Pope Gregory III

Pope Gregory III (Latin: Gregorius III; died 28 November 741) was Pope from 11 February 731 to his death in 741.[2] His pontificate, like that of his predecessor, was disturbed by the iconoclastic controversy in the Byzantine Empire, and by the ongoing advance of the Lombards, in which he invoked the intervention of Charles Martel, although ultimately in vain. He was the fifth Syrian pope and the last pope born outside of Europe for 1,272 years, until the election of Pope Francis in 2013.

Pope Saint

Gregory III
178-7866 IMG - Gregorius III AV (2)
Papacy began11 February 731
Papacy ended28 November 741
PredecessorGregory II
Created cardinal726
by Gregory II
Personal details
Birth nameGregorius
BornSyria Umayyad Empire[1]
Died28 November 741
Rome, Exarchate of Ravenna
Previous postCardinal-Deacon (726-31)
Other popes named Gregory

Iconoclasm and internal church issues

178-7867 IMG - Gregorius III RV (2)
Pope Gregory III – Papal medallion of the 8th century – reverse

Gregory was the son of a Syrian named John.[3] He was elected pope by popular acclamation on 11 February 731, but was not formally consecrated as Bishop of Rome until 18 March,[4] after having received the approval of the Byzantine exarch of Ravenna. He was the last pope to seek the exarch’s ratification of a papal election.[5]

Upon his accession as pope, Gregory immediately appealed to the Byzantine Emperor Leo III to moderate his position on the iconoclastic controversy. When Gregory's representative was arrested on the orders of the emperor, Gregory called a synod in November 731, which condemned iconoclasm outright.[6] Leo responded by trying to bring the Pope under control, although the fleet he sent to enforce the imperial will was shipwrecked in the Adriatic Sea.[7] He then proceeded to appropriate papal territories in Sicily and Calabria, and transferred ecclesiastical jurisdictions in the former praetorian prefecture of Illyricum to the Patriarch of Constantinople.[8] However, his attempt to force the Duke of Naples to enforce an imperial decree to confiscate papal territory in the duchy failed, as the duke was supportive of the pope’s stand.[9]

Gregory, in the meantime, demonstrated his opposition to iconoclasm by emphasising his veneration of icons and relics. He repaired or beautified numerous churches, which involved their decoration with icons and images of Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary and the saints.[10] He ordered to be erected in the heart of St. Peter’s Basilica an iconostasis, situated between six onyx and marble columns which had been sent to Gregory as a gift from the exarch Eutychius.[11] He built a new oratory in St. Peter's Basilica to house the relics of a number of saints, convoking a synod in 732 in order to regulate the prayers and masses to be said there.[12] Gregory was an enthusiastic supporter of monasticism; he established the monastery of St. Chrysogonus and rebuilt the hospice of Saints Sergius and Bacchus, near St. Peter's, endowing it for the support of the poor.[13]

A temporary lull in the conflict between the Byzantines and the Lombards allowed Gregory to deal with some longstanding internal issues, in particular the ongoing jurisdictional dispute between the Patriarchs of Grado and Aquileia. Although the Synod of 731 had adjudicated in this matter in favour of Grado, Gregory was forced to reprimand the Patriarch of Aquileia, Calixtus, who had attempted to gain possession of the Island of Barbana from Grado’s jurisdiction.[14] In 731, he approved the election of Tatwine, Archbishop of Canterbury, who came to Rome in person to ask for the pallium. Gregory approved of the election of his successor, Nothhelm, while in 735 he agreed to the claims of the King of Northumbria, Ceolwulf of Northumbria, that Egbert, the Bishop of York, should be elevated to the rank of Archbishop.[15]

