman Consuls.

First Jewish-Roman War: The Roman army (Legio X Fretensis) under Lucilius Bassus lays siege to the Jewish garrison of Machaerus at the Dead Sea. After they capitulate, the Zealots are allowed to leave the fortress before it is destroyed.

The Romans lay siege to Masada, a desert fortress held by Jewish victims of the Sicarii.

Flavia Neapolis (Nablus) is founded.

Vespasian starts the building of the Colosseum; the amphitheatre is used for gladiatorial games and public spectacles, such as sea battles, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas of Classical mythology.

=== AD 73 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Spring – The Roman governor Lucius Flavius Silva lays siege to Masada, the last outpost of the Jewish rebels following the end in AD 70 of the First Jewish-Roman War (Jewish Revolt). The Roman army (Legio X Fretensis) surrounds the mountain fortress with a 7-mile long siege wall (circumvallation) and builds a rampart of stones and beaten earth against the western approach. After the citadel is conquered, 960 Zealots under the leadership of Eleazar ben Ya'ir commit mass suicide when defeat becomes imminent.

Pliny the Elder serves as procurator in Hispania Tarraconensis.

Titus Flavius Domitianus becomes Roman Consul.

Emperor Vespasian begins conquest of territory east of the upper Rhine and south of the Main. In addition, he reorganizes the defenses of the upper and lower Danube.

====== Asia ======

February – The Chinese Han Dynasty launches a major campaign against the Xiongnu, whom they confront in the Battle of Yiwulu in the Kumul oasis, an ultimate Han military victory led by General Dou Gu (d. AD 88).

Ban Chao (Pan-Ch’ao), competing with the Xiongnu, imposes a Chinese protectorate on the kings of Lop Nor and Khotan in the Tarim basin, with the aim of controlling the Silk Road.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Martial writes a satire on "military cowardice".

=== AD 74 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Vespasianus and his son Titus Caesar Vespasianus become Roman Consuls.

The Black Forest region is reattached to the Roman Empire.

December 27 – Emperor Vespasianus granted generous privileges to doctors and teachers.

====== Asia ======

The Chinese reestablish a protectorate of the Western Regions.

Chinese generals Dou Gu (Teou Kou) and Geng Bing (Keng Ping) take control of Turpan.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Mesopotamia: The last known cuneiform text is written.

=== AD 75 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Vespasianus and his son Titus Caesar Vespasianus become Roman Consuls.

The Temple of Peace, also known as the Forum of Vespasian, is built in Rome. The temple celebrates the conquest of Jerusalem (in AD 70) and houses the Menorah from Herod's Temple.

Vespasian fortifies Armazi (Georgia) for the Iberian king Mithridates I. The Alans raid the Roman frontier in Armenia.

Sextus Julius Frontinus becomes governor of Britannia and makes his headquarters in Isca Augusta (Wales).

Frontinus begins his conquest of Wales; Legio II Augusta is moved to the border of the River Usk.

Caerwent is founded by the Romans as the market town of Venta Silurum, a settlement of the Silures.

====== Asia ======

Accession of Han Zhangdi.

Revolt against the Chinese in Tarim: Cachera and Turpan are besieged. Luoyang orders the evacuation of Tarim. Ban Chao makes the rebels retreat towards Khotan. At the same time, the Chinese army of Ganzhou reconquers Turpan in Northern Xiongnu. Ban Chao convinces the emperor of the need to control Central Asia in the fight against Xiongnu.

=== AD 76 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Vespasianus Augustus and Titus Caesar Vespasianus become Roman Consuls.

Governor Sextus Julius Frontinus subdues the Silures and other hostile tribes of Wales, establishing a fortress at Caerleon or Isca Augusta for Legio II Augusta, and makes a network of smaller forts for his auxiliary forces.

====== China ======

First year of Jianchu era of the Chinese Han Dynasty.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Chinese historian Ban Gu develops a theory of the origins of the universe.

====== Religion ======

Pope Anacletus I succeeds Pope Linus as the third pope (according to the official Vatican list).

=== AD 77 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Gnaeus Julius Agricola is named governor of Britannia, a post he occupies until AD 84. He extends the Roman influence to the mouth of the River Clyde (Scotland) and builds fortifications.

Agricola subdues the Ordovices in Wales and pursues the remnants of the tribe to Anglesey, the holy island of the Druids.

The Caledonian tribes in Scotland form a confederacy of 30,000 warriors, under the leadership of Calgacus.

