Pope Gregory IV

Pope Gregory IV (Latin: Gregorius IV; d. 25 January 844) was Pope from October 827 to his death in 844.[1] His pontificate was notable for the papacy’s attempts to intervene in the quarrels between the emperor Louis the Pious and his sons. It also saw the breakup of the Carolingian Empire in 843.


Gregory IV
101-Gregory IV
Papacy beganOctober 827
Papacy ended25 January 844
SuccessorSergius II
Created cardinal797
by Leo III
Personal details
Birth nameGregorius
BornRome, Papal States
Died25 January 844
Rome, Papal States
Other popes named Gregory

Early career

The son of a Roman patrician called John, Gregory was apparently an energetic but mild churchman, renowned for his learning.[2] Consecrated a priest during the pontificate of Pope Paschal I, at the time of Pope Valentine’s death in 827, Gregory was the Cardinal priest of the Basilica of St Mark in Rome.[3] Like his predecessor, Gregory was nominated by the nobility, and the electors unanimously agreed that he was the most worthy to become the Bishop of Rome. They found him at the Basilica of Saints Cosmas and Damian where, despite his protestations, he was taken and installed at the Lateran Palace, after which he was enthroned as Pope-elect sometime in October 827.[4][5] Gregory’s elevation to the papal see is believed to represent a continuation of the attempts to control the local political situation in Rome which had begun during Pope Eugene II’s pontificate.[6]

His consecration was delayed, however, until March 29, 828, when he received notice of the Emperor Louis’ approval of his election. This delay was enforced by the imperial envoys, who insisted that the Constitution of 824 expressly forbid the consecration of any Pope-elect until the emperor had satisfied himself of the validity of the election.[7] It was said that the emperor reprimanded Gregory for attempting to have himself consecrated before receiving the approval of the emperor.[8] Gregory complied with these demands of imperial supremacy, and in 828 and 829, the Pope sent embassies to Louis for unspecified discussions.

In January 829, Gregory was involved in a dispute with Farfa Abbey over the ownership of local monastic land by the Roman church. In a court run by a bishop and a representative of the emperor, and in the presence of Gregory, Ingoald, the Abbot of Farfa, claimed that the Frankish emperors had granted them the lands, and that Popes Adrian I and Leo III had taken possession of the land illegally.[9] The imperial representative made a ruling in favour of the abbey, and that the lands were to be restored to the monastery.[10] Although Gregory refused to accept the ruling, there is no evidence that he managed to get the decision overturned.[11]

The quarrels of the Carolingians

Gregory-IV Raban-Maur
Pope Gregory IV (in the middle) receives a book from Rabanus Maurus (on the right)

In 817, by a solemn deed, confirmed by Paschal I, Louis had made a division of the empire in favour of his three sons by his first wife: the future emperor Lothair I, Pepin I of Aquitaine, and Louis the German. Over time, Papal dependence on the Holy Roman Emperor was loosened through the quarrels of Louis the Pious and his sons. Louis’ decision to jettison the agreement of 817 regarding the division of the empire by assigning a kingdom to his youngest son, Charles the Bald, in 829 was criticized by Gregory in a letter to the Frankish bishops.[12] The following year (October 830), after a brief rebellion and reconciliation between Louis and his sons, Gregory declared that Louis’ second wife Judith was to be released from the convent where she had been forced to take the veil, and to be returned to Louis.[13]

When the war between father and sons resumed in Easter 833, Gregory was approached by Lothair, seeking his intervention to bring about reconciliation between Lothair and his father. He was convinced to leave Rome and travel up to join Lothair, in hopes that his intervention would promote peace,[14] but in practice this action annoyed the Frankish bishops who followed Louis, who believed that Gregory was actively supporting Lothair. Suspicious of Gregory’s intent, they refused to obey the Pope, and threatened to excommunicate him, were he to excommunicate them, and even to depose him as Pope.[15] Annoyed by their actions, Gregory's response was to insist upon the primacy of St Peter's successor, the papacy being superior to the Emperor. He stated:

”You professed to have felt delighted when you heard of my arrival, thinking that it would have been of great advantage for the emperor and the people; you added that you would have obeyed my summons had not a previous intimation of the emperor prevented you. But you ought to have regarded an order from the Apostolic See as not less weighty than one from the emperor. ...The government of souls, which belongs to bishops, is more important than the imperial, which is only concerned with the temporal. Your assertion that I have only come to blindly excommunicate is shameless, and your offer to give me an honourable reception if I should have come exactly in the way the emperor wanted me to is contemptuous. With regards to the oaths I have taken to the emperor, I will avoid perjury by pointing out to the emperor what he has done against the unity and peace of the Church and his kingdom. With regards to the bishops, in opposing my efforts in behalf of peace, what they threaten has not been done, from the beginning of the Church.”[16]

Regardless of this claim, the vast bulk of the Frankish bishops maintained that the pope had no business interfering in the internal affairs of the kingdom, or in expecting the Frankish clergy to follow his lead in such matters. Their position was clear, that the equality of all the bishops outranked the leadership of the pope.[17]

The armies of Louis and two of his sons met at Rotfeld, near Colmar, on June 24, 833. The sons persuaded Gregory to go to Louis's camp to negotiate, and initially Louis refused to treat Gregory with any honour. However, Gregory managed to convince Louis of his good faith, and returned to Lothair to arrange a peace.[18] However, Gregory soon learned that he had been deceived by Lothair. Gregory was prevented from returning to the emperor, while Louis was deserted by his supporters and was forced to surrender unconditionally; Louis was deposed and humiliated at the Campus Mendacii, and Lothair was proclaimed emperor.[19] Following these events, Gregory returned to Rome. A second fraternal quarrel resulted in Louis was being restored in 834, but his position was sufficiently weakened that Lothair retained the Kingdom of Italy.

The emperor then sent a delegation to see Gregory, headed by St. Anschar, the Archbishop of Hamburg and Bremen, to question the Pope on the events which led to Louis’s removal from the throne by Lothair. Gregory swore an oath that his intentions were honourable, and that he had always sought to achieve a peaceful solution to the conflict between Louis and his sons. Accepting Gregory’s word, the envoys returned to Louis.[20] After this failure in dabbling in imperial politics, Gregory by and large focused his attention for the rest of his pontificate in dealing with internal church matters.[21]

In 836, Lothair, in his role as King of the Lombards, began stripping the possessions of the Roman church. After appealing to Louis, the emperor sent an imperial envoy to investigate the matter. Although Gregory was sick, he managed to advise the envoy of the situation, and asked him to take a letter to the emperor outlining Lothair’s attacks on the Church, which they managed to get past Lothair’s troops at Bologna.[22] Then in 840, with Louis’ death and the accession of Lothair as emperor, war again erupted between the sons of Louis. Gregory made unsuccessful attempts to mediate in the conflict that ensued between the brothers, sending George, the Archbishop of Ravenna as his representative.[23] According to Prudentius of Troyes, George faithfully tried to achieve his objective, but failed due to Lothair’s refusal to allow George to see Lothair’s brothers. However, according to Andreas Agnellus, George tried to bribe Lothair to make his archbishopric independent of Rome, and was captured at the Battle of Fontenoy.[24] The subsequent Treaty of Verdun in 843 broke up the empire of Charlemagne, with Lothair retaining the imperial title and control of Italy.