Gregory promoted the Church in northern Europe. He supported the continuing mission of Saint Boniface in Germany, elevating him to the rank of archbishop of Germany in 732; and, after a personal visit to Rome from Boniface in 737, where he was meant to attend a synod which does not appear to have been held,[16] Gregory made Boniface a papal legate in Germany, and asked him to reorganize the episcopal sees in Germany.[17] Gregory sent Boniface back to Bavaria with three letters. One commanded the bishops and higher ecclesiastical officers to provide Boniface with as much help as they could. A second was addressed to the nobles and people of Germany, urging them to obey Boniface. A third, addressed to the bishops in Alamannia and Bavaria, confirmed Boniface’s status as the papal vicarus, ordering them to assemble in a council twice a year at Augsburg under Boniface’s authority.[18] Gregory promoted the mission of Willibald in Germany.[19]

In 732, Gregory banned the consumption of horse meat, both domestic and wild, anathematizing it as an "abomination" since it was associated with pagan ritual feasting.[16][20]

Conflict with the Lombards

Conscious of the ongoing Lombard threat, Gregory undertook and completed the restoration of the Walls of Rome during the early 730s. He also refortified Centumcellae, purchasing from Thrasimund II of Spoleto the fortress of Gallese along the Via Flaminia, which had been taken by the Lombards, interrupting Rome’s communications with the exarch at Ravenna.[21] The return of the Lombard king Liutprand in 737 saw a renewal of the Lombard assault on the Exarchate of Ravenna.

Gregory's opposition to iconoclasm did not stop his lending support to the eastern empire to help in the recapture of Ravenna after it had fallen to the Lombards in around 738.[22] In that same year,[23] Liutprand demanded that the Lombard dukes of Spoleto and Beneventum ravage the area around the Duchy of Rome; but both refused, citing a treaty with the pope.[24] Gregory then actively encouraged the rebellion of Thrasimund II of Spoleto, forcing Liutprand to temporarily abandon his attacks on the Exarchate, turning his attention towards Spoleto, which Liutprand annexed. Thrasimund was forced to flee Spoleto, seeking refuge in Rome, where he was welcomed by Gregory.[25]

By the middle of 739, Liutprand was encroaching once again on the Exarchate and threatening Rome. In desperation, Gregory sent ambassadors to Charles Martel, the Frankish Mayor of the Palace, begging him to intervene on the pope’s behalf.[26] Although Gregory stated that he was willing to give up his allegiance to the Eastern Empire and place himself under the protection of the Franks, Charles made no promise to assist, since he was fully occupied by the Umayyad invasion of Gaul.[27][28] (Gregory himself referred to these Saracen Muslims as gens ferocissima or "that most fierce nation".)[29] The Lombard capture of the towns of Ameria, Ortas, Polimartium and Blera once again caused Gregory to write to Charles, this time in even greater tones of despair, beseeching his aid:[30]

"Our affliction moves us to write to you once again, trusting that you are a loving son of St. Peter and of us, and that, from respect for him, you will come and defend the Church of God and His peculiar people, who are now unable to endure the persecution and oppression of the Lombards. They have seized the very means set aside to furnish funds for the lights ever kept burning at St. Peter s tomb, and they have carried off offerings that have been made by you and by those who have gone before you. And because, after God, we have turned to you, the Lombards deride and oppress us. Hence the Church of St. Peter has been stripped and reduced to the last straits. We have put into the mouth of the bearer of this letter, your faithful servant all our woes, which he will be able to unfold to you. Please come at once, to show your love towards St. Peter, and us, his own people."[31]

This time Charles Martel did send an embassy to Rome, and this implicit support, together with the beginnings of fever running through his troops, forced Liutprand to march back to Pavia by the end of August 739.[32] Taking advantage of this withdrawal, Gregory agreed to support Thrasimund II's return to Spoleto. Thrasimund II forced his way back in by December 739 with Roman armed support, but refused to hand over the four captured towns he had promised in exchange for papal support.[33] Even worse news was to follow: learning that Charles Martel was sick, Liutprand once again returned to attacking the Exarchate in 740, forcing Gregory yet again to appeal to the Franks, who again refused to become involved.[34]

