Pope Hilarius

Pope Hilarius (died 29 February 468) was Pope from 19 November 461 to his death in 468.

In 449, Hilarius served as a legate for Pope Leo I at the Second Council of Ephesus. His opposition to the condemnation of Flavian of Constantinople incurred the enmity of Dioscurus of Alexandria, who attempted to prevent him from leaving the city. Hilarius was able to make his escape and returned to Rome by an indirect route. He later erected an oratory at the Lateran in honor the St. John the Evangelist, to whom he attributed his safe passage.

Much of his pontificate was spent in maintaining ecclesiastical discipline in conformity with canon law, and in settling jurisdictional disputes among the bishops of both Gaul and Spain.

Pope Saint

Hilarius
Pope Hilarius
Papacy began19 November 461
Papacy ended29 February 468
PredecessorLeo I
SuccessorSimplicius
Personal details
Birth nameHilarius or Hilarus
BornSardinia, Western Roman Empire
Died29 February 468[1]
Rome, Western Roman Empire
BuriedSt. Lawrence outside the Walls
Sainthood
Feast day28 February
Venerated inCatholic Church

Biography

Hilarius was born in Sardinia.[2] As archdeacon under Pope Leo I, he fought vigorously for the rights of the Roman See.

Papal legate

In 449, he and Julius, Bishop of Puteoli, served as legates to the Second Council of Ephesus. Leo had sent a letter with the legates to be read at the council. However, the head notary declared that the emperor's letter should be read first and as the Council proceeded, Leo's letter ended up not being read at all. Hilarius vigorously opposed the condemnation of Flavian of Constantinople, pronouncing the single word in Latin, "Contradicitur", annulling the sentence in Leo's name.[3]

For this he incurred the displeasure of Dioscurus of Alexandria, who presided over the synod. Flavian died shortly afterwards, on August 11, 449, from injuries incurred from a physical assault by the followers of Dioscurus. According to a letter to the Empress Pulcheria collected among the letters of Leo I, Hilarius apologized for not delivering to her the pope's letter after the synod, but owing to Dioscurus of Alexandria, who tried to hinder his going either to Rome or to Constantinople, he had great difficulty in making his escape in order to bring to the pontiff the news of the result of the council.[4] Flavian and Eusebius of Dorylaeum appealed to the pope, and their letters were probably taken by Hilarus to Rome.[3]

Later, as Pope, he built two oratories in the baptistery of the Lateran, one in honor of St. John the Baptist, the other of St. John the Apostle, to whom he attributed his safe escape from the Council of Ephesus, thus satisfying the question as to which Saints John the Lateran had been dedicated.

Papacy

Nuremberg chronicles - Hilarius, Pope (CXXXVIv)
Pope Hilarius in the Nuremberg Chronicle

As pope, he continued the policy of his predecessor Leo who, in his contest with Hilary of Arles, had obtained from Valentinian III a famous rescript of 445 confirming the supremacy of the Bishop of Rome. Hilarius continued to strengthen ecclesiastical government in Gaul and Spain.[5]

Hermes, a former archdeacon of Narbonne, had illegally acquired the bishopric of that town. Two Gallican prelates were dispatched to Rome to lay before the pope this and other matters concerning the Church in Gaul. A Roman synod held on 19 November, 462, passed judgment upon these matters. Hilarius sent an Encyclical advising the provincial bishops of Vienne, Lyons, Narbonne, and the Alps that Hermes was to remain Titular Bishop of Narbonne, but his episcopal faculties were withheld.[4]

Other decisions expressed in an encyclical were in the interests of increased discipline. A synod was to be convened yearly by the Bishop of Arles, but all important matters were to be submitted to the Apostolic See. No bishop could leave his diocese without a written permission from his metropolitan, with a right of appeal to the Bishop of Arles. Respecting the parishes (paroeciae) claimed by Leontius, Bishop of Arles, as belonging to his jurisdiction, the Gallican bishops could decide, after an investigation. Church property could not be alienated until a synod had looked into the purpose of the sale.[4]