Building activities and religious issues

The interior of St Mark’s Basilica in Rome, including the Byzantine mosaics commissioned by Gregory IV

Gregory also contributed to the architectural development of Rome. In 833, Gregory completely rebuilt St Mark’s Basilica in Rome, adorning the walls with Byzantine-style mosaics,[25] as well as a number of other churches which he either repaired or rebuilt. He rebuilt the atrium of St. Peter’s Basilica, and within the newly decorated chapel within the basilica he transferred the body of Saint Gregory, and from the Catacombs of Rome, he moved Saint Sebastian, Saint Tiburtius, and Saint Gorgonius.[26] He raised the altar in the church of Santa Maria in Trastevere, and founded a monastery close to the church.[27]

Gregory also repaired the Aqua Traiana, which had been damaged during the pontificate of Leo III.[28] Sometime after 841 Gregory rebuilt and fortified parts of the port of Ostia against the attacks of Saracens, renaming it Gregoriopolis.[29] Around the same time he restored the colony of Galeria along the Via Portuensis, while also establishing a new colony, called Draco, along the left bank of the Tiber River, some eleven miles from Rome along the Via Ostiensis. This was the first clear example of land development undertaken by a Pope within his own territory.[30]

Gregory’s pontificate witnessed the end of the iconoclasm controversy in the Byzantine Empire,[31] while Gregory himself promoted the celebration of the feast of All Saints within the Frankish kingdom on both sides of the Rhine River.[32] Gregory is also known for his appointment of Ansgar as Archbishop of Hamburg and Bremen in 832, and as the apostolic legate to the northern and eastern parts of Europe.[33] On March 31, 837, Gregory sent the Pallium to the Archbishop of Salzburg; he also sent one to Venerius, the Patriarch of Grado, in 828, in support of his claims to have jurisdiction over the bishops of Istria. When a synod awarded jurisdiction to Maxentius, the Patriarch of Aquileia, Venerius appealed to Gregory, who supported him. Meanwhile, the Lombard King Lothair backed Maxentius, who forced the bishops of Istria to obey him, while at the same time ignoring Gregory’s orders to cease.[34] Gregory also supported the candidacy of John IV (Bishop of Naples).[35]

Gregory was also asked to arbitrate during his journey to Francia in 833 the case against Aldric of Le Mans, who was being forced out of his see by partisans of Lothair.[36] On July 8 833, Gregory wrote to the bishops of “Gaul, Europe and Germany” declaring that Aldric had every right to appeal to the pope, and that until the pope had issued a judgement one way or the other, no-one could pass a sentence against him. Further, that this mandate had to be obeyed in order to remain in communion with the Roman church.[37] The letter together with the restoration of Louis allowed Aldric to remain in his see for some time.[38]

Gregory was also asked by emperor Louis’s representative, Amalarius of Metz, to provide an Antiphonary for use at church services at Metz, to which Gregory was forced to admit that he had none suitable for the emperor, as he had already given a number to Wala of Corbie, which he had already taken to Francia.[39]

On January 25, 844, Gregory IV died,[6] and was buried in St. Peter’s Basilica. He was succeeded by Pope Sergius II.

See also


  1. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope Gregory IV" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  2. ^ Mann, pg. 190; DeCormenin, pg. 218
  3. ^ Mann, pg. 189
  4. ^ Mann, pg. 190
  5. ^ Hughes, Philip, History of the Church, Vol II (1948), pg. 183
  6. ^ a b Levillain, pg. 644
  7. ^ Levillain, pg. 644; Mann, pg. 191
  8. ^ DeCormenin, pg. 218
  9. ^ Mann, pgs. 191-192
  10. ^ DeCormenin, pg. 219
  11. ^ Mann, pg. 192
  12. ^ Mann, pg. 194
  13. ^ Mann, pgs. 195-196
  14. ^ Mann, pgs. 197-198
  15. ^ Mann, pgs. 199-200; DeCormenin, pg. 219
  16. ^ Mann, pgs. 201-202
  17. ^ Noble, Thomas, The Papacy in the Eighth and Ninth Centuries, in The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume 1 (1995), pg. 584
  18. ^ Mann, pgs. 202-203
  19. ^ Mann, pg. 203
  20. ^ DeCormenin, pg. 220
  21. ^ Levillain, pg. 644; Mann, pgs. 204-205
  22. ^ Mann, pgs. 205-206
  23. ^ Mann, pg. 207
  24. ^ Mann, pgs. 207-208
  25. ^ Mann, pgs. 189-190
  26. ^ Goodson, Caroline, The Rome of Pope Paschal I (2010), pg. 278
  27. ^ Mann, pg. 218
  28. ^ Mann, pg. 217
  29. ^ Mann, pg. 216; DeCormenin, pg. 219
  30. ^ Levillain, pg. 644; Mann, pgs. 217-218
  31. ^ Mann, pgs. 212-213
  32. ^ Mann, pg. 230
  33. ^ Mann, pgs. 219-220
  34. ^ Mann, pgs. 222-223
  35. ^ Mann, pg. 224
  36. ^ Mann, pg. 226
  37. ^ Mann, pg. 227
  38. ^ Mann, pgs. 227-228
  39. ^ Mann, pgs. 228-229


  • Levillain, Philippe, The Papacy: Gaius-Proxies, Routledge (2002)
  • Mann, Horace K., The Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages, Vol. II: The Popes During the Carolingian Empire, 795-858 (1906)
  • DeCormenin, Louis Marie; Gihon, James L., A Complete History of the Popes of Rome, from Saint Peter, the First Bishop to Pius the Ninth (1857)

External links

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Sergius II

Year 827 (DCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.


The 830s decade ran from January 1, 830, to December 31, 839.

== Events ==

=== 830 ===

==== By place ====

====== Britain ======

King Wiglaf of Mercia regains control from Wessex, and returns to the throne.

====== Byzantine Empire ======

June 5 – 16-year-old Emperor Theophilos marries the Armenian noblewoman Theodora, in the Hagia Sophia at Constantinople. He chooses her during a representation of a bride-show; she becomes empress (Augusta) of the Byzantine Empire.

Byzantine–Arab War: Muslim reinforcements from Ifriqiya and Al-Andalus (modern Spain) defeat Byzantine forces under Theodotus in Sicily, but a plague once again compels them to retreat to Mazara del Vallo, and evacuate to North Africa.

