Pope Honorius II

Pope Honorius II (9 February 1060 – 13 February 1130), born Lamberto Scannabecchi,[2] was Pope from 21 December 1124 to his death in 1130.

Although from a humble background, his obvious intellect and outstanding abilities saw him promoted up through the ecclesiastical hierarchy. Attached to the Frangipani family of Rome, his election as pope was contested by a rival candidate, Celestine II, and force was used to guarantee his election.

Honorius' pontificate was concerned with ensuring that the privileges the Roman Catholic Church had obtained through the Concordat of Worms were preserved and, if possible, extended. He was the first pope to confirm the election of the Holy Roman Emperor. Distrustful of the traditional Benedictine order, he favoured new monastic orders, such as the Augustinians and the Cistercians, and sought to exercise more control over the larger monastic centres of Monte Cassino and Cluny Abbey. He also approved the new military order of the Knights Templar in 1128.

Honorius II failed to prevent Roger II of Sicily from extending his power in southern Italy and was unable to stop Louis VI of France from interfering in the affairs of the French church. Like his predecessors, he managed the wide-ranging affairs of the church through Papal Legates. With his death in 1130, the Church was again thrown into confusion with the election of two rival popes, Innocent II and the antipope Anacletus II.

Pope

Honorius II
Pope Honorius II
Papacy began21 December 1124
Papacy ended13 February 1130
PredecessorCallixtus II
SuccessorInnocent II
Orders
Consecration1117
Created cardinal1099
by Pope Urban II
Personal details
Birth nameLamberto Scannabecchi
Born9 February 1060
Fiagnano, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Died13 February 1130
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Previous post[1]
Other popes named Honorius
Papal styles of
Pope Honorius II
Emblem of the Papacy SE
Reference styleHis Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous stylenone

Early life

Lamberto was of simple rural origins, hailing from Fiagnano in the Casalfiumanese commune, near Imola in present-day Italy.[2] Entering into an ecclesiastical career, he soon became archdeacon of Bologna,[2] where his abilities eventually saw him attract the attention of Pope Urban II,[3] who presumably appointed him cardinal priest of the Titulus St. Praxedis in 1099. His successor, Pope Paschal II, made Lamberto a Canon of the Lateran[4] before elevating him to the position of cardinal bishop of Ostia in 1117.[2] Lamberto was one of the cardinals who accompanied Pope Gelasius II into exile in 1118–19 and was at his bedside when Gelasius died.[3]

With Gelasius’ death at Cluny on January 29, 1119, Cardinal Lamberto and Cardinal Cono (Bishop of Palestrina) conducted the election of a new pope according to the canons. Cardinal Lamberto carried out the coronation of Guy de Bourgogne at Vienne on February 9, 1119, and became a close advisor of Pope Callixtus II.[2] Accompanying Callixtus throughout France, he assisted Callixtus in his initial dealings with Holy Roman Emperor Henry V.[3] As a well-known opponent of the emperor's right to select bishops in his territories (the Investiture Controversy), Lamberto was a natural choice for papal legate. He was sent in 1119 to deal with Henry V and delegated with powers to come to an understanding concerning the right of investiture.[3]

Forceful and determined, he summoned the bishops of the Holy Roman Empire to attend an assembly at Mainz on 8 September 1122. He expected absolute obedience, so much so that it took the mediation of Archbishop Adalbert of Mainz to prevent the suspension of Saint Otto of Bamberg for non-attendance.[5] The struggle came to a conclusion with the Concordat of Worms in 1122 and the "Pactum Calixtinum" that was almost entirely due to Lamberto's efforts[5] was effected on 23 September 1123.

Pontificate

Conclave of 1124

Pressures building within the Curia, together with ongoing conflicts among the Roman nobility, would erupt after the death of Callixtus II in 1124.[6] The pontificates of Urban II and Paschal II saw an expansion in the College of Cardinals of Italian clerics that strengthened the local Roman influence. These cardinals were reluctant to meet with the batch of cardinals recently promoted by Callixtus II, who were mainly French or Burgundian.[6] As far as the older cardinals were concerned, these newer cardinals were dangerous innovators, and they were determined to resist their increasing influence.[6] The northern cardinals, led by Cardinal Aymeric de Bourgogne (the Papal Chancellor), were equally determined to ensure that the elected pope would be one of their candidates.[6] Both groups looked towards the great Roman families for support.

Coliseo medieval
The area of medieval Rome controlled by the Frangipani family

By 1124, there were two great factions dominating local politics in Rome: the Frangipani family, which controlled the region around the fortified Colosseum and supported the northern cardinals,[6] and the Pierleoni family, which controlled the Tiber Island and the fortress of the Theatre of Marcellus and supported the Italian cardinals.[7] With Callixtus II's death on 13 December 1124, both families agreed that the election of the next pope should be in three days time, in accordance with the church canons. The Frangipani, led by Leo Frangipani, pushed for the delay in order that they could promote their preferred candidate, Lamberto,[7] but the people were eager to see Saxo de Anagni, the Cardinal-Priest of San Stefano in Celiomonte elected as the next pope.[7] Leo, eager to ensure a valid election, approached key members of every Cardinal's entourage, promising each one that he would support their master when the voting for the election was underway.[8]

On 16 December, all the Cardinals, including Lamberto, assembled in the chapel of the monastery of St. Pancratius attached to the south of the Lateran basilica.[8] There, at the suggestion of Jonathas, the Cardinal-Deacon of Santi Cosma e Damiano, who was a partisan of the Pierleoni family,[6] the Cardinals unanimously elected as Pope the Cardinal-Priest of Sant’ Anastasia, Theobaldo Boccapecci, who took the name Celestine II.[4] He had only just put on the red mantle and the Te Deum was being sung when an armed party of Frangipani supporters (in a move pre-arranged with Cardinal Aymeric)[6] burst in, attacked the newly enthroned Celestine, who was wounded, and acclaimed Lamberto as Pope.[4] Since Celestine had not been formally consecrated pope, the wounded candidate declared himself willing to resign, but the Pierleoni family and their supporters refused to accept Lamberto,[6] who in the confusion had been proclaimed Pope under the name Honorius II.[9]

Rome descended into factional infighting, while Cardinal Aymeric and Leo Frangipani attempted to win over the resistance of Urban, the City Prefect, and the Pierleoni family with bribes and extravagant promises.[6] Eventually, Celestine's supporters abandoned him, leaving Honorius the only contender for the papal throne.[9] Honorius, unwilling to accept the throne in such a manner, resigned his position before all of the assembled Cardinals,[9] but was immediately and unanimously re-elected and consecrated on 21 December 1124.[6]