Shortly after this, the pope found himself involved in another diocesan quarrel. In 463, Mamertus of Vienne had consecrated a Bishop of Die, although this Church, by a decree of Leo I, belonged to the metropolitan Diocese of Arles. When Hilarius heard of it, he deputed Leontius of Arles to summon a great synod of the bishops of several provinces to investigate the matter. The synod took place and, on the strength of the report given him by Bishop Antonius, he issued an edict dated 25 February 464 in which Bishop Veranus was commissioned to warn Mamertus that, if in the future he did not refrain from irregular ordinations, his faculties would be withdrawn. Consequently, the consecration of the Bishop of Die would be sanctioned by Leontius of Arles. Thus the primatial privileges of the See of Arles were upheld as Leo I had defined them.[6] At the same time, the bishops were admonished not to overstep their boundaries and to assemble in a yearly synod presided over by the Bishop of Arles. The metropolitan rights of the See of Embrun over the dioceses of the Maritime Alps were protected against the encroachments of a certain Bishop Auxanius, particularly in connection with the two Churches of Nice and Cimiez.

Hilarius gave decisions to the churches of Hispania, which tended to operate outside the papal orbit in the 5th century. Silvanus, Bishop of Calahorra, had violated the church laws by his episcopal ordinations, and the pope was asked for his decision. Before an answer came to their petition, the same bishops had recourse to the Holy See for an entirely different matter. Before his death, Nundinarius, Bishop of Barcelona, expressed a wish that Irenaeus might be chosen his successor, and he himself had made Irenaeus bishop of another See. The request was granted and the Synod of Tarragona confirmed the nomination of Irenaeus, after which the bishops sought the pope's approval. The Roman synod of 19 November 465, held in the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore, which decided that Irenaeus, the nominated bishop, should quit the see of Barcelona and return to his former one, while the Spanish bishops were directed to condone the acts of Silvanus.[6] This is the oldest Roman synod whose original records have survived.

In Rome, Hilarius worked zealously to counter the new emperor's 467 edict of toleration for schismatic sects, which had been inspired, according to a letter of Pope Gelasius I by a favourite of Emperor Anthemius named Philotheus, who espoused the Macedonian heresy. On one of the emperor's visits to St Peter's Basilica, the pope openly called him to account for his favourite's conduct, exhorting him by the grave of St Peter to promise that he would allow no schismatical assemblies in Rome.[6]

Hilarius erected several churches and other buildings in Rome, for which the Liber Pontificalis, the main source for information about Hilarius, praises him. He also erected a chapel of the Holy Cross in the baptistery, convents, two public baths, and libraries near the Basilica of St. Lawrence outside the Walls, in which church he was buried.

His feast day is celebrated on 17 November.

See also

References

  1. ^ Alban Butler, Paul Burns. Butler's Lives of the Saints: February, p. 266. A&C Black, 1995. ISBN 9780860122517
  2. ^ "Hilarius", Pontiffs, The Holy See
  3. ^ a b Chapman, John. "Dioscurus." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 5. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909. 31 March 2019 This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  4. ^ a b c Kirsch, Johann Peter. "Pope Saint Hilarus." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 7. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 31 March 2019 This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  5. ^ “Pope Hilarius”. New Catholic Dictionary. CatholicSaints.Info. 11 May 2016
  6. ^ a b c Barmby, J., "Hilarius, bp. of Rome", A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography, (Henry Wace ed.), John Murray and Co., London, 1911

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope Saint Hilarus". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Leo I
(the Great)
Pope
461–468
Succeeded by
Simplicius
460s

The 460s decade ran from January 1, 460, to December 31, 469.

== Events ==

=== 460 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Majorian gathers an expeditionary force (Alans and other barbarians) in Liguria, and enters Aquitaine after a long march, where he visits King Theodoric II at Toulouse.

Majorian invades Hispania; his generals Nepotianus and Sunieric lead a Visigoth army into Gallaecia. The Suebi are defeated and Lusitania (modern Portugal) is conquered.

King Genseric, fearing a Roman invasion, tries to negotiate a peace with Majorian, who refuses. The Vandals devastate Mauretania and Moorish warriors poison the wells.

The Roman fleet, docked at Portus Illicitanus (near Elche) for the African campaign, is destroyed by the Vandals. Majorian is forced to sign a peace treaty and returns to Italy.

Emperor Leo I founds the Excubitors (Imperial Guard) at Constantinople; this elite tagmatic unit (300 men) is recruited from among the warlike Isaurians (approximate date).