Unsuccessful at stopping the Lombard advance, Gregory III died on 28 November 741.[35] He was succeeded by Pope Zachary. He was buried in St. Peter’s Basilica, in the oratory he had built at the start of his pontificate.[36] Gregory’s feast day is now celebrated on 10 December.[37]

See also


  1. ^ Houghton Mifflin Company (2003). The Houghton Mifflin Dictionary of Biography. p. 642. ISBN 9780618252107.
  2. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Horace K. Mann (1913). "Pope St. Gregory III" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  3. ^ "The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church". Retrieved 15 March 2013.
  4. ^ Mann, p. 204
  5. ^ Levillain, p. 643
  6. ^ Treadgold, p. 354; Mann, p. 205
  7. ^ Levillain, p. 644; Mann, p. 206
  8. ^ Duffy, p. 64; Mann, p. 207
  9. ^ Mann, p. 208
  10. ^ Mann, pp. 208-209
  11. ^ Duffy, p. 63; Mann, p. 210
  12. ^ Mann, p. 209
  13. ^ Mann, pp. 210-211
  14. ^ Mann, pp. 211-212
  15. ^ Mann, pp. 212-213
  16. ^ a b Mann, p. 214
  17. ^ Levillain, p. 644
  18. ^ Mann, pp. 214-215
  19. ^ Mershman, Francis. "Sts. Willibald and Winnebald." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 15. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 18 September 2017
  20. ^ Schwabe, Calvin W. (1979). Unmentionable Cuisine. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press. p. 157. ISBN 978-0813908113.
  21. ^ Mann, p. 216
  22. ^ Treadgold, p. 355; Duffy, p. 63
  23. ^ Mann, p. 221
  24. ^ Mann, pp. 216-217
  25. ^ Treadgold, p. 355; Mann, pp. 217-218
  26. ^ Duffy, p. 68
  27. ^ Michael Collins (1 August 2005). The Fisherman's Net: The Influence of the Popes on History (reprint, revised ed.). Paulist Press. p. 85. ISBN 9781587680335.
  28. ^ Mann, pp. 218-219
  29. ^ Irfan Shahîd (1984). Byzantium and the Arabs in the Fourth Century (illustrated, reprint ed.). Dumbarton Oaks. p. 187. ISBN 9780884021162.
  30. ^ Mann, p. 219
  31. ^ Mann, pp. 219-220
  32. ^ Mann, p. 220
  33. ^ Levillain, p. 644; Mann, p. 222
  34. ^ Levillain; p. 644; Mann, pp. 221-222
  35. ^ Mann, p. 223
  36. ^ Mann, p. 224
  37. ^ Brusher S.J., Joseph. "St. Gregory III", Popes Through the Ages


  • Levillain, Philippe (2002). The papacy : Gaius-Proxies. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415922302.
  • Duffy, Eamon (2006). Saints & Sinners: A History of the Popes. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300115970.
  • Treadgold, Warren (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0804726306.
  • Mann, Horace K. (1914). The Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages. Vol. I: The Popes Under the Lombard Rule, Part 2, 657-795. pp. 203–224.
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Saint Gregory II
Succeeded by

The 730s decade ran from January 1, 730, to December 31, 739.

== Events ==

=== 730 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

King Liutprand contracts an alliance with Eutychius, exarch of Ravenna, and agrees to support him in his attack on Rome, while subjugating the independent southern Lombard duchies of Benevento and Spoleto.

Tiberius Petasius proclaims himself emperor in Tuscia. Eutychius defeats him with the support of Pope Gregory II, and Tiberius is killed in Monterano, with his head sent to the Byzantine emperor Leo III as a gift.

Charles Martel defeats the last independent dukedom of Alamannia, and incorporates it into the Frankish Empire. He also launches raids on the Saxons beyond the Rhine.

====== Arabian Empire ======

September/October – Umayyad forces sack the Byzantine fortress of Charsianon in central Anatolia (modern Turkey), which remains a contested stronghold during the next century of Byzantine–Arab warfare.