====== Europe ======

Emperor Louis the Pious returns from a campaign in Brittany, and is captured by his son Pepin I, king of Aquitaine. He is put under house arrest at Compiegne, and his wife Judith is incarcerated at Poitiers.

====== North Africa ======

The Ad-dimnah Hospital (bimaristan) is created in Kairouan (modern Tunisia), by the Aghlabid emir Ziyadat Allah I.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Nennius, Welsh abbot of Bangor Fawr, compiles the Historia Brittonum. He is also known for the Historia's list of the 12 battles of King Arthur (approximate date).

Hirsau Abbey (modern Germany) is founded by the Rhenish Franconian count Erlafried of Calw (approximate date).

Ansgar, a Frankish missionary, visits the trade city Birka, located at Lake Mälaren in Sweden (approximate date).

=== 831 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Byzantine–Arab War: Emperor Theophilos invades the Abbasid dominions, and reaches the Euphrates River in north-eastern Syria. He captures and sacks the city of Tarsus, but is defeated in Cappadocia.

Summer – Muslim Arabs under Caliph Al-Ma'mun launch an invasion into Anatolia (modern Turkey), and capture a number of Byzantine forts. Heraclea Cybistra and Tyana fall to the Arabs.

Fall – Muslim Arabs reinvade Sicily, and lay siege to Palermo. Symeon, Byzantine commander of the imperial bodyguard (spatharios), surrenders the city in exchange for a safe departure.

====== Europe ======

Emperor Louis the Pious is reinstated as sole ruler of the Frankish Empire. He promises his sons Pepin I and Louis the German a greater share of the inheritance. His eldest son Lothair I is pardoned, but disgraced and banished to Italy.

February – Empress Judith stands trial to "undergo the judgment of the Franks" for an assembly arranged by Louis the Pious. She is exiled and sent to the convent of St. Radegund at Poitiers.

Omurtag, ruler (khan) of the Bulgarian Empire, dies after a 17-year reign. He is succeeded by his youngest son Malamir, because his older brother Enravota favours Christianity.

Nominoe, duke of Brittany, is designated missus imperatoris (imperial emissary) by Louis the Pious, at Ingelheim (modern Germany).

====== China ======

A Uyghur Turk sues the son of a Chinese general, who had failed to repay a debt of 11 million government-issued copper coins. Emperor Wen Zong hears the news, and is so upset that he not only banishes the general, but attempts to ban all trade between Chinese and foreigners except for goods and livestock. This ban is unsuccessful, and trade with foreigners resumes, especially in maritime affairs overseas.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Summer – Ansgar, Frankish missionary, founds the first church at Birka (modern Sweden).

Ansgar is consecrated; he travels to Rome to receive the pallium from Pope Gregory IV.

=== 832 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Byzantine–Arab War: The Byzantine fortress of Loulon (modern Turkey) is captured by the Abbasids. Its garrison surrenders to Caliph Al-Ma'mun, after a lengthy siege.

====== Europe ======

King Pepin I of Aquitaine, and his brother Louis the German, revolt against their father, Emperor Louis the Pious. They gather an army of Slav allies and conquer Swabia.

Berengar the Wise, count (or duke) of Toulouse, attacks the Frankish domains of Bernard of Septimania, taking Roussillon (along with Vallespir, Razès, and Conflent).

====== Britain ======

The Flag of Scotland: According to legend, King Óengus II of Fortriu leads an army of Picts and Scots, against the invading Angles from Northumbria, near Athelstaneford.

The town of Clondalkin (modern Ireland) is sacked by Vikings from Denmark, and the monastery is burnt to the ground.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Emperor Theophilos promulgates a new edict against the usage of icons in the Byzantine Empire. He establishes strict punishments against idolators, and persecutes violators.

The second St. Mark's Basilica in Venice (replacing an older church at a different location) is built, and becomes one of the best known examples of Italo-Byzantine architecture.

=== 833 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Byzantine-Arab War: Emperor Theophilos signs an armistice for peace with the Abbasid Caliphate. He offers Caliph Al-Ma'mun 100,000 gold dinars, in return for 7,000 Byzantine prisoners.

====== Europe ======

June – Lothair I, eldest son of Emperor Louis the Pious, joins the rebellion of his brothers Pepin I and Louis the German, with the assistance of Archbishop Ebbo. Louis is forced to abdicate, on the plains of Rothfield (near Colmar).

Mojmir I, Moravian duke, expels Prince Pribina from his homeland (western part of modern Slovakia). He unifies Great Moravia and becomes the first known ruler of the Moravian Slavs, who founds the House of Mojmir (approximate date).

Galindo Aznárez I, Frankish count, usurps the Catalan counties (pagi) of Pallars and Ribagorza, in the Spanish March (modern Spain), a buffer zone between the Pyrenees and the Ebro River.

====== Abbasid Caliphate ======

August 7 – Caliph Al-Ma'mun dies after a 20-year reign. He is succeeded two days later by his half-brother al-Mu'tasim, as ruler of the Abbasid Caliphate.

Ibn Hisham, Muslim historian, collects oral traditions that form the basis for the biography of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

====== Japan ======

Emperor Junna abdicates the throne, after a 10-year reign. He is succeeded by his nephew Nimmyō, as the 54th emperor of Japan.

=== 834 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

March 1 – Emperor Louis the Pious is restored as sole ruler of the Frankish Empire. After his re-accession to the throne, his eldest son Lothair I flees to Burgundy.

Danish Vikings raid the trading settlement of Dorestad (present-day Wijk bij Duurstede), located in the south-east of the province of Utrecht (modern Netherlands).

Summer – The Viking ship of Oseberg near Tønsberg (modern Norway) is buried in a mound, during the Viking Age (approximate date).

The first mention is made of the Jona River ('the cold one') in Switzerland (approximate date).

====== Britain ======

King Óengus II dies after a 14-year reign. He is succeeded by his nephew Drest IX, as ruler of the Picts.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

July 20 – Ansegisus, Frankish abbot and advisor of former emperor Charlemagne, dies at Fontenelle Abbey in Normandy (or 833).

=== 835 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Ragnar Lodbrok, a Norse Viking ruler, rises to power. He becomes the scourge of France and England (approximate date).

====== Britain ======

Danish Viking raiders ally with the Cornish, against the rule of King Egbert of Wessex (approximate date).

The Isle of Sheppey (off the northern coast of Kent) comes under Viking attack, during the Viking Age.

====== China ======

December 14 – Sweet Dew Incident: Emperor Wen Zong plots to free the court from the influence of his palace eunuchs. In the northeast sector of the capital Chang'an, after the failure of the emperor's chancellor Li Zhongyan to subdue the eunuchs' influence, troops under the eunuchs' command slaughter many officials and other associates.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

November 1 – Pope Gregory IV promotes the celebration of the feast of All Saints, throughout the Frankish Empire.