====== Europe ======

March 27 (night) – Swabians invade the Gallic city of Lugo. The governor is killed.

====== Asia ======

The Hepthalites (White Huns) conquer the remnants of the Kushan Empire and enter India.

A famine that will last for several years begins in the Persian Empire (approximate date).

==== By topic ====

====== Art ======

The remodeling of the dome of Baptistry of Neon at Ravenna (Italy) is finished.

The Ajanta Caves (India) are completed (cut into the volcanic rock and elaborately painted).

The seated Buddha in the Yungang Grottoes, Datong (Shanxi), is made (approximate date).

====== Religion ======

The Coptic Orthodox Church (Egypt) splits from the Chalcedonian Orthodox Church of Alexandria.

Gennadius I, patriarch of Constantinople, banishes Timothy II, patriarch of Alexandria.

=== 461 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

August 2 – Majorian is arrested near Tortona (Northern Italy), and deposed by Ricimer (magister militum) as puppet emperor.

August 7 – Majorian, having been beaten and tortured for five days, is beheaded near the Iria River (Lombardy).

King Genseric continues the Vandal raids on the coast of Sicily and Italy. Ricimer sends an embassy to Carthage.

Olybrius becomes the second candidate for the western throne. He is the husband of Placidia, who is being held in Vandal captivity.

November 19 – Libius Severus, Roman senator from Lucania, is declared emperor of the Western Roman Empire.

====== Europe ======

The Visigoths under king Theodoric II recapture Septimania (Southern Gaul) after the assassination of Majorian, and invade Hispania again.

Aegidius becomes ruler over the Domain of Soissons (Gaul). He has friendly relations with the Romano-British (in Brittany).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

November 10 – Pope Leo I dies at Rome, age 61 (approximate), after a 21-year reign in which he has resisted Manichaeism and defended the Church against Nestorianism. He is succeeded by Hilarius as the 46th pope.

Mamertus is elected bishop of Vienne (Gaul).

=== 462 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

September 1 – Possible start of the first Byzantine indiction cycle.

Emperor Leo I pays a large ransom for Licinia Eudoxia and Placidia. They return after seven years of captivity in Carthage.

The Statue of Zeus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, is destroyed by fire after being moved to Constantinople.

The Monastery of Stoudios is founded in Constantinople.

====== Asia ======

The Daming calendar is introduced in China by mathematician Zu Chongzhi (approximate date).

=== 463 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Childeric I, king of the Salian Franks, allies with the Roman general Aegidius. During a battle near Orléans, the Visigoths under King Theodoric II are defeated by the Franks while crossing the Loire River.

The Suebi live under a diarchy, and fight a civil war over the kingship in Galicia (Northern Spain).

====== Asia ======

The Kibi Clan Rebellion against the Yamato state (Japan) in the Korean Peninsula begins.

=== 464 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Olybrius is elected Roman consul by the Eastern court in Constantinople.

====== Europe ======

The Suevic nation in Galicia (Northern Spain) is unified under King Remismund.

King Theodoric II sends Remismund gifts (for recognizing his kingship), including weapons, and a Gothic princess for a wife.

Aegidius dies (possibly poisoned) and is succeeded by his son Syagrius, who becomes ruler of the Domain of Soissons (Gaul).

=== 465 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Basiliscus, with the help of his sister Aelia Verina (wife of emperor Leo I), becomes a consul in the Eastern Roman Empire.

August 15 – Libius Severus, puppet emperor of the Western Roman Empire, dies after a 4-year reign.

September 2 – A fire begins in Constantinople and, over the next six days, destroys the buildings in eight of the 14 sections into which the Eastern Roman Imperial capital had been divided.

Ricimer, de facto ruler, establishes political control for 2 years from his residence in Rome.

====== Britannia ======

Battle of Wippedesfleot: The Saxons under command of Hengist and Aesc are defeated by the Britons near Ebbsfleet (Kent). During the battle 12 Welsh leaders are killed (according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle).

====== Europe ======

King Remismund establishes a policy of friendship with the Visigoths, and promotes the conversion of the Suebi into Arianism in Galicia (Northern Spain).