December 9 – Battle of Marj Ardabil: The Khazars under Barjik invade the provinces of Jibal and Adharybaydjian. He defeats an Umayyad army (25,000 men) at Ardabil (Iran), killing al-Jarrah ibn Abdallah.

====== China ======

Emperor Xuan Zong has four palace walls in the northeast sector of the capital city Chang'an dismantled and reassembled to construct a new Daoist abbey, the grounds of which are formally a large garden for the Bureau of Agriculture.

==== By topic ====

In this decade Hops are first cultivated in Germany, in the Hallertau region.

====== Religion ======

Leo III of the Byzantine Empire orders the destruction of all icons, beginning the First Iconoclastic Period. Many monks flee to Greece and Italy (taking smaller icons with them, hidden in their clothing); others flee to the caves of the Cappadocian desert.

=== 731 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Umayyad conquest of Gaul: Munuza, Moorish governor of Cerdagne (eastern Pyrenees), rebels against Umayyad authority. He is defeated and executed by Muslim forces under Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi at Urgell (Catalonia). Muslim garrisons in Septimania raid the cities Millau and Arles.

Ragenfrid, ex-mayor of the palace of Neustria, meets Duke Eudes of Aquitaine, to accept his rule and independence from the Frankish Kingdom. Fearing an alliance against him, Charles Martel exiles Ragenfrid's supporter Wandon of Fontenelle, and imprisons bishop Aimar of Auxerre.

Charles Martel leads two raids across the Loire River into the Berry region. The Franks seize and plunder Bourges (central France), but the city is immediately recaptured by Eudes of Aquitaine.

====== Britain ======

Autumn – King Ceolwulf of Northumbria is deposed by opponents, and forced to enter a monastery. His supporters subsequently restore him to the throne (or 732).

King Æthelbald of Mercia overruns a large portion of Somerset, and wrests the county from Wessex control (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

Battle of the Defile: An Umayyad relief army (28,000 men) is sent to Samarkand (modern Uzbekistan), which is besieged by the Turgesh. The Muslims are ambushed near the Zarafshan Range, at the Tashtakaracha Pass. The battle results in a Pyrrhic victory, with heavy casualties for the Umayyad army, halting Muslim expansion in Central Asia for almost two decades.

==== By topic ====

====== Literature ======

Bede, Anglo-Saxon monk and historian, completes his Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum at the monastery of Saint Peter at Monkwearmouth.

====== Religion ======

February 11 – Pope Gregory II dies at Rome after a 16-year reign, in which he has fought Iconoclasm. He is succeeded by the Syrian-born cleric Gregory III, as the 90th pope of the Catholic Church.

A Moorish raiding party under Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi invades deep into Burgundy, and plunders the monastery of Luxeuil Abbey, located in the Haute-Saône, massacring most of the community.

November 1 – Synod of Rome: Gregory III summons a council at the shrine of Saint Peter. All western bishops participate, including the Roman nobility. Gregory condemns Iconoclasm as a heresy.

=== 732 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Battle of the River Garonne: Umayyad Muslim army (40,000 men) under Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, governor of Al-Andalus, crosses the Pyrenees through the Roncesvalles Pass and raids widely, ravaging the cities of Oloron, Lescar and Bayonne, and burning the abbey of Saint-Sever. Umayyad forces destroy the monastery of Saint-Émilion, and defeat the 'Count of Libourne'. Abdul Rahman sacks and captures Bordeaux, and nearly wipes out the army of Duke Eudes of Aquitaine, at the Garonne River.

Summer – Eudes of Aquitaine heads for the Frankish city of Reims, to warn Charles Martel, Merovingian mayor of the palace, of the Umayyad invasion in Gaul, and ask for his support against the invaders. The two leaders meet near Paris; Charles issues a 'general ban' to raise an army, which includes large numbers of Austrasians, Neustrians, and Burgundians. Meanwhile, Arabians ravage the cities of Périgueux, Saintes and Angoulême, then sack the basilica of Saint-Hilaire outside Poitiers.