=== 836 ===

==== By place ====

====== Abbasid Caliphate ======

Driven by tensions between his favoured Turkish guard and the populace of Baghdad, Abbasid caliph al-Mu'tasim moves his residence to the new city of Samarra, 130 km north of Baghdad. With brief interruptions, the city will remain the seat of the Abbasid caliphs until 892.

====== Britain ======

Danish Vikings arrive in West Saxon, North Devon and Somerset. King Egbert of Wessex fights them at the Battle of Carhampton, but he is forced to withdraw.

====== Europe ======

July 4 – Pactum Sicardi: Prince Sicard of Benevento signs a 5-year armistice with the duchies of Sorrento, Naples and Amalfi. He recognizes the trade of merchants among the three cities in Southern Italy.

Malamir, ruler (khan) of the Bulgarian Empire, dies after a 4-year reign and is succeeded by his nephew Presian I. Because of his young age and inexperience, the Bulgarian state affairs are dominated by his minister and commander-in-chief Isbul.

Pietro Tradonico is appointed doge of Venice (until 864).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

The Basilica of St. Castor in Koblenz (Rhineland-Pfalz) is constructed.

The oldest known mention is made of the city of Soest (modern Germany).

=== 837 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Byzantine–Arab War: Emperor Theophilos leads a Byzantine expeditionary force (70,000 men) into Mesopotamia. He sacks the cities Arsamosata and Sozopetra—which some sources claim as the birthplace of Abbasid caliph Al-Mu'tasim—and forces Melitene to pay tribute.

The Slavs in the vicinity of Thessaloniki revolt against the Byzantine Empire. Theophilos undertakes an evacuation of some Byzantine captives, who are settled in trans-Danubian Bulgaria.

====== Europe ======

Presian I, ruler (khan) of the Bulgarian Empire, sends his prime-minister Isbul against the Smolyani (a Slavic tribe in Byzantine territory near the Struma River). The Bulgarian army campaigns along the Aegean coasts, and conquers most of Thrace and Macedonia, including the fortress city of Philippi (see Presian Inscription).

The city of Naples (modern Italy) is attacked by Saracens from Egypt demanding an annual payment (approximate date).

====== Britain ======

King Drest IX dies after a 3-year reign. He is succeeded by his cousin Eóganan, as ruler of the Picts.

==== By topic ====

====== Astronomy ======

April 10 – Comet Halley passes approximately 5 million km from Earth, its closest ever approach.

=== 838 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

July 22 – Battle of Dazimon: Caliph Al-Mu'tasim launches a major punitive expedition against the Byzantine Empire, targeting the two major Byzantine fortress cities of central Anatolia (Ancyra and Amorium). He mobilises a vast army (80,000 men) at Tarsus, which is divided into two main forces. The northern force, under commander Al-Afshin, invades the Armeniac Theme from the region of Melitene, joining up with the forces of the city's emir, Umar al-Aqta. The southern, main force, under Al-Mu'tasim, passes the Cilician Gates into Cappadocia. Emperor Theophilos attacks the Abbasids, inflicting 3,000 casualties, but is later heavily defeated by a counter-attack of 10,000 Turkish horse archers. Theophilos and his guard are encircled, and barely manage to break through and escape.

August – Siege of Amorium: The Abbasids besiege the Byzantine fortress city of Amorium, which is protected by 44 towers, according to the contemporary geographer Ibn Khordadbeh. Both besiegers and besieged have many siege engines, and for several days both sides exchange missile fire. However, a Muslim prisoner defects to Al-Mu'tasim, and informs him about a place in the wall which has been badly damaged by heavy rainfall. The Abbasids concentrate their hits on this section, and after two days manage to breach the city wall. After two weeks of repeated attacks, the Byzantine defenders surrender. The city is sacked and plundered, 70,000 inhabitants are slaughtered, and the survivors are sold as slaves.

====== Europe ======

King Pepin I of Aquitaine dies after a 21-year reign. Emperor Louis the Pious appoints his youngest son Charles the Bald as his successor. The Aquitainian nobility, however, elects Pepin's son Pepin II as the new Frankish ruler.

====== Britain ======

Battle of Hingston Down: The West Saxons, led by King Egbert of Wessex, defeat a combined force of Cornish and Danish Vikings, at Hingston Down in Cornwall.

King Fedelmid mac Crimthainn of Munster calls for a great royal meeting at Cluain-Conaire-Tommain, between himself and King Niall Caille mac Áeda of Uí Néill.

Approximate date – The Stone of Destiny, an oblong block of red sandstone, is placed at Scone Palace for the coronation of the first monarchs of Scotland.

====== Abbasid Caliphate ======

A conspiracy is discovered, led by General 'Ujayf ibn 'Anbasa, to assassinate Al-Mu'tasim while he is campaigning, and place his nephew Al-Abbas ibn al-Ma'mun on the throne. A widespread purge of the army follows, which cements the leading role of the Turkish slave-soldiers (ghilman) in the Abbasid military establishment.

Babak Khorramdin, an Iranian military leader, is cruelly executed by order of al-Mu'tasim.

The Yezidi rise up against the Abbasids (approximate date).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

The oldest known mention is made of the city of Rheine, on the Ems River (modern Germany).

The Khazars are converted to Judaism (approximate date).

=== 839 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Prince Sicard of Benevento is assassinated by a conspiracy among the nobility. He is succeeded by Radelchis I, chief army officer and treasurer of Sicard, who proclaims himself ruler of Benevento. He imprisons Siconulf, heir and brother of Sicard, in Taranto. But Amalfitan merchants, led by Landulf I, the gastald of Capua, and with the support of Guaifer, rescue him from prison. Siconulf is proclaimed prince of Salerno, and a civil war erupts, which splits the Lombard principality in Southern Italy.

Third Civil War: King Louis the German, grandson of Charlemagne, invades Swabia. His nephew, Pepin II of Aquitaine, and his Gascon subjects, conquer territory all the way to the Loire.

May 20 — Thirteen months before his death, Louis the Pious, successor to his father Charlemagne, consents to the division of Charlemagne's empire among his sons in a declaration at Worms. Upon Louis I's death in 840, Lothair (age 45) is devised Middle Francia that includes Switzerland and northern Italy; Louis the German (Louis II), age 36, receives Eastern Francia that includes much of Germany; and Charles the Bald (17) gets West Francia that incorporates most of France.

The Hungarians (also known as Magyars) who until then have lived east to the Carpathians, raid the Lower Danube at the request of the Bulgarian Empire against the Byzantine insurgents.

Approximate date – Danish Vikings return to ravage the Frisian coast (sacking Dorestad for the second time).

====== Britain ======

King Egbert of Wessex dies after a 37-year reign, and is succeeded by his son Æthelwulf ("Noble Wolf") as ruler of Wessex. Æthelwulf's eldest son, Æthelstan, is made sub-king of Kent, Essex, Surrey and Sussex, under his father.