====== China ======

Qian Fei Di, then Ming Di, becomes ruler of the Liu Song Dynasty after his nephew is assassinated.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

November 19 – Pope Hilarius convokes a synod at Rome's Church of Santa Maria Maggiore.

Peter the Fuller becomes patriarch of Antioch (approximate date).

=== 466 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Leo I repels the Hun invasion of Dacia (modern Romania). They ravage the Balkans but are unable to take Constantinople thanks to the city walls, which are rebuilt and reinforced.

Tarasicodissa, an Isaurian officer, comes with evidence that Ardabur (magister militum) is forming a conspiracy against Leo I. Ardabur is arrested for treason.

Tarasicodissa adopts the Greek name of Zeno and marries Ariadne, eldest daughter of Leo I (approximate date).

====== Europe ======

King Theodoric II is killed by his younger brother Euric, who succeeds him on the throne. He conquers Hispania and the harbor city of Marseille (Southern Gaul), adding them to the existing Visigothic Kingdom.

Euric sends an embassy to the Eastern Roman Empire for recognition of the Visigoth sovereignty. He forms an alliance with the Suebi and the Vandals.

A council of twelve townships emerges on the islands in the Venetian lagoon, to form a basic system of governance (approximate date).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Peter the Fuller is deposed as patriarch of Antioch; Julian is elected as his successor.

=== 467 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

April 12 – Emperor Leo I has his general Anthemius elected emperor of the Western Roman Empire. He allies himself with Ricimer, de facto ruler of Rome, and marries his daughter Alypia to him, to strengthen the relationship and end the hostilities between the Eastern and Western Empire.

Summer – King Genseric extends his pirate raids in the Mediterranean Sea; the Vandals sack and enslave the people living in Illyricum, the Peloponnese and other parts of Greece. Leo I joins forces with the Western Empire.

====== Britannia ======

Ancient Hillforts in Britain are re-fortified, and the Wansdyke is built (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

Emperor Skandagupta dies after a 12-year reign, as Huns consolidate their conquests in western India. He is succeeded by his half-brother Purugupta.

=== 468 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Leo I assembles a massive naval expedition at Constantinople, which costs 64,000 pounds of gold (more than a year's revenue) and consists of over 1,100 ships carrying 100,000 men. It is the greatest fleet ever sent against the Vandals and brings Leo near to bankruptcy.

Emperor Anthemius sends a Roman expedition under command of Marcellinus. He expels the Vandals from Sicily and retakes Sardinia. The Eastern general Heraclius of Edessa lands with a force on the Libyan coast, east of Carthage, and advances from Tripolitania.

Battle of Cape Bon: The Vandals defeat the Roman navy under Basiliscus, anchored at Promontorium Mercurii, 45 miles from Carthage (Tunisia). During peace negotiations Genseric uses fire ships, filling them with brushwood and pots of oil, destroying 700 imperial galleys. Basiliscus escapes with his surviving fleet to Sicily, harassed all the way by Moorish pirates.

August – Marcellinus is murdered in Sicily, probably at the instigation of his political rival, Ricimer. Heraclius is left to fight alone against the Vandals; after a 2-year campaign in the desert he returns to Constantinople.

Basiliscus returns to Constantinople after a disastrous expedition against the Vandals. He is forced to seek sanctuary in the church of Hagia Sophia to escape the wrath of the people. Leo I gives him imperial pardon, but banishes him for 3 years to Heraclea Sintica (Thrace).

Dengizich, son of Attila the Hun, sends an embassy to Constantinople to demand money. Leo I offers the Huns settlement in Thrace in exchange for recognition of his authority. Dengizich refuses and crosses the Danube.

Roman forces under Anagast defeat the Huns at the Utus River (Bulgaria). Dengizich is killed and his head is paraded through the streets of Constantinople. Stuck on the end of a wooden pole, it is displayed above the Xylokerkos Gate.

The Vandals reconquer Sicily, administering a decisive defeat to the Western forces.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

February 29 – Pope Hilarius dies at Rome after a 6½-year reign, and is succeeded by Simplicius as the 47th pope.

=== 469 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

The Ostrogoth prince Theodoric, age 15, returns to Pannonia after he has lived as a child hostage at the court of emperor Leo I in Constantinople (see 459).