A Roman squadron, sent by Agricola, explores the north of Scotland for the first time, discovering the Orkney and Shetland Islands.

Winter – Agricola conquers Anglesey and disperses his army to their winter quarters.

====== Asia ======

King Giru of Baekje succeeds to the throne of Baekje in the Korean peninsula.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Pliny the Elder publishes the first ten books of Naturalis Historia.

The Romans develop a simple method of distillation.

=== AD 78 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

The Romans conquer the Ordovices, located in present-day northern Wales, as well as the Silures.

Gnaeus Julius Agricola replaces Sextus Julius Frontinus as governor of Roman Britain, which leads to the eventual taming of the Welsh tribes of Britain.

====== Asia ======

Indian Prince Aji Caka introduces the Sanskrit language and Pallawa script, used to inscribe Javanese words and phrases, to the Indonesian islands.

Emperor Kadphises of the Kushan Empire sends a delegation to Rome, to seek support against the Parthians.

This is the base year (year zero) of the Saka era used by some Hindu calendars, the Indian national calendar, and the Cambodian Buddhist calendar. It begins near the vernal equinox for the civil solar calendar, but begins opposite the star Spica for the traditional solar calendar.

Pacorus II is king of Parthia (78–115).

==== By topic ====

====== Philosophy ======

The philosopher Wang Chong (Wang-Tchoung) claims all phenomena have material causes.

=== AD 79 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Vespasianus Augustus and Titus Caesar Vespasianus become Roman Consuls.

June 23 – Vespasian dies of fever from diarrhea; his last words on his deathbed are: "I think I'm turning into a god." Titus succeeds his father as Roman emperor. Titus' Jewish mistress, Berenice (daughter of Herod Agrippa), comes to join him in Rome, but he exiles her to please the Senate.

August 24 (or October 24?) – Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79: Mount Vesuvius erupts, destroying Pompeii, Herculaneum, Stabiae, and Oplontis. The Roman navy based at Misenum, commanded by Pliny the Elder, evacuates refugees, but he dies after inhaling volcanic fumes.

Roman conquest of Britain: Gnaeus Julius Agricola campaigns in Britain:

Chester is founded as a castrum or Roman fort with the name Deva Victrix. The fortress is built by Legio II Adiutrix and contains barracks, granaries, military baths and headquarters.

Mamucium (the first Manchester) is founded as a frontier fort and settlement in the North West of England, a distance to the north of Chester.

Agricola enters Caledonia (modern-day Scotland) but is resisted by the

====== China ======

A commission of scholars canonizes the text of works of Confucius and his school.

AD 74

AD 74 (LXXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Titus (third time) and Vespasian (fifth time) (or, less frequently, year 827 Ab urbe condita). The denomination AD 74 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Catholic Church in Greece

The Catholic Church in Greece is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome. Indigenous Roman Catholic Greeks number about 50,000-70,000 and are a religious and not an ethnic minority. Most of them are a reminiscence of Venetian and Genoese rule in many Greek islands (in both the Aegean and Ionian seas) from the early 13th until the late 18th century, or descendants of the thousands of Bavarians that came to Greece in the 1830s as soldiers and civil administrators, accompanying King Otto. One very old but still common term to refer to them is Φράγκοι, or "Franks", dating to the times of the Byzantine Empire, when medieval Greeks would use that term to describe all Catholics.

Since the early 1990s however, the number of Catholic permanent residents of Greece has greatly increased; today, they number 200,000 at the very least, and probably more. These Catholics are immigrants from Eastern Europe (especially Poland) or from the Philippines, but also include Western European expatriates that live permanently in Athens or the Greek Islands (especially Crete, Rhodes and Corfu).

Today, the majority of Catholics live in Athens, a city of about four million people; the rest of them can be found all over Greece. Most indigenous Catholics live in the islands, and especially the Cyclades, where Syros and Tinos in particular have some entirely Catholic villages and parishes. There are also Catholics in Corfu, Naxos, Santorini, Kefalonia, Zakynthos, Rhodes, Kos, Crete, Samos and Chios. In the mainland, Catholic communities are smaller, and include those of Patras (a city that was home to a large Italian community until World War II), Thessaloniki, Kavala, Volos etc. In addition to the Roman Catholics (Latin Rite) who represent the vast majority of the faithful, there are about 5,000 of the Greek Rite, and a few hundred Armenian Catholics.