Eóganan mac Óengusa, King of the Picts, his brother Bran, Áed mac Boanta, King of Dál Riata, "and others almost innumerable" are killed in a battle fought by the men of Fortriu in Scotland against Vikings. Alpín mac Echdach (Alpín II) apparently succeeds Áed.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

The first official mention of Andorra is recorded in the manuscripts of the cathedral at La Seu d'Urgell (modern Spain).


Year 831 (DCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.


Year 835 (DCCCXXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.


The 840s decade ran from January 1, 840, to December 31, 849.

== Events ==

=== 840 ===

==== By Place ====

====== Europe ======

June 20 – Emperor Louis the Pious falls ill and dies at his hunting lodge, on an island in the Rhine, near his imperial palace at Ingelheim, while suppressing a revolt. His eldest son Lothair I succeeds him as Holy Roman Emperor, and tries to seize all the territories of the late Charlemagne. The 17-year-old Charles the Bald becomes king of the Franks, and joins the fight with his half-brother Louis the German in resisting Lothair.

====== Britain ======

King Wigstan of Mercia, grandson of former ruler Wiglaf (see 839), declines his kingship in preference of the religious life. He asks his widowed mother, Princess Ælfflæd, to act as regent. A nobleman of the line of the late king Beornred, named Berhtric, wishes to marry her but he is a relative. Wigstan refuses the match, and is murdered by followers of Berhtric at Wistow. He is buried at Repton Abbey, and later revered as a saint. The Mercian throne is seized by Berhtric's father, Beorhtwulf.

Vikings make permanent settlements with their first 'wintering over', located at Lough Neagh in Northern Ireland (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

Emperor Wen Zong (Li Ang) dies after a 13-year reign, in which he has failed to break the power of his palace eunuchs. He is succeeded by his brother Wu Zong, as Chinese ruler of the Tang Dynasty.

The Yenisei Kirghiz settle along the Yenisei River, and sack with a force of around 80,000 horsemen the Uyghur capital, Ordu-Baliq (driving the Uyghurs out of Mongolia). This ends the Uyghur Khaganate.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Nobis becomes bishop of St. David's, in the Welsh Kingdom of Dyfed (approximate date).

=== 841 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

June 25 – Battle of Fontenay: Frankish forces of Emperor Lothair I, and his nephew Pepin II of Aquitaine, are defeated by allied forces of King Louis the German, and his half-brother Charles the Bald, at Fontenoy (Eastern France), in a civil war among the three surviving sons of the former emperor Louis the Pious. A total of 40,000 men are killed, including the Frankish nobles Gerard of Auvergne and Ricwin of Nantes, fighting on the side of Charles.

Summer – Vikings sail up the River Seine and devastate the city of Rouen in Normandy. They burn the Benedictine monastery of Jumièges Abbey; 68 captives are taken, and returned on payment of a ransom, by the monks of St. Denis.

====== Ireland ======

The town of Dyflin (meaning "Black Pool") or Dublin (modern Ireland) is founded by Norwegian Vikings, on the south bank of the River Liffey. The settlement is fortified with a ditch and an earth rampart, with a wooden palisade on top. The Norsemen establish a wool weaving industry, and there is also a slave trade. An artificial hill is erected, where the nobility meets to make laws and discuss policy.

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Constantine Kontomytes, Byzantine general (strategos) of the Thracesian Theme, inflicts a severe defeat on the Cretan Saracens. He leads a Byzantine expeditionary force, to raid the monastic community near Mount Latros (modern Turkey).

Venice sends a fleet of 60 galleys (each carrying 200 men) to assist the Byzantines in driving the Arabs from Crotone, but the attack fails. Muslim troops conquer the city of Brindisi (approximate date).

====== Abbasid Caliphate ======

A pro-Umayyad rebellion, led by al-Mubarqa in Palestine, breaks out against caliph al-Mu'tasim of the Abbasid Caliphate (ending in 842).

====== Asia ======

In the Chinese capital of Chang'an, the West Market (and East Market) are closed every night one hour and three quarters before dusk (by government order); the curfew signals by the sound of 300 beats to a loud gong. After the official markets have been closed for the night, small night markets in residential areas thrive with plenty of customers, despite government efforts to shut them down. With the decline of the government's authority (by mid 9th century), this edict (like many others) is largely ignored, as urban dwellers keep attending the night markets regardless.

=== 842 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

January 20 – Emperor Theophilos dies of dysentery at Constantinople, after a 12-year reign in which he expended much effort defending the eastern frontier against the invading Muslim Arabs. Theophilos is succeeded by his 2-year-old son Michael III, with his mother Theodora as regent and the 'temporary' sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire.

February 19 – The Medieval Iconoclastic Controversy ends as a council in Constantinople formally reinstates the veneration of icons in the churches.

====== Europe ======

February 14 – Oaths of Strasbourg: King Louis the German, ruler of East Francia, and his half-brother Charles the Bald, ruler of West Francia, meet with their armies at Strasbourg. They agree to swear allegiance (recorded in vernacular languages) to each other, and to support each other against their brother Lothair I (nominal emperor of all the Frankish kingdoms and the Holy Roman Empire).

March 20 – King Alfonso II of Asturias (Northern Spain) dies after a 50-year reign, in which he undertook numerous campaigns against the Muslim armies of the Umayyad Emirate of Córdoba, and allied himself with the late Charlemagne. The childless Alfonso chooses Ramiro I, son of former king Bermudo I, as his successor.

====== Britain ======

Uurad of the Picts dies after a 3-year reign, and is succeeded by his son Bridei VI, who contests his power with rival groups, led by Bruide son of Fokel and Kenneth MacAlpin.

Vikings attack the Irish monastery at Clonmacnoise from bases in Ireland.

====== Abbasid Caliphate ======

January 5 – Caliph Al-Mu'tasim dies at Samarra (modern Iraq), after an 8-year reign. He is succeeded by his son Al-Wathiq, as ruler of the Abbasid Caliphate.

=== 843 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

August – Treaty of Verdun: The Frankish Empire is divided into three kingdoms, between the three surviving sons of the late emperor Louis the Pious. King Louis the German receives the eastern portion (everything east of the River Rhine), called the Eastern Frankish Realm, which is the precursor to modern-day Germany. Emperor Lothair I receives the central portion (Low Countries, Alsace, Lorraine, Burgundy and the northern half of Italy), called the Central Frankish Realm. King Charles the Bald receives the western portion (everything west of the River Rhône), called the Western Frankish Realm, which later becomes modern-day France.

Battle of Messac: Breton forces under Erispoe, count of Vannes, defeat the Franks led by Renaud d'Herbauges, near the town of Messac, at the River Vilaine. This battle marks a Breton war between Charles the Bald and Nominoe, duke of Brittany.

