Pope Gregory XI

Pope Gregory XI (Latin: Gregorius; c. 1329 – 27 March 1378) was Pope from 30 December 1370 to his death in 1378.[1] He was the seventh and last Avignon pope[2] and the most recent French pope. In 1377, Gregory XI returned the Papal court to Rome, ending nearly 70 years of papal residency in Avignon, France. His death shortly after was followed by the Western Schism.

Pope

Gregory XI
Bishop of Rome
Papa Gregorius Undecimus
Papacy began30 December 1370
Papacy ended27 March 1378
PredecessorUrban V
SuccessorUrban VI
Orders
Ordination2 January 1371
Consecration3 January 1371
Created cardinal29 May 1348
by Clement VI
Personal details
Birth namePierre Roger de Beaufort
Bornc. 1329
Maumont, Limousin, Kingdom of France
Died27 March 1378 (aged 48–49)
Rome, Papal States
Other popes named Gregory
Bolognino Gregorio XI
A bolognino of Gregory XI.
Beaufort turenne
Family Tree of the Beauforts

Biography

He was born Pierre Roger de Beaufort in Maumont in the modern commune of Rosiers-d'Égletons, Limousin, around 1330. The nephew of Pope Clement VI,[3] he succeeded Pope Urban V at the papal conclave of 1370 and was the seventh and last of the Avignon Popes.

Papacy

During his pontificate, vigorous measures (e.g., burning at the stake, confiscation of property) were taken against proponents of Lollardy, which had found acceptance in Germany, England, and other parts of Europe. Efforts were made to reform corrupt practices in the various monastic orders, such as collecting fees from persons visiting holy sites and the exhibiting of faux relics of saints.

Gregory confirmed a treaty between Sicily and Naples at Villeneuve-lès-Avignon on 20 August 1372, which brought about a permanent settlement between the rival kingdoms, which were both papal fiefs.[4]

John Wycliffe's 19 reformation articles on church-related items as he wrote in his On Civil Dominion [5] and 21 proposed reformation articles of Johannes Klenkok's Decadicon [6] that he wrote against the Sachsenspiegel law-book. The Decadicon was submitted to Pope Gregory XI in the early part of the 1370s by French canonist and cardinal of the Curia Pierre de la Vergne. Gregory formally condemned fourteen articles of the Sachsenspiegel in 1374 [7] and nineteen propositions of Wycliffe's On Civil Dominion in 1377.[5]

His decision to return to Rome is supposedly attributed in part to the incessant pleas, demands, and threats of Catherine of Siena.[8] A return had been attempted by Gregory's predecessor, Urban V, but the demands of the Hundred Years' War brought him north of the Alps again, and Avignon was still the seat of the Bishop of Rome. The project of returning again to Rome was delayed by a conflict between the pope and Florence, known as the War of the Eight Saints. The pope put Florence under interdict during 1376. The return of the Curia to Rome began on 13 September 1376 and was concluded with the arrival of Gregory XI on 17 January 1377.[9][10][11]

Death

Gregory XI did not long survive this trip, dying in Rome on 27 March 1378.[12] He was buried the following day in the church of Santa Maria Nuova.[13] After his death the College of Cardinals was pressured by a Roman mob that broke into the voting chamber to force an Italian pope into the papacy.[14] The Italians chose Urban VI. Soon after being elected, Urban gained the Cardinals' enmity.[15] The cardinals withdrew from Rome to Fondi, where they annulled their election of Urban and elected a French pope, Clement VII,[15] before returning to Avignon in 1378.

Subsequently, the Western Schism created by the selection of rival popes forced the people of Europe into a dilemma of papal allegiance. This schism was not resolved fully until the Council of Constance (1414–1418) was called by a group of cardinals. Boldly, the council deposed both current popes and, in 1417, elected Martin V as their successor. (Addendum: This is not quite true: In fact, Gregory XII, of the original Roman line, who is historically and dogmatically seen as the legitimate Pope, resigned his office - the last resignation until Benedict XVI in 2013 - leaving the see of Peter vacant, and the cardinals free to choose Martin V, who then, as Pope, approved the Council's decisions). The chaos of the Western Schism thus brought about reforming councils and gave them the power over who was elected, replacing (for a time) the College of Cardinals.