Papacy

Relations with the Holy Roman Empire

Honorius immediately came into conflict with Emperor Henry V over imperial claims in Italy.[10] In 1116, Henry had crossed the Alps to lay claim to the Italian territories of Matilda of Tuscany, which she had supposedly left to the papacy on her death.[11] Henry had immediately begun appointing imperial vicars throughout the newly acquired province over the objections of both the Tuscan cities and the papacy.[11] To maintain papal claims to Tuscany, Honorius appointed Albert, a papal marquis, to rule in the pope's name in opposition to the imperial Margrave of Tuscany, Conrad von Scheiern.[11] In addition, Henry V made very little effort to implement the terms of the Concordant of Worms, to Honorius II's irritation.[11] Local churches were forced to appeal to Rome to obtain restitution from the imperial bishops who had taken advantage of the Investiture Controversy to obtain property for their own benefit, as the Emperor turned a blind eye.[12]

Urkunde Wormser Konkordat
The Concordat of Worms, which Honorius II helped to draft and which Emperor Lothair III was forced to comply with for Papal support

The death of Emperor Henry V on 23 May 1125 put an end to these squabbles, but soon Honorius was involved in a new power struggle in the Holy Roman Empire. Henry died childless and had nominated his nephew Frederick Hohenstaufen, Duke of Swabia, to succeed him as King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperor.[13] Of the German princes, the ecclesiastical faction was against any expansion of Hohenstaufen power,[6] and they were determined to ensure that Frederick would not succeed Henry. Led by Archbishop Adalbert of Mainz, the Archchancellor of the empire, and under the watchful gaze of two papal legates, Cardinals Gherardo and Romano, the clerical and lay nobles of the empire elected Lothair of Supplinburg, Duke of Saxony.[14] At Lothair's request,[6] Cardinal Gherardo and two bishops then sent word to Rome to obtain Honorius’ confirmation of the election, which he granted.[14] This was a coup for Honorius, as such a confirmation had never occurred before,[6] and around July 1126 Honorius invited Emperor Lothair to Rome to obtain the imperial title.[14] Lothair was keen to keep Honorius on his side, keeping to the terms of the Concordat of Worms by not attending episcopal elections, agreeing that the investiture should only occur after the bishop's consecration, and that the oath of homage be replaced with an oath of fidelity.[6]

Lothair was unable to visit Rome immediately as Germany was rocked by the rebellion of the Hohenstaufen brothers, with Conrad Hohenstaufen elected anti-king in December 1127, followed by his descent into Italy and his crowning as King of Italy at Monza on 29 July 1128.[6] The German bishops, again led by Adalbert of Mainz, excommunicated Conrad, an act that was confirmed by Honorius in a synod held in Rome at Easter (22 April 1128).[15] Honorius also sent Cardinal John of Crema to Pisa to hold another synod that excommunicated Archbishop Anselm of Milan, who had crowned Conrad king.[6] Conrad found little help in Italy and with Honorius’ support, Lothair was able to keep his throne.[16]

One of the key ecclesiastical advisors of Lothair III was Saint Norbert of Xanten,[6] who travelled to Rome in early 1126[17] to seek the formal sanction from Honorius to establish a new monastic order, the Premonstratensian Order (also known as the Norbertines),[4] which Honorius agreed to do.[17]

Concerns in Campania

One of Honorius’ first tasks in southern Italy was to deal with the barons in the Campania who were molesting farmers and travellers at will with their armed bands.[18] In 1125, papal force brought to heel the lords of Ceccano. Papal armies took possession of various towns, including Maenza, Roccasecca and Trevi nel Lazio.[18] In 1128, Honorius’ forces successfully captured the town of Segni, which was also held by a local baron who died during its capture.[19] Honorius, however, was most concerned about the former papal stronghold at Fumone, which the nobles, who held it in the pope's name, had decided to keep possession of. The town fell in July 1125 after a siege of ten weeks.[18] When Honorius took possession of Fumone, he returned it, after taking safeguards, to its rebellious custodians and ordered that the Antipope Gregory VIII be transferred there from his previous lodgings at Monte Cassino.[20] With that, Honorius turned his attention to the powerful and independent-minded abbot of Monte Cassino, Oderisio di Sangro.

Honorius had a long-standing dislike of Oderisio going back to the time when Honorius was cardinal-bishop of Ostia.[21] Honorius had asked for permission from the abbot to allow him and his entourage permission to stay in the church of Santa Maria in Pallara, which was a traditional privilege belonging to the bishops of Ostia.[21] Oderisio refused, and Honorius never forgot the insult. These bad feelings were compounded in 1125, when Oderisio refused a request from Pope Honorius for some financial assistance after he had been enthroned.[21] Oderisio also mocked Honorius’ peasant background behind his back.[22]

Using reports that the abbot had been lining his own pockets rather than spending it on his monastery, Honorius publicly denounced Oderisio, calling him a soldier and a thief, not a monk.[22] When Atenulf, count of Aquino, brought accusations that Oderisio was aiming for the papacy, Honorius summoned Oderisio to Rome to answer the charges.[22] Three times Oderisio refused to answer the summons and so during Lent of 1126, Honorius deposed the abbot.[22] Oderisio refused to accept the deposition and continued to act as abbot, forcing Honorius to excommunicate him.[22] Oderisio fortified the monastery, as the people of the town of Cassino forcibly entered the monastery, and after an armed struggle forced the monks to declare Oderisio deposed and to elect another abbot in his place.[23] The monks elected Niccolo, the dean of the monastery.[22]

Determined to bring the Benedictines to heel,[6] Honorius insisted that the election of Niccolo was uncanonical, and demanded that Seniorectus, the provost of the monastery at Capua, be elected as abbot, to the fury of the Monte Cassino monks.[24] In the meantime, open warfare was being waged between the supporters of Oderisio and Niccolo. Eventually, however, Honorius was able to secure not only the resignation of Oderisio, but he also excommunicated Niccolo for good measure.[24] He reassured the monks of his intentions, and in September 1127, he personally installed Seniorectus as abbot.[25] Honorius also insisted that the monks take an oath of fidelity to the papacy, but they strenuously objected.[25]

Conflict with Roger II of Sicily

Roger II Sicily
Roger II of Sicily who forced Pope Honorius II to grant him the Duchy of Apulia

Matters to the south of Monte Cassino soon occupied Honorius’ attention. In July 1127, William II, Duke of Apulia, died childless, and almost immediately his cousin King Roger II of Sicily sailed to the mainland to occupy the duchies of Apulia and Calabria.[6] Roger claimed that William had nominated him his heir,[19] while Honorius stated that William had left his territory to the Holy See.[26] Honorius had just suffered a defeat at the hands of a local baron at Arpino in 1127 when Honorius received word that Roger had landed in Italy.[26] He rushed to Benevento to prevent the local Normans from reaching an agreement with Roger.[26] Roger in the meantime had rapidly overrun the duchy of Apulia and had sent Honorius lavish gifts, asking the Pope to recognise him as the new duke and promising to hand over Troia and Montefusco in exchange.[26] Honorius, fearing the expansion of Norman power to the south under one dominating ruler, threatened to excommunicate Roger if he persisted.[26] In the meantime, many of the local Norman nobles, fearful of Roger's power, allied themselves with Honorius, as Honorius formally excommunicated Roger in November 1127.[27] Roger left his armies threatening Benevento, while he returned to Sicily for reinforcements. Honorius in the meantime entered into an alliance with the new Prince of Capua, Robert II. On 30 December 1127, Honorius preached a crusade against Roger II after having anointed Robert as Prince of Capua.[27]

