Pope Gregory V

Pope Gregory V, born Bruno of Carinthia (Latin: Gregorius V; c. 972 – 18 February 999) was Pope from 3 May 996 to his death in 999.

Pope

Gregory V
Pope Gregory V
Papacy began3 May 996
Papacy ended18 February 999
PredecessorJohn XV
SuccessorSylvester II
Personal details
Birth nameBruno of Carinthia
Bornc. 972
Stainach, Duchy of Carinthia, Holy Roman Empire
Died18 February 999
Rome, Papal States
Other popes named Gregory

Family

He was a son of the Salian Otto I, Duke of Carinthia,[1] who was a grandson of Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor. Gregory V succeeded Pope John XV when only twenty-four years of age. He was the chaplain of his cousin Emperor Otto III, who presented him as candidate.

Gregory V is often counted as the first German Pope (or the second if Boniface II, an Ostrogoth, is counted).[2]

Policies

Otto III wird von Papst Gregor V. zum Kaiser gesalbt
Pope Gregory V with Emperor Otto III, c. 1450

Politically, Gregory V acted consistently as the Emperor's representative in Rome and granted many exceptional privileges to monasteries within the Holy Roman Empire. One of his first acts was to crown Otto III Emperor on 21 May 996.[3] Together, they held a synod a few days after the coronation in which Arnulf, Archbishop of Reims, was ordered to be restored to his See of Reims, and Gerbert of Aurillac, the future Pope Sylvester II, was condemned as an intruder. Robert II of France, who had been insisting on his right to appoint bishops, was ultimately forced to back down, and also to put aside his wife Bertha of Burgundy, by the rigorous enforcement of a sentence of excommunication on the kingdom.[4]

Until the conclusion of the council of Pavia in 997, Gregory V had a rival in the person of the antipope John XVI (997–998), whom Crescentius II and the nobles of Rome had chosen against the will of the youthful Emperor Otto III, Gregory's cousin. The revolt of Crescentius II was decisively suppressed by the Emperor, who marched upon Rome. John XVI fled, and Crescentius II shut himself up in the Castel Sant'Angelo. The Emperor's troops pursued the antipope, captured him, cut off his nose and ears, cut out his tongue, blinded him, and publicly degraded him before Otto III and Gregory V.[5] When the much respected St. Nilus of Rossano castigated both the Emperor and Pope for their cruelty, John XVI was sent to the monastery of Fulda in Germany, where he lived until c. 1001.[6] The Castel Sant'Angelo was besieged, and when it was taken in 998, Crescentius II was hanged upon its walls.

Death

Gregory V died suddenly, not without suspicion of foul play, on 18 February 999. He is buried in St. Peter's Basilica near Pope Pelagius I. His successor was Gerbert, who took the name Sylvester II.

See also

References

  1. ^ Brooke 2014, p. 438.
  2. ^ Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes: The Pontiffs from St. Peter to Benedict XVI, (HarperCollins Publishers, 2000), 138.
  3. ^ Medieval Germany: An Encyclopedia, Ed. John M. Jeep, (Garland Publishing, Inc., 2001), 961.
  4. ^ Eleanor Shipley Duckett, Death and Life in the Tenth Century, (University of Michigan Press, 1988), 130.
  5. ^ The Papacy: An Encyclopedia, Ed. Philippe Levillain, (Routledge, 2002), 646.
  6. ^ Agasso, Domenico. "San Nilo da Rossano", Santi e Beati, February 1, 2001
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Gregory V" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope Gregory V" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.

Sources

  • Brooke, Christopher (2014). Europe in the Central Middle Ages: 962-1154. Routledge.

External links

Pope Gregory V
Born: 972 Died: 999
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
John XV
Pope
996–999
Succeeded by
Sylvester II
999

Year 999 (CMXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Amizo (bishop of Turin)

Amizo of Turin (died 1000) was an Italian bishop. He was bishop of Turin from 966 until his death in 1000.

Based on an early modern Milanese chronicle, it is sometimes argued that Amizo was the son of Arduin Glaber of Turin.Sometime between 983 and 987, Amizo consecrated abbey of Sacra di San Michele, founded by Hugh of Montboissier.

In 989 Amizo granted the parish of S. Maria di Quadraciana to the nuns at San Pietro in Turin, enriching them with property at Scarnafigi and Cervignasco.

Amizo obtained two imperial diplomas confirming the church of Turin in all its possessions: the first was issued by Otto II in 981, and the second by Otto III in 998.

In 997 Amizo participated in the synod of Pavia, presided over by Pope Gregory V.