Hyginus (disambiguation)

Hyginus can refer to:


Gaius Julius Hyginus (c. 64 BC – 17 AD), Roman poet, author of Fabulae, reputed author of Poeticon astronomicon

Hyginus Gromaticus, Roman surveyor

Pope Hyginus, also a saint, Bishop of Rome about 140

Pseudo-Hyginus, author of De Munitionibus Castrorum formerly attributed to Hyginus Gromaticus

Hyginus of Cordova, bishop of present-day Cordoba, 4th-century opponent of PriscillianOther:

The Hyginus cleft, a surface feature of Earth's moon

Hyginus, a crater on the Moon

January 11

January 11 is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 354 days remain until the end of the year (355 in leap years).

List of Greek popes

This is a list of Greek popes. Most were pope before or during the Byzantine Papacy (537–752). It does not include all the Sicilian and Syrian popes of Greek extraction from that period.

List of canonised popes

This article lists the Popes who have been canonised or recognised as Saints in the Roman Catholic Church they had led. A total of 83 (out of 266) Popes have been recognised universally as canonised saints, including all of the first 35 Popes (31 of whom were martyrs) and 52 of the first 54. If Pope Liberius is numbered amongst the Saints as in Eastern Christianity, all of the first 49 Popes become recognised as Saints, of whom 31 are Martyr-Saints, and 53 of the first 54 Pontiffs would be acknowledged as Saints. In addition, 13 other Popes are in the process of becoming canonised Saints: as of December 2018, two are recognised as being Servants of God, two are recognised as being Venerable, and nine have been declared Blessed or Beati, making a total of 95 (97 if Pope Liberius and Pope Adeodatus II are recognised to be Saints) of the 266 Roman Pontiffs being recognised and venerated for their heroic virtues and inestimable contributions to the Church.

The most recently reigning Pope to have been canonised was Pope John Paul II, whose cause for canonisation was opened in May 2005. John Paul II was beatified on May 1, 2011, by Pope Benedict XVI and later canonised, along with Pope John XXIII, by Pope Francis on April 27, 2014. Pope Francis also canonised Pope Paul VI on October 14, 2018.

List of extant papal tombs

A pope is the Bishop of Rome and the leader of the Catholic Church. Approximately 100 papal tombs are at least partially extant, representing less than half of the 264 deceased popes, from Saint Peter to Saint John Paul II.For the first few centuries in particular, little is known of the popes and their tombs, and available information is often contradictory. As with other religious relics, multiple sites claim to house the same tomb. Furthermore, many papal tombs that recycled sarcophagi and other materials from earlier tombs were later recycled for their valuable materials or combined with other monuments. For example, the tomb of Pope Leo I was combined with Leos II, III, and IV circa 855, and then removed in the seventeenth century and placed under his own altar, below Alessandro Algardi's relief, Fuga d'Attila. The style of papal tombs has evolved considerably throughout history, tracking trends in the development of church monuments. Notable papal tombs have been commissioned from sculptors such as Michelangelo and Gian Lorenzo Bernini.

Most extant papal tombs are located in St. Peter's Basilica, other major churches of Rome (especially Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, Santa Maria sopra Minerva and Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore), or other churches of Italy, France, and Germany.

List of non-extant papal tombs

This is a list of non-extant papal tombs, which includes tombs not included on the list of extant papal tombs. Information about these tombs is generally incomplete and uncertain.

Chronologically, the main locations of destroyed or unknown papal tombs have been: the obscure tombs of the first two centuries of popes near Saint Peter, the repeated waves of translations from the Catacombs of Rome, the demolition of the papal tombs in Old St. Peter's Basilica, and the 1306 and 1361 fires in the Basilica of St. John Lateran.

Papal tombs have also been destroyed by other instances of fire, remodeling, and war (most recently, World War II). Others are unknown due to creative or geographically remote methods of martyrdom, or—in the case of Pope Clement I—both. Burial in churches outside the Aurelian Walls of Rome (Italian: fuori le Mura)—in the basilicas of Paul or Lorenzo—have not generally survived.

List of popes by country

This page is a list of popes by country of origin. They are listed in chronological order within each section.

As the office of pope has existed for almost two millennia, many of the countries of origin of popes no longer exist, and so they are grouped under their modern equivalents. Popes from Italy are in a separate section, given the very large number of popes from that peninsula.

List of popes who died violently

A collection of popes who have had violent deaths through the centuries. The circumstances have ranged from martyrdom (Pope Stephen I) to war (Lucius II), to a beating by a jealous husband (Pope John XII). A number of other popes have died under circumstances that some believe to be murder, but for which definitive evidence has not been found.