Roger returned in May 1128 and continued to harass papal strongholds while avoiding any direct confrontation with Honorius’ forces. In July 1128, the two armies came in contact with each other on the banks of the Bradano, but Roger refused to engage, believing that the papal armies would soon fall apart, and soon enough some of the Pope's allies began deserting to Roger.[28] Trying to salvage something of the situation, Honorius sent his trusted advisor Cardinal Aymeric together with Cencio II Frangipane to negotiate with Roger secretly.[6] Honorius agreed to invest Roger with the duchy of Apulia in exchange for an oath of faith and homage by Roger.[6]

Honorius travelled to Benevento, and after safeguarding the interests of Robert of Capua,[28] he met Roger on the Pons Major, the bridge which crosses the Sabbato river near Benevento, on 22 August 1128. There, he formally invested Roger with the duchy of Apulia and both agreed to a peace between the Kingdom of Sicily and the Papal States.[6] Unfortunately, Honorius had just returned to Rome when he was informed that the nobles of Benevento had overthrown and killed the rector (or papal governor) of the city and established a Commune.[29] Furious, he declared he would wreak a terrible vengeance on the city, whereupon the residents asked Honorius for forgiveness and to send another governor.[29] Honorius sent Cardinal Gherardo as the new rector, and in 1129 visited the city again, asking that the city allow the return of those they had banished during the formation of the Commune. They refused, and Honorius asked Roger II of Sicily to punish the city in May 1130, but Honorius died before action was taken.[29]

Intervention in France

Aside from the Benedictines at Monte Cassino, Honorius was also determined to deal with the monks at Cluny Abbey under their ambitious and worldly abbot, Pons of Melgueil.[6] He had just returned from the Levant after being forced out by his monks in 1122.[30] In 1125, accompanied by an armed following, Pons took possession of Cluny Abbey, melted down the treasures stored in the monastery, and paid his followers, who continued to terrorise the monks and the villages dependent upon the abbey.[30]

Honorius, on hearing news of the disorders at Cluny, sent a legate to investigate with orders to excommunicate and denounce Pons and order him to present himself before Honorius.[31] Pons eventually obeyed the summons, and was deposed by Honorius in 1126[6] before being imprisoned in the Septizodium, where he soon died.[32] Honorius personally reinvested Peter the Venerable as Abbot of Cluny.[32]

Honorius soon became involved in the quarrel between King Louis VI of France and the French bishops.[6] Stephen of Senlis, the Bishop of Paris, had been heavily influenced by the reforming zeal of Bernard of Clairvaux, and actively sought to remove royal influence in the French church.[33] Louis confiscated Stephen's wealth and began harassing him so that he would cease his reforming activities.[33] At the same time, Louis also had in his sights Henri Sanglier, the Archbishop of Sens, who had also joined the reformers.[34] Charging Henri with simony, Louis attempted to remove another threat from within the French church.[34] Bernard of Clairvaux wrote to Honorius asking him to intervene on behalf of both men and support church independence over the claims of royal jurisdiction and interference.[35]

Louis VI of France
King Louis VI of France whose fight with the bishops of France forced Honorius to intervene to secure a measure of peace

Royal pressure was also brought to bear on Hildebert of Lavardin, whom Honorius had transferred from the see of Le Mans to become the Archbishop of Tours in 1125.[36] In 1126, Louis insisted on filling episcopal vacancies in the See of Tours with his own candidates over Hildebert's objections.[37] Hildebert also complained to Honorius about the constant appeals to Rome whenever he made a ruling.[38]

In response to the king's actions, the French bishops laid an interdict on the diocese of Paris, causing Louis to write to Honorius, who suspended the interdict in 1129.[39] Although this incurred the wrath of Bernard of Clairvaux, who wrote to Honorius expressing his disgust,[39] Honorius pressured Stephen of Senlis to become reconciled with King Louis in 1130.[34] Henri Sanglier, on the other hand, continued in his role of archbishop without further interference from the king.[35] By the end of his pontificate, Honorius had ended the conflict between Louis and his bishops.[6]

In 1127, Honorius confirmed the acts of the Synod of Nantes, presided over by Archbishop Hildebert of Lavardin, which eradicated certain local abuses in Brittany.[40] That same year, Honorius helped Conan III, Duke of Brittany, bring one of his rebellious vassals to heel.[41] He also intervened on behalf of the monks of the Lérins Islands who were constantly harassed by Arab pirates, encouraging a crusade to help defend the monks.[42]

Honorius was also called to intervene in the affairs of Normandy, as Fulk of Anjou and King Henry I of England battled for domination. Henry objected to the marriage of Fulk's daughter Sibylla of Anjou to William Clito, the son of the duke of Normandy, on the grounds that they were too closely related by blood, being sixth cousins.[43] They refused to divorce, and Honorius was forced to excommunicate Fulk and his son-in-law and to impose an interdict upon their territories.[44]

Relations with England and Spain

In England, the ongoing dispute between the Sees of Canterbury and York over primacy continued unabated. On 5 April 1125, Honorius wrote to Thurstan, Archbishop of York, advising him that Honorius planned to settle the issue personally.[45] He sent a legate, Cardinal John of Crema, to deal with the question of primacy, as well as other jurisdictional issues between Canterbury and Wales, and between York, Scotland and Norway.[45] Honorius wrote to the clergy and nobles of England, directing them to treat his legate as if he were Honorius himself.[45]

In Honorius's name, John of Crema convened the Synod of Roxburgh in 1125. In a letter written to King David I of Scotland, the king was asked to send the bishops of Scotland to the Council, which discussed the claims of the Archbishop of York to have jurisdiction over the church in Scotland.[46] Upholding the claims of York, Honorius was unsuccessful in forcing the Scottish bishops to obey Archbishop Thurstan.[47]

Next, John convened the Synod of Westminster in September 1125, which was attended by both the archbishops of Canterbury and York, together with twenty bishops and forty abbots.[48] Although the synod issued rulings on the forbidding of simony and of holding multiple sees at the same time, it did not touch on the vexed question of primacy between Canterbury and York.[49] Instead, John summoned the two prelates to travel with him to Rome to discuss the matter in person before Honorius.[50] They arrived in late 1125 and were greeted warmly by Honorius, and they remained in Rome until early 1126. While there, Honorius ruled that the Bishop of St Andrews was to be subject to the Archbishop of York[47] and in the more contentious issue, he attempted to circumvent his way around the problem by declaring that Thurstan was subject to William de Corbeil, not in his role as Archbishop of Canterbury, but as papal legate for England and Scotland.[51] To emphasise this, Honorius decreed that the Archbishop of Canterbury could not ask for any oath of obedience from the Archbishop of York, and in the matter of honorary distinction, it was the Archbishop of Canterbury in his role as Legate that was the most elevated ecclesiastic in the kingdom.[51]