Antipope John

Antipope John may refer to:

Antipope John VIII (844), in opposition to Pope Sergius II

Antipope John XVI (997–998), in opposition to Pope Gregory V

Antipope John XXIII (1410–1415), in opposition to Pope Gregory XII

Bernard (bishop of Gaeta)

Bernard (died 1047×49) was the Bishop of Gaeta for fifty years from his appointment in 997 until his death. He was a member of the Docibilan dynasty which ruled the Duchy of Gaeta from 867 to 1032. During his long episcopate he achieved the economic security of his see in the face of labour difficulties, annexed the diocese of Traetto to his own in or soon after 999, and witnessed the decline and replacement of his family in Gaeta.

Bernard was a younger son of Duke Marinus II. His appointment as bishop in 997 may have been intended to give the ruling dynasty control of the church in their city, where conflicts with prior bishops had not been uncommon, or to contain the ambitions of a younger son; or both. His election as bishop was earlier than the month of May, during which he witnessed a charter by which the diocese leased some of its property to private persons, signing as a "cleric ... I should attain the rank of bishop" (clericus… quia debeo ad ordinem episcopatus adtingere). In September he consecrated a church in Gaeta before ceding it to three Roman churchmen. Towards the end of 998 he participated in a synod in Rome under Pope Gregory V. After the death of Andreas, bishop of Traetto, who last appears in documents in 999, he united the Traettan diocese to his own.The first tests of Bernard's leadership were a couple of disputes in 999. He disputed the rights to Spinio (Spigno Vecchia) with his nephew, Count Daufer II of Traetto, but they came to an agreement and divided the place later that year. Then two famuli, John and Anatolius, sons of Passari Caprucce and his wife Benefacta, claimed they were free men while Bernard claimed they were slaves belonging the church of Gaeta. Bernard called in the assistance of the imperial missus of the region, Notticher, who travelled to Gaeta, Traetto, and Castro Argento to settle other labour disputes which had arisen and were costing the diocese heavily. Bernard alludes to working refusing to work in his letter to Notticher. When the missus demanded that John and Anatolius submit to trial by combat (unheard of in Gaeta, where Byzantine law was the rule), they instead swore an oath that their mother had been a freewoman and paid a pound of gold, which Notticher accepted.As early as 1002 Bernard had entered into friendly relations with his sister-in-law Emilia. In that year he repaid her in land for the services she had done the church. When, in 1012, she became regent for her son, John V, Bernard supported her against her opponents, Leo I and Leo II, and by 1025 she was victorious, largely due to Bernard. In 1014 Bernard represented John during arguments held between the counts of Traetto and the Abbey of Montecassino, a sign of his importance during the regency of Emilia, but also of the declining importance of the dukes of Gaeta (nominally) in their own duchy.In 1008, Bernard built the church of Saint John the Baptist in Gaeta with financial help from some of the leading families of the city. Of the last three decades of his episcopate, little is recorded. The last datable record is from 1032, the same year Prince Pandulf IV of Capua conquered the city. He continued on as bishop under successive Lombard and Norman governments, but how long is unknown. One dubious document from May 1047 refers to him as bishop, but he was succeeded, thanks to the remaining supporters of his family, by his nephew Leo, son of Leo II, at least by July 1049.

Bertha of Burgundy

Bertha of Burgundy (964 – 16 January 1010) was the daughter of Conrad the Peaceful, King of Burgundy and his wife Matilda, daughter of Louis IV, King of France and Gerberga of Saxony. She was named for her father's mother, Bertha of Swabia.

She first married Odo I, Count of Blois in about 983. They had several children, including Odo II.After the death of her husband in 996, Bertha's second cousin Robert, co-King of France wished to marry her, in place of his repudiated first wife Rozala, who was many years his senior. The union was opposed by Robert's father, Hugh Capet, due to the potential political problem that could be caused by religious authorities due to their consanguinity. However, the marriage went ahead after Hugh's death in October 996, which left Robert as sole king.

The closeness of Robert and Bertha by blood was such that Church authorities considered the marriage illegal since they had not received a dispensation, nor had they requested one. Accordingly, Pope Gregory V declared the pair excommunicated. This, and the lack of children (save one, who lived and died in 999), caused Robert to agree with Pope Silvester II to have the marriage annulled in 1000.

Robert next married Constance of Arles while Bertha may have been the Bertha who married Arduin of Ivrea (Arduino d´Ivrea), King of Italy, Marquis of Ivrea.