Mysterii Paschalis

Mysterii Paschalis is an apostolic letter issued motu proprio (that is, "of his own accord") by Pope Paul VI on 14 February 1969. It reorganized the liturgical year of the Roman Rite and revised the liturgical celebrations of Jesus Christ and the saints in the General Roman Calendar.

Saint Peter's tomb

Saint Peter's tomb is a site under St. Peter's Basilica that includes several graves and a structure said by Vatican authorities to have been built to memorialize the location of Saint Peter's grave. St. Peter's tomb is near the west end of a complex of mausoleums that date between about AD 130 and AD 300. The complex was partially torn down and filled with earth to provide a foundation for the building of the first St. Peter's Basilica during the reign of Constantine I in about AD 330. Though many bones have been found at the site of the 2nd-century shrine, as the result of two campaigns of archaeological excavation, Pope Pius XII stated in December 1950 that none could be confirmed to be Saint Peter's with absolute certainty. Following the discovery of bones that had been transferred from a second tomb under the monument, on June 26, 1968, Pope Paul VI claimed that the relics of Saint Peter had been identified in a manner considered convincing.The grave claimed by the Church to be that of Saint Peter lies at the foot of the aedicula beneath the floor. The remains of four individuals and several farm animals were found in this grave. In 1953, after the initial archeological efforts had been completed, another set of bones were found that were said to have been removed without the archeologists' knowledge from a niche (loculus) in the north side of a wall (the graffiti wall) that abuts the red wall on the right of the aedicula. Subsequent testing indicated that these were the bones of a 60- to 70-year-old man. Margherita Guarducci argued that these were the remains of Saint Peter and that they had been moved into a niche in the graffiti wall from the grave under the aedicula "at the time of Constantine, after the peace of the church" (313). Antonio Ferrua, the archaeologist who headed the excavation that uncovered what is known as Saint Peter's Tomb, said that he wasn't convinced that the bones that were found were those of Saint Peter.The upper image shows the area of the lower floor of St. Peter's Basilica that lies above the site of Saint Peter's tomb. A portion of the aedicula that was part of Peter's tomb rose above level of this floor and was made into the Niche of the Pallium which can be seen in the center of the image.


Valentinianism was one of the major Gnostic Christian movements. Founded by Valentinus in the second century AD, its influence spread widely, not just within Rome, but also from Northwest Africa to Egypt through to Asia Minor and Syria in the east.Later in the movement's history it broke into an Eastern and a Western school. Disciples of Valentinus continued to be active into the 4th century AD, after the Roman Empire was declared to be Christian.Valentinus and the Gnostic movement that bore his name were considered threats to proto-orthodox Christianity by church leaders and scholars, not only because of their influence, but also because of their doctrine, practices and beliefs. Gnostics were condemned as heretics, and prominent Church fathers such as Irenaeus of Lyons and Hippolytus of Rome wrote against Gnosticism. Most evidence for the Valentinian theory comes from its critics and detractors, most notably Irenaeus, since he was especially concerned with refuting Valentinianism.

Valentinus (Gnostic)

Valentinus (also spelled Valentinius; c. AD 100 – c. 160) was the best known and, for a time, most successful early Christian gnostic theologian. He founded his school in Rome. According to Tertullian, Valentinus was a candidate for bishop of Rome but started his own group when another was chosen.Valentinus produced a variety of writings, but only fragments survive, largely those embedded in refuted quotations in the works of his opponents, not enough to reconstruct his system except in broad outline. His doctrine is known to us only in the developed and modified form given to it by his disciples. He taught that there were three kinds of people, the spiritual, psychical, and material; and that only those of a spiritual nature received the gnosis (knowledge) that allowed them to return to the divine Pleroma, while those of a psychic nature (ordinary Christians) would attain a lesser or uncertain form of salvation, and that those of a material nature were doomed to perish.Valentinus had a large following, the Valentinians. It later divided into an Eastern and a Western, or Italian, branch. The Marcosians belonged to the Western branch.

1st–4th centuries
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
5th–8th centuries
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
9th–12th centuries
Papal selection before 1059
Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
13th–16th centuries
Viterbo (1257–1281)
Orvieto (1262–1297)
Perugia (1228–1304)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
Western Schism (1378–1417)
Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)
Reformation Papacy (1534–1585)
Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)
17th–20th centuries
Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848)
Roman Question (1870–1929)
Vatican City (1929–present)
21st century
History of the papacy
Virgin Mary
See also

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