Urban of Llandaff also travelled to Rome on numerous occasions to meet with Honorius throughout 1128 and 1129, to plead his case that his diocese should not be subject to the see of Canterbury. Although he obtained numerous privileges for his see and Honorius always spoke encouragingly to him, Honorius avoided having to make a decision that might alienate the powerful archbishops of Canterbury.[52]

In Spain, Honorius was deeply suspicious of the ambitions of Diego Gelmírez, the Archbishop of Compostela.[53] Although Pope Callixtus II had made him Papal Legate of a number of Spanish provinces, Honorius informed Diego that he had been made aware of Diego's ambitions and subtly advised him to keep his ambition in check.[53] Still hoping to be promoted to the office of Legate of Spain, Diego sent envoys to Rome, carrying with them 300 gold Almoravid coins, two hundred and twenty for Honorius and another eighty for the Curia.[53] Honorius repeated that his hands were tied, as he had just appointed a cardinal for that post.[54]

Nevertheless, Honorius was not prepared to completely alienate Diego, and when the Archbishop of Braga nominated a successor to the vacant See of Coimbra, Honorius reprimanded the archbishop for usurping the rights of Diego, who should have been the one to nominate a successor.[54] Honorius also demanded that the Archbishop of Braga present himself before Honorius on the second Sunday after Easter in 1129 to answer for his actions.[54] Honorius also ensured that Diego should play a leading role in the Synod of Carrión (February 1130), having his legate approach Diego and ask for his assistance during the synod.[55]

Honorius also wished to promote the ongoing struggle against the Moors in Spain, and to that end he bestowed the city of Tarragona, which had been recently captured from the Moors, to Robert d'Aguiló.[56][57] Robert travelled to Rome to receive the gift from Honorius in 1128.[57]

Establishment of the Templars and affairs in the East

Institution de l Ordre du Temple 1128 par Granet
Pope Honorius II granting official recognition to the Knights Templar in 1128

In 1119, a new religious order had been established by some French noblemen. Called the Knights Templar, they were to protect Christian pilgrims entering the Holy Land and to defend the conquests of the Crusades. However, by the pontificate of Honorius II, they had not yet received any official sanction from the papacy.[58] To rectify this situation, some members of the order appeared before the Council of Troyes in 1129, where the Council expressed its approval of the order and commissioned Bernard of Clairvaux to draw up the order's rules, which now included vows of poverty, chastity and obedience.[59] The order and the rules were subsequently approved by Honorius.[60]

Honorius, as suzerain of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, re-confirmed the election of King Baldwin II of Jerusalem and established him as the royal parton of the Templars.[61] Honorius tried to manage as best he could the rivalries of the different princes and high-ranking ecclesiastics that were destabilising the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem.[61] Long-standing arguments over areas of jurisdiction between the Latin Patriarchs of Antioch and Jerusalem were a constant source of irritation to Honorius.[61] Honorius supported the claims of William of Malines, the new Archbishop of Tyre who claimed jurisdiction over some of the sees that had traditionally belonged to Bernard of Valence, the Patriarch of Antioch.[62] Bernard refused to give up his claims to the sees, and William travelled to Rome and presented his case before Honorius. The pope sent a legate back to Palestine with instructions that Bernard was to acquiesce and that the various bishops were to submit to William of Malines within forty days.[63] Bernard managed to resist implementing Honorius's instructions, and soon Honorius was too ill to do anything about it.[63]

Death of Honorius II

After almost a year of suffering a painful illness,[64] Honorius fell seriously ill in early 1130.[6] Cardinal Aymeric and the Frangipani family began planning their next moves, and Honorius was taken to the San Gregorio Magno al Celio monastery, which was located in the territory controlled by the Frangipani.[6] Supporters of the Pierleoni family, already preparing to back Pietro Pierleoni[65] on a rumor that Honorius had died, stormed the monastery of the dying Honorius, hoping to force the election of Pietro.[66] Only the sight of the still living Honorius in full pontifical robes forced them to disperse.[66]

Nevertheless, Cardinal Aymeric's plans had not yet reached fruition when Honorius died on the evening of 13 February 1130.[6] The cardinals supporting the Frangipani immediately closed the monastery gates and refused to allow anyone inside.[66] The next day, and contrary to the usual customs, Honorius was quickly buried without any pomp or ceremony in the monastery, as the hand-picked cardinals got around to electing Gregorio Papareschi, who took the name Pope Innocent II.[6] At the same time, the excluded cardinals, most of whom were supporters of the Pierleoni family, elected Pietro Pierleoni, who took the name Anacletus II, throwing the church once again into schism.[67] Honorius eventually transferred from the monastery to the Lateran for reburial once Innocent II had been elected.[6] He was buried in the south transept next to the body of Callixtus II.[66]

Legacy

The way in which Honorius was elected meant that he became a creature, not only of Cardinal Aymeric,[6] but also of the Frangipani family.[68] Aymeric expanded his powerbase further, with Honorius elevating mostly non-Roman candidates to the college of cardinals,[6] while Papal legates were now chosen solely within the papal circle.[6] Honorius favoured the newer monastic orders, such as the Augustinians, a departure from the policies of the older Gregorian popes who favoured traditional orders such as the Benedictines.[6]

At the same time, he found himself drawn into the continued chaos of local Roman politics,[68] as the Frangipani enjoyed their influence at the papal court, while the Pierleoni family continually fought against them and against Honorius. Their ceaseless infighting, repressed during the pontificate of Calixtus II, broke out again, and Honorius found he did not have the resources to suppress the Pierleoni, nor the authority to rein in the Frangipani. Honorius was required to engage in a number of petty wars in Rome, which wasted his time and were in the long haul unsuccessful in restoring order in the streets.[68] The continued chaos would be instrumental in the events that saw the resurrection of Republican sentiment in the city and the eventual establishment of the Commune of Rome in the following decade.