Crescentius the Younger

Crescentius the Younger (or Crescentius II) (died 998), son of Crescentius the Elder, was a leader of the aristocracy of medieval Rome. During the minority of Holy Roman Emperor Otto III, he declared himself Consul (or Senator) of Rome (Patricius Romanorum) and made himself de facto ruler of Rome. After being deposed, he led a rebellion, seized control of Rome, and appointed an antipope, but the rebellion failed and Crescentius was eventually executed.

Gregory V

Gregory V may refer to:

Pope Gregory V, Pope from 996 to 999

Gregory V of Cilicia 1193–1194

Patriarch Gregory V of Alexandria, Patriarch of Alexandria from 1484 to 1486

Patriarch Gregory V of Constantinople, Patriarch of Constantinople from 1797 to 1798, from 1806 to 1808, and from 1818 to 1821

Hartwig (archbishop of Salzburg)

Hartwig (Latin: Hartwicus; died 5 December 1023) was the archbishop of Salzburg from 991 until his death. He was a younger son of the Bavarian count palatine Hartwig of the Aribonid family. The Gesta archiepiscoporum Salisburgensium calls him a "friend of divine praise" (divinae laudis amicus).On 23 December 970, Hartwig became a subdeacon in Salzburg Cathedral. On 19 September 973 he was promoted to deacon, and on 18 September 985 he was ordained a priest. On 12 August 991 he was consecrated as the successor to Archbishop Frederick. He took part in the Easter synod at Ingelheim that denied the validity of the election of Gerbert of Aurillac to the vacant archdiocese of Reims.In 996, Hartwig accompanied the young king, Otto III, to Rome for his imperial coronation in May. There he participated in the election and ordination of Pope Gregory V, who performed the coronation. For his role in the coronation, Otto granted Hartwig the right to hold a market at Salzburg and the right to mint coin. A record of the various gifts and transactions of Hartwig's episcopate has survived in the form of a "tradition book" (Traditionsbuch).After Otto's death, Henry supported the election of Henry II, whom he accompanied to Mainz for his coronation in 1002. Thereafter the king showered him with gifts and privileges. In 1007, Hartwig was present when Henry founded the diocese of Bamberg. In 1012, he was present at the consecration of the new cathedral. In 1014, he was present at the coronation of Henry as Holy Roman Emperor in Rome.In his later yearst, Hartwig extended the choir of the cathedral. He worked with Anastasius Aschericus, the archbishop of Esztergom, to establish the Hungarian mission field. In 1020 he received six Königshufen (literally "royal hooves", an old unit of land) at Bamberg.

Henry of Speyer

Henry of Speyer (German: Heinrich von Speyer, also Heinrich von Worms; c. 970 – 989/992), a member of the Salian dynasty, was count in the Rhenish Franconian Wormsgau. He was the father of Emperor Conrad II.

According to the 977 donation deed of Lambrecht Abbey, Henry was the eldest son of Count Otto von Worms (d. 1004), Duke of Carinthia from 978 to 983 and again from 995, and his wife Judith. He married Adelaide of Metz (d. 1039/46), a sister of the Lorraine counts Gerhard III and Adalbert II. The marriage produced a son, Conrad (c. 990 – 1039), who was elected King of the Romans in 1024 and crowned Holy Roman Emperor three years later, and a daughter, Judith. Henry's younger brother Bruno was elected Pope Gregory V in 996, his brother Conrad I succeeded their father as Duke of Carinthia in 1004.

Little is known of Henry's life, since he died at around the age of 20, even predeceasing his father Otto. He is buried in Worms Cathedral along with his daughter Judith. Adelaide outlived her husband by many years; she secondly married another Franconian count, possibly from the Elder House of Babenberg (Popponids), and died in 1046.

John Canaparius

John Canaparius (German: Johannes Canaparius) was a Benedictine monk at the Aventine monastery in Rome. It had long been assumed that in the year 999 he wrote the first Vita sancti Adalberti episcopi Pragensis, or "Life of St. Adalbert of Prague" just two years after Adalbert's death.

Adalbert was sent by Pope Gregory V to convert the pagan Old Prussians to Christianity and had come to Prussia, apparently taking the route along the Vistula River to reach the Baltic Sea at „urbem Gyddanyzc“., which is identified with the later Gdańsk (Danzig). Then a small trading and fishing settlement with wooden buildings, it was anyway recorded by Canaparius as „urbs“, city.