Summer – Viking raiders attack Nantes, located on the River Loire; they kill the town's bishop along with many of the clergy, and murder men, women, and children. They plunder the western parts of Aquitaine, and reach an island north of the mouth of the River Garonne, near what later will be La Rochelle. There the Vikings bring materials from the mainland, and build houses to spend the winter.

====== Scotland ======

King Kenneth I (Cináed mac Ailpín) of the Scots also becomes king of the Picts; he is crowned (by the Stone of Destiny), as first monarch of the new nation of Scotland. The Alpin Dynasty of Scottish kings begins to reign.

====== Arabian Empire ======

Summer – A Byzantine expedition, led by Theoktistos, conquers Crete from the Saracens. After initial success, he is forced to abandon his army, due to political intrigues in Constantinople. The troops are left behind, and slaughtered by the Arabs.

Al-Andalus: The city of Zaragossa (modern Spain) rises against the Umayyad Emirate of Córdoba.

====== Asia ======

In the Chinese capital of Chang'an, a large fire consumes 4,000 homes, warehouses, and other buildings in the East Market, yet the rest of the city is at a safe distance from the blaze (which is largely quarantined in East Central Chang'an, thanks to the large width of roads in Chang'an that produce fire breaks).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Feast of Orthodoxy: Official end of Iconoclasm; Empress Theodora II restores the veneration of icons in the Orthodox churches in the Byzantine Empire.

Theodora II orders a persecution against the Paulicians throughout Anatolia; about 100,000 followers in the Byzantine Theme Armenia are massacred.

=== 844 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Spring – Battle of Mauropotamos: A Byzantine expedition under Theoktistos is sent to Anatolia (modern Turkey), against the Muslim Arabs of the Abbasid Caliphate, who have raided the Byzantine themes of Cappadocia, Anatolikon, Boukellarion, and Opsikion. The Byzantines are defeated, and many of the officers defect to the Arabs.

====== Europe ======

Viking raiders ascend the River Garonne as far as the city of Toulouse, and pillage the lands of Septimania. Part of the marauding Vikings invades Galicia (Northern Spain), where some perish in a storm at sea. After being defeated in Corunna, the Scandinavian raiders sack the Umayyad cities of Seville (see below), Niebla, Beja, and Lisbon.

Summer – King Charles the Bald struggles against the repeated rebellions in Aquitaine, and against the Bretons in West Francia. He besieges Bernard I at the Battle of Toulouse, while Duke Nominoe raids into Maine, and plunders other Frankish territory.

June 15 – Louis II, eldest son of Emperor Lothair I, is crowned king at Rome by Pope Sergius II, and becomes co-ruler of Middle Francia, and over Lombardy, Friuli, and Tuscany in Italy.

September 25–November 11 or 17 – Viking raid on Seville (844): Vikings arrive in Seville by the Guadalquivir, taking the city on October 1 or 3 and pillaging it; but are expelled by forces of the Emirate of Córdoba.

====== Britain ======

King Æthelred II of Northumbria is expelled from his kingdom by Rædwulf, who takes the throne. Rædwulf is later killed in battle against the Vikings, along with many of his noblemen. Æthelred returns and claims his right to rule.

King Merfyn Frych dies after a 24-year reign. He is succeeded by his son Rhodri Mawr ("the Great"), who becomes ruler of Gwynedd (Wales).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

January 25 – Pope Gregory IV dies after a 16-year reign, in which he has supported the Frankish policy of late emperor Louis the Pious, and established the observance of All Saints' Day. He is succeeded by Sergius II, as the 102nd pope of Rome. Sergius imprisons the antipope John VIII, and is elected by popular acclamation.

=== 845 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Byzantine–Arab War: A prisoner exchange occurs between the Byzantine Empire and the Abbasid Caliphate, at the River Lamos in Cilicia (modern Turkey). The exchanges last for 10 days, and the Byzantines recover 4,600 prisoners.

====== Europe ======

March 28 or 29 (Easter) – Siege of Paris: Viking forces under the Norse chieftain Ragnar Lodbrok enter the River Seine, with a fleet of 120 longships (5,000 men). They pass through the city of Rouen and plunder the countryside. King Charles the Bald assembles an army and sends it to protect Paris, the capital of the West Frankish Kingdom. Ragnar routs the enemy forces, and hangs 111 of their prisoners in honour of Odin. Charles — to keep them from plundering his kingdom — pays a large tribute of 7,000 livres (pounds) of silver or gold, in exchange for their leaving. The Vikings also sack the cities of Hamburg and Melun.

November 22 – Battle of Ballon: Frankish forces (3,000 men) led by Charles the Bald are defeated by Nominoe, count of Vannes, near Redon, Ille-et-Vilaine. After the battle, Brittany becomes a regnum 'kingdom' within the Frankish Empire.

Viking forces destroy Hamburg.

====== Asia ======

Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution: Emperor Wu Zong begins the persecution of Buddhists and other foreign religions in China, such as Zoroastrianism, Nestorian Christianity and Manichaeism. More than 4,600 monasteries, 40,000 temples and numerous shrines are destroyed. More than 260,000 Buddhist monks and nuns are forced to return to secular life.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

John Scotus Eriugena, Irish theologian, travels to France and takes over the Palatine Academy in Paris, at the invitation of Charles the Bald (approximate date).

=== 846 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Byzantine–Bulgarian War: The Bulgarians violate the peace treaty (see 815), and invade Macedonia along the River Struma. The cities of Serres and Philippi are devastated.

====== Europe ======

Summer – Breton forces under Nominoe occupy the Frankish cities of Nantes and Rennes. He makes raids in Anjou and threatens Bayeux. King Charles the Bald recognizes him as duke of Brittany.

Prince Pribina becomes a vassal of the Frankish Empire. King Louis the German grants him land near Lake Balaton (modern Hungary). He establishes Blatnohrad, capital of Balaton Principality.

Frankish forces led by Louis the German invade Moravia. They encounter little resistance, and depose King Mojmir I from the throne. His relative, Rastislav, is set up as the new client ruler.

The Mozarabs, Iberian Christians who live under Moorish rule, try to repopulate León in Al-Andalus (modern Spain). The city is recaptured by the Muslim Arabs.

====== Britain ======

King Æthelred II of Northumbria sends military assistance to the Picts, in their fight against the invading Scots (approximate date).

====== Ireland ======

Máel Sechnaill mac Máele Ruanaid becomes the first High King of Ireland.

====== Arabian Empire ======

A Saracen Arab expeditionary force from Africa, consisting of 11,000 men and 500 horses, raid the outskirts of Rome, sacking the basilicas of Old St. Peter's and St. Paul's Outside the Walls.

====== Asia ======

April 22 – Emperor Wu Zong (Li Chan) dies after a 6-year reign. He is succeeded by his uncle Xuān Zong, as Chinese ruler of the Tang Dynasty.