See also

Sources

  • Bergamo, Mario da (1968) OFM Cist. [Luigi Pellegrini], "La duplice elezione papale del 1130: I precedenti immediati e i protagonisti," Contributi dell' Istituto di Storia Medioevale, Raccolta di studi in memoria di Giovanni Soranzo II (Milan), 265–302.
  • Catholic Encyclopedia: Honorius II[1]
  • Duffy, Eamon (2001). Saints and Sinners: A History of the Popes. Yale University Press. pp. 140–141. ISBN 978-0-300-09165-6.
  • Gregorovius, Ferdinand (1896) History of Rome in the Middle Ages, Volume IV. 2 second edition, revised (London: George Bell).
  • Hüls, Rudolf (1977) Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049–1130 (Tübingen) [Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom, Band 48].
  • Levillain, Philippe (2002) The Papacy: An Encyclopedia, Vol II: Gaius-Proxies, Routledge
  • Mann, Horace K. (1925) The Lives of the Popes in the Middle Ages, Vol 8
  • Pandulphus Pisanus (1723) "Vita Calisti Papae II," "Vita Honorii II," Ludovico Antonio Muratori (editor), Rerum Italicarum Scriptores III. 1 (Milan), pp. 418–419; 421–422.
  • Stroll, Mary (1987) The Jewish Pope (New York: Brill 1987).
  • Stroll, Mary (2005) Calixtus II (New York: Brill 2005).
  • Thomas, P. C. (2007) A Compact History of the Popes, St Pauls BYB

References

  1. ^ a b Catholic Encyclopedia: Honorius II
  2. ^ a b c d e Levillain, pg. 731
  3. ^ a b c d Mann, pg. 234
  4. ^ a b c d Thomas, pg. 90
  5. ^ a b Mann, pg. 235
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai Levillain, pg. 732
  7. ^ a b c Mann, pg. 231
  8. ^ a b Mann, pg. 232
  9. ^ a b c Mann, pg. 233
  10. ^ Mann, pg. 237
  11. ^ a b c d Mann, pg. 238
  12. ^ Mann, pg. 239
  13. ^ Mann, pg. 240
  14. ^ a b c Mann, pg. 241
  15. ^ Mann, pg. 242
  16. ^ Mann, pg. 243
  17. ^ a b Mann, pg. 244
  18. ^ a b c Mann, pg. 246
  19. ^ a b Mann, pg. 252
  20. ^ Mann, pg. 247
  21. ^ a b c Mann, pg. 248
  22. ^ a b c d e f Mann, pg. 249
  23. ^ Mann, pgs. 249–250
  24. ^ a b Mann, pg. 250
  25. ^ a b Mann, pg. 251
  26. ^ a b c d e Mann, pg. 253
  27. ^ a b Mann, pg. 254
  28. ^ a b Mann, pg. 255
  29. ^ a b c Mann, pg. 256
  30. ^ a b Mann, pg. 260
  31. ^ Mann, pgs. 260–261
  32. ^ a b Mann, pg. 261
  33. ^ a b Mann, pg. 262
  34. ^ a b c Mann, pg. 264
  35. ^ a b Mann, pg. 265
  36. ^ Mann, pg. 266
  37. ^ Mann, pg. 267
  38. ^ Mann, pg. 269
  39. ^ a b Mann, pg. 263
  40. ^ Mann, pg. 268
  41. ^ Mann, pgs. 268–269
  42. ^ Mann, pg. 271
  43. ^ Mann, pg. 272
  44. ^ Mann, pg. 274
  45. ^ a b c Mann, pg. 285
  46. ^ Mann, pg. 286
  47. ^ a b Mann, pg. 287
  48. ^ Mann, pg. 290
  49. ^ Mann, pgs. 290–291
  50. ^ Mann, pg. 291
  51. ^ a b Mann, pg. 292
  52. ^ Mann, pg. 289
  53. ^ a b c Mann, pg. 293
  54. ^ a b c Mann, pg. 294
  55. ^ Mann, pgs. 294–295
  56. ^ Elizabeth Van Houts, The Normans in Europe, (Manchester University Press, 2000), 271.
  57. ^ a b Mann, pg. 296
  58. ^ Mann, pg. 297
  59. ^ Mann, pg. 298
  60. ^ Mann, pg. 299
  61. ^ a b c Mann, pg. 300
  62. ^ Mann, pg. 301
  63. ^ a b Mann, pg. 302
  64. ^ Mann, pg. 303
  65. ^ Levillain, pg. 733
  66. ^ a b c d Mann, pg. 304
  67. ^ Levillain, pgs. 732–733
  68. ^ a b c Mann, pg. 236
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Callixtus II
Pope
1124–30
Succeeded by
Innocent II
1124 papal election

The papal election of 1124 (held 13–21 December) took place after the death of Pope Callixtus II and chose Pope Honorius II as his successor.

1130

Year 1130 (MCXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

1130 papal election

The papal election of 1130 (held February 14) was convoked after the death of Pope Honorius II and resulted in a double election. Part of the cardinals, led by Cardinal-Chancellor Aymeric de la Chatre, elected Gregorio Papareschi as Pope Innocent II, but the rest of them refused to recognize him and elected Cardinal Pietro Pierleoni, who took the name of Anacletus II. Although Anacletus had the support of the majority of the cardinals, the Catholic Church considers Innocent II as the legitimate Pope, and Anacletus II as Antipope.

The double election was a result of the growing tensions inside the College of Cardinals concerning the policy of the Holy See towards the Holy Roman Empire, initiated by the Concordat of Worms (1122), which ended the investiture controversy. Several, particularly older, cardinals considered the compromise achieved in Worms as desertion of the principles of the Gregorian Reform, and inclined to accept it only as a tactical move. They supported the traditional alliance of the Papacy with the Normans in southern Italy. Some of them were connected to old monastic centers in Southern Italy such as Montecassino. One of their leaders was Cardinal Pierleoni, representative of one of the most powerful families of Rome.The opposite faction was headed by Aymeric de la Chatre, who was named cardinal and chancellor of the Holy See shortly after signing the Concordat of Worms and was one of the main architects of the new policy. He and his adherents looked at the compromise as a good solution both for the Church and the Emperor, and did not trust the Norman vassals of the Holy See, who expressed some expansionist tendencies. It seems that at least some major representatives of this faction had strong connections to the "new spirituality", meaning the new religious orders such as regular canons. Besides, they were allied with the Roman family of Frangipani, opponents of the Pierleoni family.In the last weeks of the lifetime of Pope Honorius II the cardinals, fearing the possible schism, made an agreement that the new pope would be elected by the commission of eight of them, including two cardinal-bishops, three cardinal-priests and three cardinal-deacons.

Antipope Anacletus II

Anacletus II (died January 25, 1138), born Pietro Pierleoni, was an Antipope who ruled in opposition to Pope Innocent II from 1130 until his death in 1138. After the death of Pope Honorius II, the college of cardinals was divided over his successor. A majority of cardinals elected Pietro, while a minority elected Papareschi (Innocent II). This led to a major schism in the Roman Catholic Church. Anacletus had the support of most Romans, and the Frangipani family, and forced Innocent to flee to France. North of the Alps, Innocent gained the crucial support of St. Bernard of Clairvaux, Peter the Venerable, and Emperor Lothar III, leaving Anacletus with few patrons. Anacletus, with little remaining support, died in the middle of the crisis. In 1139 the second Lateran Council ended the schism, though opinion remained divided.

Antipope Celestine II

Celestine II (born Teobaldo Boccapecci or Boccapeconai, Latin: Thebaldus Buccapecuc) was an antipope for one day, December 16, 1124. He was considered legitimate, but nonetheless submitted to the opposing pope, Honorius II.