September – Charles Martel leads his Frankish army (30,000 men) to Orleans and crosses the Loire River, probably accompanied by Eudes of Aquitaine, with his remaining troops. He makes camp near Tours, probably at Ballan-Miré south-west of the fortress city, in order to protect the abbey of Saint Martin. Charles defeats or forces back Umayyad scouts or an advance guard, between the rivers Indre and Creuse. Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi pulls back to establish a position at the Vienne River.

October – The Frankish army crosses the Vienne River and establishes a camp at or around the partially abandoned Roman mansion or agricultural settlement, now known as 'Vieux-Poitiers' (near Châtellerault), perhaps using the Roman theatre with its substantial towers as a fortification. Charles Martel forms a defensive position across the Roman road, and fends off Muslim skirmishes during the 'seven days' stand-off, probably involving scouts, and perhaps raiders from both armies.

October 10 – Battle of Tours: The Frankish and Burgundian forces under Charles Martel defeat a large army of Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, near Poitiers, halting the Islamic advance into Western Europe; Rahman Al Ghafiqi is killed during the battle. Charles extends his authority in the south of France, which gives him the nickname Martellus ("The Hammer"). The outcome of the victory is a turning point, and establishes a balance of power between Western Europe and the Byzantine Empire.

Muslim forces withdraw southwards to Septimania; a separate part probably pulls back along the road it originally came through, across the Pyrenees Mountains. Eudes of Aquitaine pursues the main Muslim army via La Marche, before returning to Bordeaux; Charles Martel withdraws to Frankish territory through Orleans and Auxerre, demoting those bishops whom he thought unreliable. Abd al-Malik ibn Katan al-Fihri becomes the new governor (wali) of Al-Andalus; a separate Muslim force raids the Rhône region.

====== Britain ======

Autumn – King Ceolwulf of Northumbria is deposed by opponents, and forced to enter a monastery. His supporters subsequently restore him to the throne (or 731).

==== By topic ====

====== Astronomy ======

June 26 – Venus occults Jupiter.

====== Religion ======

Pope Gregory III confers on Boniface, Anglo-Saxon missionary, the pallium as archbishop, with jurisdiction over Bavaria (modern Germany). He orders him to forbid the consumption of horseflesh by his Christian converts.

Ecgbert is appointed bishop of York, by his cousin Ceolwulf of Northumbria. He founds a library, and makes the city a renowned centre of learning (approximate date).

=== 733 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Emperor Leo III confiscates the papal territories in Sicily and Calabria (Southern Italy), from which Pope Gregory III derives most of his income tax. He transfers ecclesiastical jurisdiction in the former Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum to Anastasius, patriarch of Constantinople. Gregory begins his support of a revolt in Italy against iconoclasm. By now the break between the papacy and the Byzantine Empire is almost complete.

Arab-Byzantine Wars: Arab forces under Mu’awiya ibn Hisham penetrate deep into Anatolia & conquer the cities of Antalya, Doralyum and Afyonkarahisar. These conquests differ from previous ones, as Arab military settling occurs in them, making them a base to raid Byzantium.

====== Europe ======

Duke Eudes of Aquitaine, aged almost 80, abdicates and retires to a monastery. His lands are divided between his sons Hunald I and Hatton, who continue the conflict with Charles Martel, mayor of the palace of Neustria and Austrasia. In battles at Benest in Charente and La Rochefoucauld (near Angoulême), Charles probably defeats the Aquitainians. He also campaigns against the Burgundians.

Umayyad conquest of Hispania: Muslim forces under Abd al-Malik ibn Katan al-Fihri, governor (wali) of Al-Andalus, cross the Pyrenees and ravage both sides of the mountains. He establishes colonies along the Ebro Valley, and within Basque territory. The Moorish main military efforts are in Catalonia, Aragon, Navarre and Septimania (Southern France), strengthening the towns already in their hands.