Jang Bogo, a powerful maritime hegemon of Silla, is assassinated by aristocratic elements at his garrison headquarters by Yeom Jang (or 841).

=== 847 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Danish Vikings land in the Breton March (western part of Gaul). Duke Nominoe of Brittany fails to withstand them in battle, but succeeds in buying them off with gifts and persuading them to leave (approximate date).

Viking period: The Vikings plunder the Lower Rhine as part of their attacks on the Empire of Francia

The Saracens, under the Berber leader Kalfun, capture the Byzantine city of Bari (Southern Italy). He becomes the first ruler of the Emirate of Bari, and expands his influence on the Italian mainland with raids.

====== Abbasid Caliphate ======

August 10 – Caliph Al-Wathiq dies of dropsy after a five-year reign. He is succeeded by his brother al-Mutawakkil.

==== By topic ====

==== Natural events ====

November 24 – 847 Damascus earthquake

====== Religion ======

January 24 – Pope Sergius II dies of gout after a 3-year reign. He is succeeded by Leo IV, as the 103rd pope of Rome.

April 21– Rabanus Maurus, a Frankish Benedictine monk, becomes archbishop of Mainz after the death of Odgar.

=== 848 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Summer – Bordeaux, capital of Aquitaine, falls into the hands of Viking raiders. King Charles the Bald sends a Frankish fleet to lift the siege. Despite destroying some Viking longships on the Dordogne River, they fail to save the city. The Abbey of Saint-Pierre in Brantôme is sacked.

Emperor Lothair I, and his (half) brothers Louis the German and Charles the Bald, meet in Koblenz to continue the system of "con-fraternal government".

Frankish forces under Count (comté) William of Septimania assume authority over the counties of Barcelona and Empúries (modern Spain).

The Saracens conquer Ragusa (Sicily), after its Byzantine garrison is forced by severe famine to surrender. The city and its castle are razed to the ground.

====== Britain ======

The armies of Brycheiniog and Gwent clash in the battle of Ffinnant (Wales). King Ithel of Gwent is killed in the fighting (approximate date).

Máel Sechnaill mac Maíl Ruanaid, High King of Mide, defeats a Norse Viking army at Sciath Nechtain in Ireland (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

The Chola Dynasty in Southern India starts to rule (approximate date).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Pope Leo IV builds (on the opposite of the Tiber River) the Leonine City, a fortified three-kilometre wall that encircles the Vatican Hill and Borgo, to defend Rome.

The Roman Catholic church of Santa María del Naranco, on the slope of Monte Naranco (Northern Spain), is completed.

=== 849 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Summer – Battle of Ostia: A Saracen Arab fleet from Sardinia sets sail towards Rome. In response, Pope Leo IV forms a coalition of maritime Italian cities, including Naples, Amalfi and Gaeta, led by Admiral Caesar — which is assembled off the re-fortified port of Ostia — and repels the Saracen marauders. Their navy is scattered, resulting in many sunken vessels. Rome is saved from plunder and the expansion of the Aghlabids.

Frankish forces under King Charles the Bald invade southern France, and conquer the territory of Toulouse. He appoints Fredelo as count (comté) of Toulouse, who founds the Rouergue dynasty. Aquitaine is submitted to the West Frankish Kingdom.

====== Abbasid Caliphate ======

The Armenian prince Bagrat II begins a rebellion against Caliph Al-Mutawakkil, of the Abbasid Caliphate.

====== Asia ======

In the Chinese capital city of Chang'an, an imperial prince is impeached during the Tang Dynasty from his position by officials at court, for erecting a building that obstructs a street in the northwesternmost ward in South Central Chang'an.

King Pyinbya of Burma founds the city of Pagan, located in the Mandalay Region, and fortifies it with walls.


Year 844 (DCCCXLIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.


Amalarius (c.775–c.850) was a Frankish prelate and courtier, temporary bishop of Trier (812–13) and Lyon (865–68) and an accomplished liturgist. He was close to Charlemagne and a partisan of his successor, Louis the Pious, throughout the latter's tumultuous reign.

He was appointed the third archbishop of Trier in 811 by Charlemagne. In 813 he was sent as the chief Frankish ambassador to the court of Michael I Rhangabes at Constantinople. On Charlemagne's death in 814, Amalarius resigned his see.

In 831, Amalarius travelled to Rome to meet Pope Gregory IV and arrange a new Frankish liturgy. In 835, he replaced Agobard at the Synod of Diedenhofen. During Agobard's exile (c. 834) he was responsible for administering the Diocese of Lyon. He implemented liturgical reforms.

He wrote extensively on the Mass, including the Liber officialis and the De ordine antiphonarii, and was involved in the great medieval debates regarding predestination.

We must rely on his enemy, Florus of Lyon, for an account of Amalarius' condemnation on the accusation of heresy at Quierzy, 838., which banned some of his works. Nevertheless, his writings form a good portion of our current documentation of the ninth century liturgies of the Western Church.

While the exact date of his death is not known, it is believed that it happened around 850 in Metz.

Antipope John VIII

Antipope John VIII or Antipope John was an Antipope of the Roman Catholic Church, in the year 844. On the death of Pope Gregory IV (25 January 844), the populace of Rome declared John, a deacon with no known links to the aristocracy as his successor. They seized the Lateran Palace and enthroned him there. However, the lay aristocracy elected as Pope the elderly, nobly born archpriest Sergius, ejected John from the Lateran, and swiftly crushed the opposition. Pope Sergius II's consecration was rushed through immediately, without waiting for imperial ratification from the Frankish court. Although some of his supporters wanted John put to death for what they considered his presumption, Sergius intervened to save his life and John was confined to a monastery. Nothing further is known about him.


A diaconia was originally an establishment built near a church building, for the care of the poor and distribution of the church's charity in medieval Rome or Naples (the successor to the Roman grain supply system, often standing on the very sites of its stationes annonae). Examples included the sites of San Vito, Santi Alessio e Bonifacio, and Sant'Agatha in Rome, San Gennaro in Naples (headed by a deacon named John in the end of the ninth and the beginning of the tenth century.The word has now come to mean the titular church of a Cardinal Deacon.

An alternative spelling, diakonia, is a Christian theological term from Greek that encompasses the call to serve the poor and oppressed. The terms deaconess and diaconate also come from the same root, which refers to the emphasis on service within those vocations.

Diakonia is a term derived from Greek, used in the Bible, New Testament, with different meanings. Sometimes, refers to the specific kind to help any people in need. At other times, it means to serve the tables, and still others, refers to the distribution of financial resources.

Also in contemporary theology the word diakonia presents a variety of connotations and representations. For FLD (Diakonal Lutherans Foundation in Brazil)[1], diakonia means serve to change people's lives, to contribute to the construction of citizenship of the less fortunate.