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope Gregory XI" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  2. ^ Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes, (HarperCollins, 2000), 245.
  3. ^ George L. Williams, Papal Genealogy: The Families and Descendants of the Popes, (McFarland Company Inc., 1998), 43.
  4. ^ Hayez, Michel (2002). "Gregorio XI, papa". Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani. 59. Rome: Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana.
  5. ^ a b "The Condemnation of Wycliffe". Plato.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2013-06-23.
  6. ^ "first Quarter of the 14th Century stooping (county Hoya), 1374 Avignon". Deutsche-biographie.de. 2012-06-13. Retrieved 2013-06-23.
  7. ^ Ocker, p. 62
  8. ^ Francis Thomas Luongo, The Saintly Politics of Catherine of Siena, (Cornell University Press, 2006), 25. Carolyn Muessig; George Ferzoco; Beverly Kienzle (2011). A Companion to Catherine of Siena. Boston-Leiden: Brill. pp. 94–95. ISBN 978-90-04-20555-0.
  9. ^ Francis Thomas Luongo, The Saintly Politics of Catherine of Siena, xii.
  10. ^ Joëlle Rollo-Koster, Raiding Saint Peter: Empty Sees, Violence, and the Initiation of the Great Western Schism (1378), (Brill, 2008), 182.
  11. ^ Margaret Harvey, The English in Rome, 1362–1420: Portrait of an Expatriate Community, (Cambridge University Press, 2004), 3.
  12. ^ Carol M. Richardson, Reclaiming Rome: Cardinals in the Fifteenth Century, ed. A.J. Vanderjagt, (Brill, 2009), 1.
  13. ^ F Donald Logan, A History of the Church in the Middle Ages, (Routledge, 2002), 308.
  14. ^ Joseph Dahmus, A History of the Middle Ages, (Doubleday Book Co., 1995), 381.
  15. ^ a b Joseph Dahmus, A History of the Middle Ages, 381.

References

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Urban V
Pope
30 December 1370 – 27 March 1378
Succeeded by
Urban VI
(Roman)
Clement VII
(Avignon)
1370 papal conclave

The papal conclave of 1370 (December 29–30), held after the death of Pope Urban V, elected as his successor cardinal Pierre Roger de Beaufort, who under the name Gregory XI became seventh and the last Pope of the period of Avignon Papacy.

1370s

The 1370s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1370, and ended on December 31, 1379.

1377

Year 1377 (MCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Andrew Magnus

Andrew Magnus (died 1380) was a 14th-century Scottish prelate. Of unknown background, he is recorded for the first time in a document dating to 28 November 1365, holding the position of Archdeacon of Dunblane. Having merely been collated to this position by an ordinary, perhaps the Bishop of Dunblane Walter de Coventre, he received a fresh papal provision on 6 January 1367.Following the death of Bishop Walter de Coventre sometime in the year after 21 March 1371, Andrew was elected as Bishop of Dunblane by the cathedral chapter of the diocese; he was provided to the see by Pope Gregory XI on 27 April 1372. On 1 July 1372 he and all the other bishops of Scotland were ordered by the papacy to collect one tenth of their annual revenue "in aid of the defence of the Pope and the Roman Church in Italy".Few other things are known of his episcopate or his life. Pope Gregory XI wrote to Bishop Andrew in 1375 requesting that the Bishop furnish Thomas Stewart and his brother James Stewart, illegitimate sons of King Robert II of Scotland, with benefices and to issue a dispensation for their legitimacy. In 1380, the Pope requested that the Bishop of Dunblane confirm the annexation of the church of St Columba in Tiree to Ardchattan Priory; in the same year, a Bishop of Dunblane, probably Andrew, confirmed the election of William de Culross as the new Abbot of Inchaffray.Andrew died sometime later in the year. As late as 1 September 1380, officials at the papal curia believed that he was still alive; but Andrew was definitely dead by 12 September, when his successor Dúghall de Lorne was provided to the vacant bishopric; the officials must have been wrong in their belief, as Dúghall had already been elected at Dunblane, and the interval must have been large enough both for the election to have been organised and for news of the election to have arrived in southern France by 12 September, almost certainly more than twelve days.Bishop Andrew's seal survives appended to the Act made at Scone on 4 April 1373, settling the succession of the Scottish crown. He is known to have had a kinsman, Michael by name, to whom he provided the perpetual vicarage Abernethy, despite the fact that this Michael was "under age and illiterate".

Andrew Umfray

Andrew Umfray was a 14th-century bishop-elect of Dunkeld. He had been the precentor of Dunkeld when, following the death of Bishop Michael de Monymusk, Andrew was elected as the new bishop. He travelled to the Apostolic See to receive consecration, and was provided to the see of Dunkeld on 17 June 1377 by Pope Gregory XI. He died at the papal court, probably before receiving consecration.