He was made a Cardinal Deacon by Paschal II. He was selected as pope in a confused and chaotic election, in which Theobald and another cardinal, Saxo, were supported by the Pierleoni family. During the process of Celestine's investment, Robert Frangipani and a body of troops broke into the church and proclaimed Lamberto Cardinal Scannabecchi (a man of considerable learning) pope.

On Celestine's resignation, Scannabecchi became Honorius II.

Cardinals created by Honorius II

Pope Honorius II (r. 1124-30) created 27 cardinals in six consistories held throughout his pontificate. This included his successors Anastasius IV and Celestine II both in 1127.

Gille Aldan

Gille (or Gilla) Aldan (Gaelic: "Servant of Saint Aldwin[e]"), of Whithorn, was a native Galwegian who was the first Bishop of the resurrected Bishopric of Whithorn or Galloway. He was the first to be consecrated by the Archbishop of York, who at that time was Thurstan. The re-creation of the Bishopric suited both the ruler of Galloway, Fergus, and the Archbishop, who had few suffragans and needed more in order to maintain his independence from Canterbury.

We have the record of a mandate by Pope Honorius II, dating to December in 1128, confirming that Gille Aldan should seek consecration from Thurstan. Richard Oram argues that the creation of the Bishopric of Whithorn probably encouraged the wrath and enmity of Bishop Wimund of the Isles, who seems to have regarded the area as his natural area of authority. William of Newburgh records that Wimund made an attack on another Bishop in order to extort tribute. If Oram is correct, and his victim was in fact Gilla Aldan, then this attack would make perfect sense, as Wimund's See was the obvious loser out of the deal done between Fergus and York.

Gilla Aldan's name is recorded for the last time in 1151, when he was told by Pope Eugene III to give homage to the new Archbishop of York, Henry Murdac. We know that Gille Aldan was dead by 1154, because in that year his successor Christian was consecrated.

Grimoald, Prince of Bari

Grimoald Alferanites was the prince of Bari from 1121 to 1132.

After a civil war broke out in Bari, Risone, the archbishop of the city, was murdered (1117) and the princess of Taranto, Constance of France, was imprisoned at Giovinazzo (1119) by Grimoald and Alexander, Count of Conversano. Pope Callistus II intervened to procure the release of Princess Constance in 1120, who recognised her captor in his later titles. During this conflict, Grimoald was elected ruler in 1121, in opposition to William II, Duke of Apulia, the proper legal suzerain of Bari. He first used the title dominus or dominator, as in barensium dominator in October 1121. In June 1123, a Byzantine-inspired blue diploma with gold script calls him Grimoaldus Alferanites gratia Dei et beati Nikolai barensis princeps.

In May 1122, he entered into an alliance with the Republic of Venice. In October 1127, he was drawn to the side of Roger II of Sicily in his claim to the Apulian succession. However, in 1129, Grimoald and several other notable barons in Apulia flew into revolt after the papal approval of Roger's title by Pope Honorius II. With a fleet of sixty ships, George of Antioch blockaded the Bariot harbour and besieged Grimoald for months from Spring to August, when the prince finally gave in. Nevertheless, Grimoald was granted a full pardon from Roger and confirmed in his own chosen princely title. When, the next year (1130), Roger sought the royal title, receiving an honour higher than that of prince (as the rulers of Capua and Bari held) was one of his many motives.

Joined with Tancred of Conversano, an old ally and renegade, Grimoald rose up in revolt in 1131 and captured the port of Brindisi at Christmastime. It took until May 1132, after astronomic omens and papal urgings, for Roger to leave comfortable Sicily to go and deal with insurrection in Apulia. A brief siege convinced the Bariots to give up their prince and Grimoald and his whole family were given over on the city's surrender. The deposed prince was brought with his family to prison in Sicily and Tancred was only forgiven on condition he leave on Crusade. Grimoald was replaced by Roger's own son, Tancred.

According to Falco of Benevento, Grimoald was a vir mirabilis et bellicosi spiritus and Orderic Vitalis calls him liberalem et strenuum virum. It seems, from the dating of the events, that the prince of Bari who rescued the saintly Giovanni di Matera from prison and then demanded that the holy man give an account of his theology to prove its orthodoxy was Grimoald. He was known to have tight control over his own churches and was a great patron of the Church of Saint Nicholas which housed the relics of Saint Nicholas, whom he championed as a Bariot patron saint, as seen in his official title.

John Capellanus

John (died 1147) was an early 12th-century Tironensian cleric. He was the chaplain and close confidant of King David I of Scotland, before becoming Bishop of Glasgow and founder of Glasgow Cathedral. He was one of the most significant religious reformers in the history of Scotland. His later nickname Achaius, a latinisation of Eochaid would indicate that he was Gaelic, but the name is probably not authentic. He was in fact a Tironensian monk, of probable French origin, probably being taken to Scotland from David's lands in the Cotentin Peninsula.

While David was in the custody of King Henry I of England, he spent some time in northern France. David came to cultivate strong relations with the new Tironensian monastic order, and in 1113 established a Tironensian monastery at Selkirk Abbey. John may have either been the cause of this relationship, or perhaps its product. John was serving as David's chaplain until about 1116, and was appointed bishop of Glasgow sometime thereafter. John was involved in a dispute with the Archbishop of York, a dispute general to the David's kingdom. After the accession of Thurstan to the Archbishopric of York, John received several letters from Pope Callixtus II ordering him to render homage to this archbishop as his metropolitan. In 1122 Thurstan suspended John, an action which was obviously serious enough for John to travel to Rome to appeal. Afterwards John traveled on pilgrimage to Jerusalem, but in 1123 was ordered by the pope to return to his diocese. John traveled to Rome again in 1125 in order to secure a pallium, which would have elevated St Andrews to an archbishopric. Thurstan soon arrived in Rome himself, and this was probably enough to prevent Pope Honorius II granting the pallium.

On 9 December 1125 Honorius wrote a letter to John complaining that he had not yet obeyed the order to yield obedience to Thurstan, and again ordering him to do so. (Honorius wrote another letter on the same day to the Bishop-elect of Whithorn, ordering him to be consecrated by Thurstan at York). However John remained unwilling, and the year 1127 was set to continue discussion about the archbishop's rights, effectively stalling Thurstan's claims.

Nevertheless, York's claims continued to be pressed. In 1134, there was renewed papal pressure from Pope Innocent II to make submission. Perhaps it was for this reason that John gave his allegiance to the Antipope Anacletus II. The political situation had changed by 1135, and John's move had put him out of favour. In either 1136 or 1137 John abandoned his see to become a monk at Tiron. However, in 1138, the papal legate Alberic, bishop of Ostia recalled him to his see. John died in 1147, and was buried in Jedburgh Abbey. He was succeeded by another Tironensian, Herbert, Abbot of Selkirk/Kelso.