Duke Audelais of Benevento and his minor son Gisulf are deposed by King Liutprand of the Lombards. He is succeeded by Gregory, who becomes ruler of Benevento.

=== 734 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Battle of the Boarn: The Franks under Charles Martel, mayor of the palace of Neustria and Austrasia, defeat the Frisians near the mouth of the River Boarn (now the Dutch province of Friesland). During the battle, the Frisian army is beaten and King Poppo is killed. The Franks gain control of the Frisian lands west of the Lauwers (Netherlands), and begin plundering the pagan sanctuaries. The Frisians become Frankish vassals, apart from the tribes living in East Frisia in present day Germany.

Umayyad conquest of Gaul: Muslim forces under Abd al-Malik ibn Katan al-Fihri, governor (wali) of Al-Andalus (modern Spain), enter Provence and raid the Rhône Valley. The cities of Avignon, Arles, and probably Marseille are handed over by Count Maurontus, who is in rebellion against Charles Martel.

====== Mesoamerica ======

Jasaw Chan K'awiil I, ruler (ajaw) of Tikal (Guatemala), dies after a 52-year reign. He is succeeded by his son Yik'in Chan K'awiil, who becomes one of Tikal's most successful and expansionary rulers during the Late Classic period.

During the Third Tikal-Calakmul War, K’ak Tiliw Chan Yopaat gives himself the title k’uhul ajaw, thus declaring Quiriguá’s independence from Copán.

=== 735 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Charles Martel, Merovingian mayor of the palace, invades Burgundy. Duke Hunald I of Aquitaine refuses to recognise the authority of the Franks, whereupon Charles marches south of the River Loire, seizing the cities of Bordeaux and Blaye. Within 4 years he will have subdued all the Burgundian chieftains, while continuing to fight off Moorish advances into Gaul.

King Liutprand of the Lombards raises his nephew Hildeprand to co-kingship, after a serious illness (approximate date).

Setge d'al-Sakhra: Moors under Uqba ibn al-Hajjaj governor of Al-Andalus besiege Pelagius king of Asturias in the uppermost Northern mountain ranges in Iberia. It ends in inconclusively, with Pelagius surviving, but 270 out of his 300 followers are killed.[1]

====== Asia ======

During the Tang Dynasty in China, by this year there is 149,685,400 kg (165,000 short tons) of grain shipped annually along the Grand Canal.

A major smallpox epidemic starts in Japan, which reduces the population by 30%.

==== By topic ====

====== Literature ======

The Khöshöö Tsaidam Monuments of Bilge Khan, ruler (khagan) of the Turkic Khaganate, and his brother Kul Tigin, are erected. (Bilge has already erected Kül Tigin's monument and Bilge's son erects Bilge's monument.)

====== Religion ======

May 26 – Bede, Anglo-Saxon monk-historian, dies at Monkwearmouth–Jarrow Abbey. He will be remembered as "the Venerable", and is the author of books that are copied and studied later all over Europe. His greatest book is the Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum, a major source for the history of Britain, in the immediate post-Roman period.

The see of York receives the pallium from pope Gregory III, and is elevated to an archbishopric. Ecgbert becomes the first archbishop.

=== 736 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Charles Martel, Merovingian mayor of the palace, forms local alliances with the Burgundians, and imposes Frankish domination on Provence. He defeats Muslim forces at Sernhac and Beaucaire in Septimania (Southern France).

Battle of Nîmes: The Franks under Charles Martel fail to capture Narbonne but devastate most of the other settlements, including Nîmes, Agde, Béziers and Maguelonne, which Martel views as potential strongholds of the Umayyads.

====== Britain ======

King Æthelbald of Mercia is described in the Ismere Diploma as ruler (bretwalda) of the Mercians, and all the provinces in southern England. He is also named "Rex Britanniae" (king of Britain).