Antonio de' Saluzzi

Antonio de' Saluzzi (died 1401) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Archbishop of Milan (1376–1401) and Bishop of Savona (1355–1376).

Aymar VI de Poitiers

Aymar VI de Poitiers, known as "Le Gros", Count of Valentinois and Diois, Lord of Taulignan and Saint-Vallier, Governor of Dauphiné from 1349 to 1355, he was appointed in 1372, Rector of the Comtat Venaissin, by his brother-in-law Pope Gregory XI. He was deputy to Jean de Cheylar, prior of Charraix, near Langeac, in the bishopric of Saint-Flour.

Bertrand Lagier

Bertrand Lagier O.Min. (died 8 November 1392) was a French Franciscan and cardinal of the Catholic Church. He was bishop of Assisi in 1357, and bishop of Glandèves in France, in 1368.

He was made cardinal on 30 May 1371 by Pope Gregory XI, and then bishop of Ostia in April 1378 by Pope Urban VI. After the outbreak of the Great Western Schism he joined the obedience of the Avignon Antipope Clement VII.

Bertrando Alidosi

Bertrando Alidosi (died November 12, 1391) was an Italian condottiero and the lord of Imola (as Papal vicar) from 1372 until 1391. He was the son of Roberto Alidosi, and succeeded in his signoria to Azzo Alidosi, to whom he had been associated by will of Pope Urban V. In 1365 he had been also made lord of Castel del Rio, Monte del Fine and Castiglione. The two brothers were jailed in Bologna two times by the papal forces, but they were permitted to return soon to Imola. In 1371 he was forced by a rebellion to flee shortly at Avignon with Pope Gregory XI.

He married Elisa Tarlati, daughter of Maso Tarlati, lord of Pietramala, and sister of cardinal Galeotto Tarlati.

He was succeeded by his son Luigi (Ludovico).

Cardinals created by Gregory XI

Pope Gregory XI (r. 1370-78) created 21 cardinals in two consistories held during his pontificate. Two of the cardinals that he named became antipopes Clement VII and Benedict XIII.

Francesco Morozzo

Francesco Morozzo or François Morozzi (died 1380) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Asti (1376–1380).

Frederick the Simple

Frederick III (or IV) (1 September 1341 – Messina 27 July 1377), called the Simple, was King of Sicily from 1355 to 1377. He was the second son of Peter II of Sicily and Elisabeth of Carinthia. He succeeded his brother Louis. The documents of his era call him the "infante Frederick, ruler of the kingdom of Sicily", without any regnal number.

"Frederick the Simple" is often confused with an earlier Sicilian monarch, his grandfather Frederick II, who chose to call himself "Frederick III" even though he was actually only the second King Frederick to occupy the Sicilian throne; his self-appellation was retained by later generations of genealogists and historians. The first King Frederick on the Sicilian throne was the latter's great-grandfather, King Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor.

Frederick III was born in Catania and succeeded to his brother Louis in 1355 under the regency of his sister, Euphemia of Sicily. In his youth the reign was under the control of powerful Sicilian barons, in particular of Artale I Alagona. The beginning of Frederick III's reign was also plagued by intermittent wars with the Kingdom of Naples (see War of the Sicilian Vespers) and also by the Black Death, to which his elder brother and predecessor had succumbed. On 25 December 1369, Frederick ordered all Jews to wear a badge indicating their heritage. The badge consisted of a piece of red material, not smaller than the largest royal seal; men were required to wear it under the chin, and women on the chest. In 1372 he was able to come to peace terms with Naples and Pope Gregory XI, obtaining the title of tributary King of "Trinacria".

Gérard du Puy

Gérard du Puy (died February 14, 1389) was a French cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and cardinal-nephew of Pope Gregory XI.

John de Peebles

John de Peebles [Peblys] was a 14th-century bishop of Dunkeld and chancellor of Scotland. He was a graduate of the University of Paris by 1351, where he became both a determinant and licentiate. He chose to remain there and soon became procurator of the "English nation" before obtaining a doctorate in Canon law. From 1360 he was an official in the bishopric of Glasgow and was master of the hospital of Peebles. By 1365 he was treasurer of Glasgow. Eventually he held canonries and prebends in that diocese and in the diocese of Aberdeen and controlled the church of Douglas. By 1374 he was archdeacon of St Andrews and the papal collector for the Kingdom of Scotland. He was provided to the bishopric of Dunkeld by Pope Gregory XI either in late 1377 or early 1378.