It is, however, now assumed by Johannes Fried, that the 'Vita' was not written by Canaparius, but was written down in Liège, with the oldest traceable version having been at the imperial Adalbert shrine at Aachen. It was only recently recovered at the Marienstift, and is used to reconstruct the archetype of the 'Vita'. Bishop Notger of Liège, a hagiographer himself, apparently had knowledge of the earlier handwritten Vita from Aachen. The imperial court at Aachen had in 997 assembled immediately upon receiving word of Adalbert's death and had thereupon planned the upcoming events.

Another famous biographer of Adalbert was St. Bruno of Querfurt who wrote his hagiography in 1001-1004.

Nikolaus von Jeroschin translated the Vita Sancti Adalberti into Middle High German in the 14th century.

Leo of Vercelli

Leo (c.965–1026) was a German prelate who served as the Bishop of Vercelli from 999. Born in Hildesheim, he was made an archdeacon by 998 and was appointed to the see of Vercelli as the candidate of the Emperor Otto III and Pope Sylvester II following the assassination of Bishop Peter. He worked tirelessly for the extension of imperial authority in Italy during the reigns of Otto III, Henry II and Conrad II. He worked for the imperial chancery, receiving the high rank and title of logothete.

Only a few of Leo's writings have survived, and only one of his epistles. A notable Latin verse encomium written at Rome praises Otto III and Pope Gregory V. He also left behind an elegy of his diocesan predecessor and the so-called Metrum leonis, a sometimes-rhyming adonic poem with fabulous and personal elements.

List of ages of popes

This is a list of ages of popes.

Nilus the Younger

Saint Nilus the Younger, (Italian: San Nilo di Rossano, Greek: Όσιος Νείλος, ο εκ Καλαβρίας), (910 – December 27, 1005), was a monk, abbot, and founder of Italo-Greek monasticism in southern Italy. He is venerated as a saint in the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches, and his feast day is celebrated on September 26 in both the Byzantine Calendar and the Roman Martyrology.

Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor

Otto III (June/July 980 – 23 January 1002) was Holy Roman Emperor from 996 until his early death in 1002. A member of the Ottonian dynasty, Otto III was the only son of the Emperor Otto II and his wife Theophanu.

Otto III was crowned as King of Germany in 983 at the age of three, shortly after his father's death in Southern Italy while campaigning against the Byzantine Empire and the Emirate of Sicily. Though the nominal ruler of Germany, Otto III's minor status ensured his various regents held power over the Empire. His cousin Henry II, Duke of Bavaria, initially claimed regency over the young king and attempted to seize the throne for himself in 984. When his rebellion failed to gain the support of Germany's aristocracy, Henry II was forced to abandon his claims to the throne and to allow Otto III's mother Theophanu to serve as regent until her death in 991. Otto III was then still a child, so his grandmother, the Dowager Empress Adelaide of Italy, served as regent until 994.

In 996, Otto III marched to Italy to claim the titles King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor, which had been left unclaimed since the death of Otto II in 983. Otto III also sought to reestablish Imperial control over the city of Rome, which had revolted under the leadership of Crescentius II, and through it the papacy. Crowned as Emperor, Otto III put down the Roman rebellion and installed his cousin as Pope Gregory V, the first Pope of German descent. After the Emperor had pardoned him and left the city, Crescentius II again rebelled, deposing Gregory V and installing John XVI as Pope. Otto III returned to the city in 998, reinstalled Gregory V, and executed both Crescentius II and John XVI. When Gregory V died in 999, Otto III installed Sylvester II as the new Pope. Otto III's actions throughout his life further strengthened imperial control over the Catholic Church.

From the beginning of his reign, Otto III faced opposition from the Slavs along the eastern frontier. Following the death of his father in 983, the Slavs rebelled against imperial control, forcing the Empire to abandon its territories east of the Elbe river. Otto III fought to regain the Empire's lost territories throughout his reign with only limited success. While in the east, Otto III strengthened the Empire's relations with Poland, Bohemia, and Hungary. Through his affairs in Eastern Europe in 1000, he was able to extend the influence of Christianity by supporting mission work in Poland and through the crowning of Stephen I as the first Christian king of Hungary.

Returning to Rome in 1001, Otto faced a rebellion by the Roman aristocracy, which forced him to flee the city. While marching to reclaim the city in 1002, Otto suffered a sudden fever and died in Castle Paterno in Faleria at the age of 21. With no clear heir to succeed him, his early death threw the Empire into political crisis.

Pope Gregory

Gregory has been the name of sixteen Roman Catholic Popes and two Antipopes. The Latin name is Gregorius.