John's legacy was vast. His impact as a confidant of David was crucial to the growth of reformed monastic orders in the Kingdom of Scotland. Moreover, John himself presided over the monastic foundations of Selkirk (later Kelso Abbey, Kelso), Jedburgh and Lesmahagow. John's episcopate saw the beginnings of Glasgow cathedral.

Oderisio di Sangro

Oderisio di Sangro (died on August 30 of an uncertain year, probably 1137) - Italian Benedictine and cardinal, of the family of the counts of Marsi. He joined the order of St. Benedict at the abbey of Montecassino at a young age. About 1112 Pope Paschalis II created him cardinal-deacon of S. Agata; as such, he participated in the papal election of 1118. In 1123 he was elected abbot of Montecassino. Three years later he was deposed as abbot due to personal conflict with Pope Honorius II (1124–30). After the double papal election of 1130 he joined the obedience of Antipope Anacletus II and subscribed his bulls issued on February 8, 1131, and on March 10 of an uncertain year (1135–37).

Peter the Deacon

Peter the Deacon (French: Pierre le Diacre) was the librarian of the abbey of Montecassino and continuator of the Chronicon Monasterii Casinensis, usually called the Montecassino Chronicle in English. The chronicle was originally written by Leo of Ostia. According to both Chalandon and Lord Norwich, Peter is a poor historian and writer, much inferior to Leo.

Reputedly a descendant of the Counts of Tusculum, he was offered in 1115 to the monastery of Monte Cassino. About 1127 he was forced to leave the abbey and retired to the neighbouring Atina (Atina, Lazio), because he had supported Abbot Oderisius, who had been deposed by Pope Honorius II. In 1131 he returned to the abbey owing to the death of Pope Honorius. In 1137, he appeared before Emperor Lothair II, then in Italy, on behalf of his monastery. The sovereign was so pleased with him that he appointed him his chaplain and secretary, and would probably have attached him permanently to his person had not Abbot Wibald considered Peter's return necessary to the abbey.

In 1131 on his return to Monte Cassino Peter became librarian and keeper of the abbey archives, of which he compiled a cartulary (Registrum Petri Diaconi). Besides editing the existing chronicle of Monte Cassino (and introducing many falsehoods), he wrote several historical works: "De viris illustribus Casinensibus"; "De ortu et obitu justorum Casinensium"; "De Locis sanctis"; Disciplina Casinensis"; "Rhythmus de novissimis diebus".

Peter forged, under the name of Gordian, the Passion of St. Placidus. He is vain and occasionally untruthful, but an entertaining writer. His works are in Patrologia Latina, CLXXIII, 763-1144.

Pietro Senex

Pietro Senex (died 1134) was Cardinal-Bishop of Porto from 1102 until his death.

He was born probably in Rome. He appears for the first time as cardinal in March 1102, when he exercised the legatine duties in Benevento. From 1106 until 1109 he is attested as governor of Benevento. He belonged to the sixteen cardinals who confirmed the treaty of Ponte Mammolo between Pope Paschal II and Emperor Henry V (April 1111). He participated in the Lateran council in the following year. He subscribed the papal bulls between March 8, 1114 and April 10, 1129. Papal vicar at Rome, 1117–20. He participated in the papal election, 1118, in which pope Gelasius II was elected. In March 1119 he presided over the ratification by the Roman clergy of the election of Pope Callixtus II, made in Cluny by few cardinals present at the deathbed of Gelasius II. He served as legate of Callixtus II in Venice and Outremer. During the papal election, 1124 he unsuccessfully opposed the intervention of Roberto Frangipani, which resulted with the election of Pope Honorius II. He became dean of the College of Cardinals ca. 1126. In the papal election, 1130 he gave his vote to Pietro Pierleoni, who became antipope Anacletus II, and consecrated him to the episcopate on February 23, 1130. He subscribed the electoral decree of Anacletus on February 14, 1130, and the bulls issued by antipope on March 27 and April 24 of the same year. He died probably in 1134, at very advanced age, without making submission to the legitimate pope Innocent II.

Pope Honorius

Honorius has been the name of four Roman Catholic Popes and one Antipope. The name is of Latin origin, derived from honōrō ("honor, respect").

Pope Honorius I (625-638)

Antipope Honorius II (1061-1072)

Pope Honorius II (1124-1130)

Pope Honorius III (1216-1227)

Pope Honorius IV (1285-1287)

Radulf Novell

Radulf Novell was a 12th-century Anglo-Norman prelate. He was a native of York, and according to writings produced by the Archbishopric of York, was elected as Bishop of Orkney at St Peter's church in York by some representatives of the community of Orkney.

It is probable that Radulf had the support of the faction supporting Earl Magnus Erlendsson. Thus when Earl Magnus was murdered in 1115 Radulf's position in Orkney, whatever that was, would have come under serious pressure. There are letters from Pope Calixtus II to Kings Sigurd Jorsalfare and Eystein in 1119 instructing them to ensure that Radulf could maintain peaceful possession. A further letter of 1128, from Pope Honorius II, reveals that Radulf's possession was tenuous. King Sigurd is instructed to remove an intruder to the see, and ensure there be one bishop only.

These letters correspond with the beginning of Radulf's continuous presence in England. Radulf was a staunch supporter of Archbishop Thurstan of York. Radulf was present at Thurstan's consecration at Rheims on 19 October 1119. It was probably Thurstan's support and Radulf's presence at Rheims that produced Pope Calixtus' letters. Radulf does not, however, seem to have been able to regain his position in Orkney from the Lund appointee William the Old.

Radulf became a titular bishop, propping up the suffragan numbers of the Archbishop of York, as well as being an assistant to the Archbishop and the Bishop of Durham. An English chronicler wrote that he found himself in this position because he was unacceptable to the people, clergy and earl of Orkney. A speech rallying the English against the Scottish host at the Battle of the Standard in 1138 was famously attributed to him by some Anglo-Norman chroniclers. His name occurs for the last time in 1151, though the date of his death is not known.

In some American genealogies, this Bishop of Orkney is referred to as "Robert Nowell" and "was bishop of the Orkneys, never consecrated, curate under Bishop of York, and friend of Archbishop Thurston; led the English armies at the battle of the Standard at Northallerton; signed himself Nowellus Episcopus; living in 1154."

Robert II of Capua

Robert II (died 1156) was the count of Aversa and the prince of Capua from 1127 until his death .

He was the only son and successor of Jordan II of Capua. According to the Lombard chronicler Falco of Benevento, he was "of delicate constitution, he could endure neither labour nor hardship."