When the Western Schism began, he initially supported Pope Urban VI, perhaps still being in Continental Europe on the succession of Urban. However, in 1379 Avignon Pope Clement VII commissioned the bishop of St Andrews to absolve him from this, and granted John leave to be consecrated by any adhering bishop. He was Chancellor of Scotland between March 1377 and March 1390. He died sometime between 18 March 1390 and 1 February 1391.

List of French popes

Seventeen popes have had French ancestry, all in the second half of the medieval era. The seven popes of the Avignon Papacy were French and are bolded. Since the end of the Avignon Papacy, no French person has been elected pope.

French is the most common non-Italian papal ancestry.

Pope Silvester II, 999–1003: Gerbert of Aurillac

St. Pope Leo IX, 1049–1054: Bruno, Count of Dagsbourg

Pope Stephen IX, 1057–1058: Frederick of Lorraine

Pope Nicholas II, 1058–1061: Gerard of Burgundy

Bl. Pope Urban II, 1088–1099: Otho of Lagery (or Otto or Odo)

Pope Callistus II, 1119–1124: Guido of Vienne

Pope Urban IV, 1261–1264: Jacques Pantaléon

Pope Clement IV, 1265–1268: Guy Foulques

Bl. Pope Innocent V, 1276: Pierre de Tarentaise

Pope Martin IV, 1281–1285: Simon de Brie

Pope Clement V, 1305–1314: Bertrand de Got

Pope John XXII, 1316–1334: Jacques d'Euse

Pope Benedict XII, 1334–1342: Jacques Fournier

Pope Clement VI, 1342–1352: Pierre Roger

Pope Innocent VI, 1352–1362: Stephen Aubert

Bl. Pope Urban V, 1362–1370: Guillaume de Grimoard

Pope Gregory XI, 1370–1378: Pierre Roger de Beaufort

Pope Gregory

Gregory has been the name of sixteen Roman Catholic Popes and two Antipopes. The Latin name is Gregorius.

Pope Gregory I "the Great" (590–604), after whom the Gregorian chant is named

Pope Gregory II (715–731)

Pope Gregory III (731–741)

Pope Gregory IV (827–844)

Pope Gregory V (996–999)

Pope Gregory VI (1045–1046)

Antipope Gregory VI

Pope Gregory VII (1073–1085), after whom the Gregorian Reform is named

Pope Gregory VIII (1187)

Antipope Gregory VIII

Pope Gregory IX (1227–1241)

Pope Gregory X (1271–1276)

Pope Gregory XI (1370–1378)

Pope Gregory XII (1406–1415)

Pope Gregory XIII (1572–1585), after whom the Gregorian calendar is named

Pope Gregory XIV (1590–1591)

Pope Gregory XV (1621–1623)

Pope Gregory XVI (1831–1846)

Sala Regia (Vatican)

The Sala Regia (Regal Room) is a state hall in the Apostolic Palace in Vatican City.

Although not intended as such, this broad room is really an antechamber to the Sistine Chapel. It also connects to the Pauline Chapel and is reached by the long staircase known as the Scala Regia. To the left of the entrance formerly stood the papal throne, which is now at the opposite side before the door leading to the Pauline Chapel.

The hall was begun under Pope Paul III by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger and was completed in 1573. The elegant barrel vault is graced by the very impressive plaster decorations of Perino del Vaga. The stucco ornaments over the doors are by Daniele da Volterra. By 2019, the room and staircase were open to tourists who visit the Apostolic Palace.The walls were decorated by Livio Agresti, Giorgio Vasari and Taddeo Zuccari. The frescoes depict momentous turning-points in the history of the Church, including the return of Pope Gregory XI from Avignon to Rome, the Battle of Lepanto, the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, the raising of the ban from Henry IV, the reconciliation of Pope Alexander III with Frederick Barbarossa and Peter II of Aragon offering the Kingdom to Pope Innocent III.

The hall was originally used for the reception of princes and royal ambassadors, hence its name. Consistories were held in it, but were later transferred to the Saint Peter's Basilica on November 19, 2016, and the area has also provided an occasional musical recital in the presence of the pope; during a conclave it was used as a promenade for the cardinals.

Thomas of Frignano

Thomas of Frignano (1305–1381) was an Italian Franciscan theologian. He became Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, and on 19 July 1372 was approved by Pope Gregory XI as patriarch of Grado.Tommaso was created a cardinal on 20 September 1378 by Pope Urban VI. He was Bishop of Frascati and, as the senior bishop in Urban's new college, probably Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals from December 1378. He died in Rome on 19 November 1381.

War of the Eight Saints

The War of the Eight Saints (1375–1378) was a war between Pope Gregory XI and a coalition of Italian city-states led by Florence, which contributed to the end of the Avignon Papacy.

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