====== Europe ======

The Vandals invade Epirus (modern Albania). They are expelled from the Peloponnese (Greece) and in retaliation, the Vandals take 500 hostages at Zakynthos. On the way back to Carthage they are slaughtered.

King Euric declares himself independent from the Western Roman Empire. He extends the Visigothic power in Hispania; conquering the cities of Pamplona, Zaragoza and Mérida.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

The Vatican makes a pact with the Salian Frankish king Childeric I, agreeing to call him "the new Constantine" on condition that he accept conversion to Christianity.

465

Year 465 (CDLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Hermenericus and Basiliscus (or, less frequently, year 1218 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 465 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

468

Year 468 (CDLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Anthemius without colleague (or, less frequently, year 1221 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 468 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar I haveera became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Benignus (bishop of Milan)

Benignus (Italian: Benigno) was Archbishop of Milan from 465 to 472. He is honoured as a Saint in the Catholic Church and his feast day is September 20.

Bettona

Bettona (Latin: Vettona) is an ancient town and comune of Italy, in the province of Perugia in central Umbria at the northern edge of the Colli Martani range. It is 5 km (3 mi) E of Torgiano and 12 km (7 mi) SW of Assisi.

Passaggio, Colle and Cerreto are frazioni of the comune.

Diocese of Sant’Angelo in Vado

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Sant’Angelo in Vado is a suppressed diocese in Italy which is now part of the Archdiocese of Urbino–Urbania–Sant’Angelo in Vado.

Eutropius of Orange

Eutropius of Orange (French: Saint Eutrope; died 475) was bishop of Orange, France, during the 5th century and probably since 463, in succession to Justus.

Hilary (name)

Hilary or Hillary is a given and family name, derived from the Latin hilarius meaning "cheerful", from hilaris, "cheerful, merry" which comes from the Greek ἱλαρός (hilaros), "cheerful, merry", which in turn comes from ἵλαος (hilaos), "propitious, gracious". Ilaria is the popular Italian and Spanish feminine form, while Ilario is the Italian masculine one. Ilariana and Ylariana ( eye-LAH-ree-AH-nə) are two very rare feminine variants of the name. Another male form is Hilarion.

List of canonised popes

This article lists the Popes who have been canonised or recognised as Saints in the Roman Catholic Church they had led. A total of 83 (out of 266) Popes have been recognised universally as canonised saints, including all of the first 35 Popes (31 of whom were martyrs) and 52 of the first 54. If Pope Liberius is numbered amongst the Saints as in Eastern Christianity, all of the first 49 Popes become recognised as Saints, of whom 31 are Martyr-Saints, and 53 of the first 54 Pontiffs would be acknowledged as Saints. In addition, 13 other Popes are in the process of becoming canonised Saints: as of December 2018, two are recognised as being Servants of God, two are recognised as being Venerable, and nine have been declared Blessed or Beati, making a total of 95 (97 if Pope Liberius and Pope Adeodatus II are recognised to be Saints) of the 266 Roman Pontiffs being recognised and venerated for their heroic virtues and inestimable contributions to the Church.

The most recently reigning Pope to have been canonised was Pope John Paul II, whose cause for canonisation was opened in May 2005. John Paul II was beatified on May 1, 2011, by Pope Benedict XVI and later canonised, along with Pope John XXIII, by Pope Francis on April 27, 2014. Pope Francis also canonised Pope Paul VI on October 14, 2018.

List of people from Sardinia

Sardinia is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with a population of about 1.6 million people. The list includes notable natives of Sardinia, as well as those who were born elsewhere but spent a large part of their active life in Sardinia. People of Sardinian heritage and descent are in a separate section of this article.

Mamertus

Saint Mamertus (died c. 475) was the bishop of Vienne in Gaul, venerated as a saint. His primary contribution to ecclesiastical practice was the introduction of litanies prior to Ascension Day as an intercession against earthquakes and other disasters, leading to "Rogation Days." His feast day is the first of the Ice Saints.

Patrologia Latina

The Patrologia Latina (Latin for The Latin Patrology) is an enormous collection of the writings of the Church Fathers and other ecclesiastical writers published by Jacques-Paul Migne between 1841 and 1855, with indices published between 1862 and 1865. It is also known as the Latin series as it formed one half of Migne's Patrologiae Cursus Completus, the other part being the Patrologia Graeco-Latina of patristic and medieval Greek works with their (sometimes non-matching) medieval Latin translations.