In the final month of 1127, Pope Honorius II came to Benevento to preach a crusade against Count Roger II of Sicily in order to prevent the union of his county with the duchy of Apulia (Duke William II being recently deceased). At the start of 1128, Honorius II granted investiture to Robert which made the principalities of Capua independent from Apulia. The pope endeavoured to gain Robert's loyalty to help defeat Roger II of Sicily in return for remissions of his sins. He was quickly recruited for the endeavour by the pope, who went to Capua for the ceremony. The pope probably hoped to use Capua as a counterpoise against Apulia, as in the days of Robert's grandfather and great grandfather. Likewise, Robert may have intended to be the chief papal protector, as his ancestors had been. However, he was weak-willed and he soon fell ill and wanted out. Eventually, the coalition commenced negotiations on Roger's arrival with an army. Honorius even successfully negotiated the independence of Capua. In 1129, however, Robert submissively surrendered suzerainty to the duke of Apulia and, the next year (on 25 December 1130) it was believed by Falco of Benevento that, as Roger's vassal-in-chief, laid the crown on his head at his royal coronation. This is difficult to believe as it was such a crucial role and Roger II would not have wanted Robert, as one of his vassals, to perform such an important task, even if he was one of the highest rank.In 1132, Robert rebelled with many other south Italian vassals of the king of Sicily and with the support of Pope Innocent II and his coalition of Louis VI of France, Henry I of England, and the Emperor Lothair II. Robert defeated Roger at the Battle of Nocera on 24 July, but Roger burnt Aversa and, by 1134, forced Ranulf, count of Alife, and the nominally Byzantine Duke Sergius VII of Naples to submit. Robert was given an ultimatum; if he wanted to keep his title, he must submit to Roger. After the death of Roger's wife, Elvira, and the false news of Roger's death, Robert went to Naples from Pisa with 8000 men. He was met by Rainulf and Duke Sergius when Roger arrived in June 1135, he again offered Robert a choice to keep his title. Roger made his third son Alfonso prince in his stead (1135).

Robert fled to Pisa, where he gathered a navy and made war against Roger in Sicily, but it was a stalemate. The Pisan fleet ravaged Amalfi and took much loot. Laden with this plunder and accompanied by a papal legation, Robert went to Germany to plead for the aid of the emperor. In Spring 1137, the emperor came down with Pope Innocent II; Henry the Proud, duke of Bavaria; and a large force. They took Benevento, Bari, and Capua itself, installing Ranulf as duke of Apulia and Robert in Capua, vindicating these actions in battle. But when the emperor left Italy, Roger sacked Capua yet again. On 25 July 1139, Robert and the pope were defeated in battle on the Garigliano, at Galluccio, ambushed by Roger. The pope was captured, though Robert escaped. They thereafter acknowledged him as principatus Capuae. He spent most of the next fifteen years in exile in Germany. When Alfonso died in 1144, Roger made his fourth son William prince. However, following Roger's death in 1154, there was a revolt on the mainland, led by Robert II of Basunvilla, cousin of the new king William I.When William was excommunicated by Pope Adrian IV, and with (unjustified) rumours that the Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa was set to invade southern Italy, Prince Robert was tempted to make a comeback. He swore homage to Adrian retook Capua (1155), taking advantage of William's serious illness. However, in the spring of 1156 William recovered and took a fleet to the mainland. He dealt, first, with the more serious threat from Robert of Basunvilla and the other Apulian and Campanian rebels, but then he turned to Capua. Robert was captured. He might have been executed as a traitor, but instead William sent him as a prisoner to Palermo, where he was possibly blinded.Robert left a son named Jordan who lived in Constantinople, where he served the Emperor Manuel I Comnenus as sebastos and diplomat. He journeyed to Rome in 1166-1167 to try and aid the reunion of the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches.

Second Council of the Lateran

The Second Council of the Lateran is believed to have been the tenth ecumenical council held by the Roman Catholic Church. It was convened by Pope Innocent II in April 1139 and attended by close to a thousand clerics. Its immediate task was to neutralise the after-effects of the schism which had arisen after the death of Pope Honorius II in 1130 and the papal election that year that established Pietro Pierleoni as the antipope Anacletus II.

Sibylla of Anjou

Sibylla of Anjou (c. 1112–1165) was a countess consort of Flanders. She was the daughter of Fulk V of Anjou and Ermengarde of Maine, and wife of William Clito and Thierry, Count of Flanders. She was the regent of Flanders in 1147-1149.

In 1123 Sibylla married William Clito, son of the Norman Robert Curthose and future Count of Flanders. Sibylla brought the County of Maine to this marriage, which was annulled in 1124 on grounds of consanguinity. The annulment was made by Pope Honorius II upon request from Henry I of England, William's uncle; Fulk opposed it and did not consent until Honorius excommunicated him and placed an interdict over Anjou. Sibylla then accompanied her widower father to the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, where he married Melisende, the heiress of the kingdom, and became king himself in 1131. In 1139 she married Thierry, Count of Flanders, who had arrived on his first pilgrimage to the Holy Land.

She returned to Flanders with her new husband, and during his absence on the Second Crusade the pregnant Sibylla acted as regent of the county. Baldwin IV, Count of Hainaut took the opportunity to attack Flanders, but Sibylla led a counter-attack and pillaged Hainaut. In response Baldwin ravaged Artois. The archbishop of Reims intervened and a truce was signed, but Thierry took vengeance on Baldwin when he returned in 1149.

In 1157 she travelled with Thierry on his third pilgrimage, but after arriving in Jerusalem she separated from her husband and refused to return home with him. She became a nun at the Convent of Sts. Mary and Martha in Bethany, where her step-aunt, Ioveta of Bethany, was abbess. Ioveta and Sibylla supported Queen Melisende and held some influence over the church, and supported the election of Amalric of Nesle as Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem over a number of other candidates. Sibylla died in Bethany in 1165.

William the Old

William the Old (Latin: Gulielmus Senex; died 1168) was a 12th-century prelate who became one of the most famous bishops of Orkney. Although his origins are obscure in detail, William was said to have been a "clerk of Paris". Saga tradition had it that William had been bishop for 66 years when he died in 1168, meaning that his accession to the bishopric would have been around 1102. There is no contemporary evidence of his episcopate until a letter of Pope Honorius II in 1128, which even then does not name William specifically, but rather only mentions a bishop holding office at the same time as Radulf Novell. He was however definitively in charge by December 1135 during the earldom of Earl Paul Haakonsson.Bishop William was a promoter of the cult of St Magnus, and was allegedly witness to some posthumous miraculous activity of the former earl. William had St Magnus' relics transferred to Kirkwall, fixing the episcopal seat at this location and, with the assistance of Earl Rognvald Kali Kolsson, constructing a new cathedral there. It was probably for these reasons that William was remembered in later Orcadian tradition, saga and ecclesiastical, as the founding bishop of Orkney. Along with Earl Rognvald, between 1151 and 1153 William went on pilgrimage to the Holy Land. In 1153/4 the bishopric of Orkney came firmly into the Scandinavian fold, as opposed to the York or St Andrews fold, when the Papal legate Nicholas Breakspear arrived in Norway to create a new Archbishopric of Trondheim (Niðaros) embracing the Orcadian see.

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