Also in some South American countries it is a native meal.

Field of Lies

Lügenfeld, Lugenfeild, or Field of Lies(833 CE) was the name for a battle/encounter that took place between Louis the Pious, the Carolingian Emperor and his rebellious sons. When his sons and their forces met up near Colmar in Alsace, Louis the Pious' sworn supporters infamously deserted him to join his sons.

Frankish Papacy

From 756 to 857, the papacy shifted from the orbit of the Byzantine Empire to that of the kings of the Franks. Pepin the Short (ruled 751–768), Charlemagne (r. 768–814) (co-ruler with his brother Carloman I until 771), and Louis the Pious (r. 814-840) had considerable influence in the selection and administration of popes. The "Donation of Pepin" (756) ratified a new period of papal rule in central Italy, which became known as the Papal States.

This shift was initiated by the Lombards conquering the Exarchate of Ravenna from the Byzantines, strengthened by the Frankish triumph over the Lombards, and ended by the fragmentation of the Frankish Kingdom into West Francia, Middle Francia, and East Francia. Lothair I continued to rule Middle Francia which included much of the Italian peninsula, from 843 to 855.

This period was "a critical time in Rome's transformation from ancient capital to powerful bishopric to new state capital." The period was characterized by "battles between Franks, Lombards and Romans for control of the Italian peninsula and of supreme authority within Christendom."

Gregory IV

Gregory IV can refer to:

Pope Gregory IV (827–844)

Gregory IV of Naples (898–915)

Patriarch Gregory IV of Alexandria (1398–1412)

Patriarch Gregory IV of Constantinople (1623)

Gregory IV of Athens (1827–1829)

Hitto of Freising

Hitto of Freising (died 835) was the sixth Bishop of Freising from December 811 to 835.

He was descended from the Huosi family, part of the Bavarian upper aristocracy (Hochadel). In 794, the cleric became the deacon of Freising Cathedral and was frequently named as a witness in the Freising documents. He is first recorded as Bishop of Freising in 812, his predecessor, Atto, however, had died over a year earlier. During his time in office, the monk and notary, Kozroh, compiled the first Freising Book of Traditions (Freisinger Traditionsbuch), which went back to 744. Under Hitto, the Freising scriptorium reached a special high point; for example, about 40 codices were written. In addition, over 300 documents from Hitto's time in office have survived. Hitto clearly strove to establish episcopal supremacy over the many, hitherto aristocratic, independent monasteries within the diocese (such as Schliersee Abbey in 817 Schäftlarn Abbey in 821 or 828, and Innichen Abbey in 822). He was also the founder of Weihenstephan Abbey around 830. According to an old tradition, during his pilgrimage to Rome in 834 Hitto was given the relics of Saint Justin by Pope Gregory IV, and brought them to Freising. Hitto was buried in the cathedral crypt at Freising; his sarcophagus is preserved. His nephew Erchanbert became his successor.


Ingoald (died 830) was the Abbot of Farfa from 815, succeeding Benedict. At the beginning of his abbacy he vigorously protested the policies of Pope Leo III (795–816), which had resulted in the abbey's loss of property. Ingoald complained about not only the—illegitimate, as he saw it—seizure of Farfa's lands, but also the application of dubious laws of Roman origin in a zone that followed Lombard law. While Ingoald also fostered close contacts with the Carolingian rulers of Francia and Lombardy, he resisted secular encroachments on the abbey's privileges as staunchly as he resisted papal ones. The rate of property transactions at Farfa seems to have peaked under Ingoald, but the surviving documentary evidence is far from complete.In 817 Pope Stephen IV issued a bull claiming that Farfa's lands lay within the Papal patrimonium sabinense (Sabine patrimony) and under Papal ius (jurisdiction), and that therefore the abbey owed the Holy See an annual rent (pensio) of ten gold solidi. Hoping to recover Farfa's lost territories, Ingoald agreed to pay the pensio. When the lands were not returned, he sent a complaint to King Lothair I that the monastery was "constrained under tribute and payment to the Roman pontiffs" and its lands "violently taken away". In 824, on the occasion of the promulgation of the Constitutio Romana, the king and his father, the Emperor Louis I, responded with a privilege for Farfa. In the next pontificate, that of Paschal I (817–24), this claim to an annual rent was withdrawn, but in January 829 Farfa's advocate, Audolf, accused Leo III and the earlier Adrian II of having invaded the monastery's properties with force. By the time of this tribunal, held in the presence of imperial missi dominici and Pope Gregory IV in the Basilica of Saint John Lateran, the complaint of payment had been dropped, so the imperial privilege seems to have had its intended effect. Although Ingoald presented charters from Duke Theodicius of Spoleto and Queen Ansa with confirmations from King Desiderius and Charlemagne, and the tribunal found in Farfa's favour, Gregory IV "refused to do anything" (facere noluit).Ingoald was succeeded by Sichard.


The Janiculum (; Italian: Gianicolo, pronounced [dʒaˈniːkolo]) is a hill in western Rome, Italy. Although the second-tallest hill (the tallest being Monte Mario) in the contemporary city of Rome, the Janiculum does not figure among the proverbial Seven Hills of Rome, being west of the Tiber and outside the boundaries of the ancient city.

Marcellinus and Peter

Saints Marcellinus and Peter (sometimes called Petrus Exorcista - Peter the Exorcist; Italian: Marcellino e Pietro) were two 4th century Christian martyrs in the city of Rome.

Ostia Antica (district)

Ostia Antica is a district in the commune of Rome, Italy, four kilometers away from the coast. It is distinct from Ostia. Part of Municipio X.

Pope Gregory

Gregory has been the name of sixteen Roman Catholic Popes and two Antipopes. The Latin name is Gregorius.

Pope Gregory I "the Great" (590–604), after whom the Gregorian chant is named

Pope Gregory II (715–731)

Pope Gregory III (731–741)

Pope Gregory IV (827–844)

Pope Gregory V (996–999)

Pope Gregory VI (1045–1046)

Antipope Gregory VI

Pope Gregory VII (1073–1085), after whom the Gregorian Reform is named

Pope Gregory VIII (1187)

Antipope Gregory VIII

Pope Gregory IX (1227–1241)

Pope Gregory X (1271–1276)

Pope Gregory XI (1370–1378)

Pope Gregory XII (1406–1415)

Pope Gregory XIII (1572–1585), after whom the Gregorian calendar is named

Pope Gregory XIV (1590–1591)

Pope Gregory XV (1621–1623)

Pope Gregory XVI (1831–1846)

San Marco Evangelista al Campidoglio, Rome

San Marco is a minor basilica in Rome dedicated to St. Mark the Evangelist located in the small Piazza di San Marco adjoining Piazza Venezia. It was first built in 336 by Pope Mark, whose remains are in an urn located below the main altar. The basilica is the national church of Venice in Rome.

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