Although consisting of reprints of old editions, which often contain mistakes and do not comply with modern standards of scholarship, the series, due to its availability (it is present in many academic libraries) and the fact that it incorporates many texts of which no modern critical edition is available, is still widely used by scholars of the Middle Ages and is in this respect comparable to the Monumenta Germaniae Historica.

The Patrologia Latina includes Latin works spanning a millennium, from Tertullian (d. 230) to Pope Innocent III (d. 1216), edited in roughly chronological order in 217 volumes;

volumes 1 to 73, from Tertullian to Gregory of Tours, were published from 1841 to 1849, and volumes 74 to 217, from Pope Gregory I to Innocent III, from 1849 to 1855.

Although the collection ends with Innocent III,

Migne originally wanted to include documents all the way up to the Reformation; this task proved too great, but some later commentaries or documents associated with earlier works were included.

Most of the works are ecclesiastic in nature, but there are also documents of literary, historical or linguistic (such as the Gothic bible in vol. 18) interest.

The printing plates for the Patrologia were destroyed by fire in 1868, but with help from the Garnier printing house they were restored and new editions were printed, beginning in the 1880s. These reprints did not always correspond exactly with the original series either in quality or internal arrangement, and caution should be exercised when referencing to the PL in general.

Pope Simplicius

Pope Simplicius (died 2 or 10 March 483) was pope from 468 to his death in 483. He was born in Tivoli, Italy, the son of a citizen named Castinus. Most of what is known of him personally is derived from the Liber Pontificalis.

Saint Ilar

A Saint Ilar ([iːlɑr]; Latin: Hilarus or Elerius) is listed among the 6th-century saints of Wales and is the probable namesake of Llanilar in Ceredigion and its former hundred of Ilar. His feast day is variously given as 13, 14, or 15 January, but is no longer observed by either the Anglican or Catholic church in Wales.

Sant'Anastasia al Palatino

Sant'Anastasia is a basilica and titular church for cardinal-priests in Rome, Italy.

Terrassa

Terrassa (Catalan pronunciation: [təˈrasə], Spanish: Tarrasa) is a city in the east central region of Catalonia, in the province of Barcelona, comarca of Vallès Occidental, of which it is the cocapital along with Sabadell.

It is the site of Roman Egara, a former Visigothic bishopric, which became a Latin Catholic titular see.

The city is located in the Catalan Prelitoral depression (Depressió Prelitoral), at the feet of the Prelitoral mountain range (Natural reserve of Sant Llorenç del Munt) and the average altitude of the city is 277 meters above sea level. It is 20 and 18 kilometres from Barcelona and Montserrat respectively.

Terrassa is the third largest city in Catalonia, after Barcelona and L’Hospitalet.

Vandal Sardinia

Vandal Sardinia covers the history of Sardinia from the end of the long Roman domination in 456, when the island was conquered by the Vandals, a Germanic population settled in North Africa until its reconquest in 534.

Veranus of Vence

Veranus was the fourth Bishop of Vence, Gaul, after a period as a monk.Veranus was the son of Saint Eucherius of Lyon and his wife Galla. Both he and his brother Salonius were educated at Lérins Abbey, first by Hilary of Arles, then by Salvianus and Vincent of Lérins. His father's Liber formularum spiritalis intelligentiae is addressed to Veranius and is a defence of the lawfulness of reading an allegorical sense in Scripture, bringing to bear the metaphors in Psalms.

Veranus became Bishop of Vence around 442 and served at least until 465. In February 464, Pope Hilarius commissioned Bishop Veranus to warn Mamertus of Vienne that, if in the future he did not refrain from irregular ordinations, (that is, of bishops outside of his diocese) his faculties would be withdrawn. This was to uphold the primatial privileges of the See of Arles as definded by Pope Leo I.The bishop's date of death is uncertain. His remains lie in a carved sarcophagus in La Cathedrale Notre-Dame de la Nativite de Vence.

The Morgan Library has a Book of Hours from Rouen from about 1525 illuminated with a miniature depicting Bishop Veranus.

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