Pope Gregory I "the Great" (590–604), after whom the Gregorian chant is named

Pope Gregory II (715–731)

Pope Gregory III (731–741)

Pope Gregory IV (827–844)

Pope Gregory V (996–999)

Pope Gregory VI (1045–1046)

Antipope Gregory VI

Pope Gregory VII (1073–1085), after whom the Gregorian Reform is named

Pope Gregory VIII (1187)

Antipope Gregory VIII

Pope Gregory IX (1227–1241)

Pope Gregory X (1271–1276)

Pope Gregory XI (1370–1378)

Pope Gregory XII (1406–1415)

Pope Gregory XIII (1572–1585), after whom the Gregorian calendar is named

Pope Gregory XIV (1590–1591)

Pope Gregory XV (1621–1623)

Pope Gregory XVI (1831–1846)

Saint-Flour, Cantal

Saint-Flour (French: [sɛ̃fluʁ]; Auvergnat: Sant Flor) is a commune in the Cantal department in the Auvergne region in south-central France, around 101km south of Clermont-Ferrand. Its inhabitants are called Sanflorains.

Warmund

Warmund, in Latin Warmundus (died 1002×1011), was the bishop of Ivrea from about 966 until his death. Warmund is the namesake of the so-called "Warmund Sacramentary", an illustrated manuscript produced for him around the year 1000.

Nothing is known with certainty of Warmund's early life, although his birth has been estimated to fall around 930. The historian Luigi Moreno is responsible for much of the unfounded speculation that surrounds Warmund's family and education: that he adopted the surname of the Arborio family of Vercelli, where he first studied letters, and subsequently studied canon law at either Bologna or Pavia.It is also uncertain when Warmund became bishop. His first recorded act was signing the canons of the synod of Milan in absentia in November 969, but he was probably consecrated as bishop on Sunday, 7 March 966. In the eleventh century, a scribe added the note that "Warmund is consecrated bishop" beside the Nonas marcii ("nones [i.e., the 7th] of March") in the calendar preface to a ninth-century copy of the Martyrology of Adon. Although no year is given, the year can be deduced from the fact that bishops were consecrated on Sundays and the last nones of March to fall on a Sunday before the synod of Milan was in 966. Bishop Luigi Bettazzi of Ivrea, in his commentary on the Warmund Sacramentary, suggested that Warmund was "of German birth", appointed bishop by the Emperor Otto I in order to secure Ivrea's loyalty to the Italo-German empire Otto was forging. The name Warmund, which means "mouth of truth" in German, was widely used in Germany in the 10th century.Warmund's activity between 969 and 996 is undocumented, but he was probably occupied in the 980s with the rebuilding of the cathedral of Ivrea. A contemporary inscription on a stone tablet built into the choir records that "Bishop Warmund built this from the ground up". Besides the choir, he also constructed twin bell towers to house the new larger bells. He also performed work on the ambulatory and crypt, and it is probably in connexion with his renovations that he commissioned the scriptorium to produce a sacramentary and other texts for the new altars.From 996 to 998, Warmund was forced from his see by the margrave of Ivrea, Arduin, over land disputes. In 999, Peter, the bishop of Vercelli, was killed when Arduin's men besieged his town and burned down his church with him and his canons inside. This provoked Warmund to excommunicate Arduin, an action which is well documented in the books Warmund commissioned. The sermon Warmund preached threatening Arduin with excommunication has been preserved, as have the actual excommunication formula as pronounced in the cathedral, a letter from Warmund to Pope Gregory V explaining the situation, the pope's letter to Arduin and the public condemnation of Arduin by Pope Sylvester II and the Emperor Otto III during an Easter synod at Rome in the year 1000. Warmund was probably present at this synod. On 9 July 1000, the Emperor Otto III confirmed in a diploma that the city of Ivrea belonged to the jurisdiction of the bishop.According to Jean-Claude Schmitt, Warmund's sacramentary is of great importance for the study of medieval mourning and burial practices.Warmund disappears from the record after 1002. The French historian Pierre-Alain Mariaux has argued that he died on 1 August of some year between 1002 and 1006, but the Italian historian Adriano Peroni places his death in 1011. Warmund was beatified on 17 September 1857 at the insistence of Bishop Luigi Moreno of Ivrea, who also published (anonymously) a biography of Warmund in 1858. His feast is celebrated on 13 November with the other bishop-saints of Ivrea.

Willigis

Saint Willigis (Latin: Willigisus; German: Willigis, Willegis; c. 940 – 23 February 1011 AD) was Archbishop of Mainz from 975 until his death as well as archchancellor of the Holy Roman Empire.

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