King Óengus I of the Picts invades the neighbouring kingdom of Dál Riata, which is subjugated. He takes the fortress of Dunadd,, and establishes his rule in Scotland for over two decades.

====== Asia ======

Rōben, scholar-Buddhist monk, invites Shinshō to give lectures on the Avatamsaka Sutra at Kinshōsen-ji (later Tōdai-ji); this event is considered to be the roots of the Kegon school of Buddhism founded in Japan.

====== Mesoamerica ======

A diplomatic team from Calakmul, led by Wamaw K'awiil, meets with Quiriguá leader K’ak Tiliw Chan Yopaa, in an attempt to negotiate an end to the city's rebellion during the Third Tikal-Calakmul War.

Yik'in Chan K'awiil, ruler (ajaw) of the leading Maya city state of Tikal (modern-day Guatemala), conquers rival Calakmul, within the northern Petén region of the Yucatán region (Southern Mexico).

==== By topic ====

====== Food and drinks ======

The first documentation is made of hop cultivation in the Hallertau region of present-day Germany (which is today the most important production centre with about 25% of the worldwide production).

=== 737 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Battle of Avignon: Frankish forces under Charles Martel, Merovingian Mayor of the Palace, retake Avignon from the Muslim forces, and destroy the Umayyad stronghold. Charles sends his brother Childebrand I, duke of Burgundy, to besiege the city. After his arrival, Charles leads the Frankish troops by using rope ladders and battering rams to attack the fortified walls, which are burned to the ground following its capture.

Battle of Narbonne: Frankish forces under Charles Martel besiege Narbonne, occupied by a Umayyad garrison, but are unable to retake the fortress city. A Lombard army under King Liutprand crosses the Alps, to aid Charles in expelling the Muslims from Septimania. Meanwhile Maurontus, duke or count of Provence, raises a revolt from his unconquered city of Marseille, and threatens the rear of the Franks.

Battle of the River Berre: Frankish forces sent by Charles Martel intercept a large Muslim army sent from Al-Andalus, (modern Spain) sent by Uqba ibn al-Hajjaj to relieve the siege of Narbonne. Both sides suffer heavy losses, with both commanders being killed at the mouth of the River Bierre (northwest of Marseille). Some of the Muslims rush back to their ships, and some penetrate through the Frankish forces and make it to the city, effectively saving it from the Franks.

Following the death of Theuderic IV, king of the Franks, the throne is left vacant for seven years. Charles Martel has his son Childeric III exiled to a monastery, and becomes sole ruler of the Frankish Kingdom.

King Pelagius of Asturias dies, and is succeeded by his son Favila. He founds the Church of Santa Cruz, in his capital Cangas de Onís (northwest of Spain).

Orso Ipato is murdered at the instigation of Eutychius, exarch of Ravenna. He is succeeded by Domenico Leoni, who is elected as the fourth doge of Venice.

King Ongendus of the Danes reinforces the Danevirke fortifications in Schleswig-Holstein. He orders a palisade rampart built on the frontier of Saxony.

====== Britain ======

King Ceolwulf of Northumbria abdicates in favour of his cousin, Eadberht, and becomes a monk at Lindisfarne Priory.

====== Africa ======

Egypt: Christians invade from the south, with the aim of protecting the patriarch of Alexandria (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

Second Arab–Khazar War: The Khazars led by Hazer Tarkhan are defeated by a Muslim force, sent by Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan near the Volga River, which destroyed what remained of the Khazar forces. The Umayyad Caliphate now has full control of the Caucasus after completely destroying the Khazar Empire. After it’s destruction the Arab-Khazar wars are stopped, Muslim sources indicate the Khazar Khan paid tribute to Marwan and converted to Islam.

September 30 – Battle of the Baggage: The Turgesh drive back an Umayyad invasion of Khuttal, pursue them south of the River Oxus (northern Afghanistan), and capture their baggage train. In the winter, the Turgesh and their Transoxianan allies launch a major counter-invasion, but are halted and their army is destroyed, Khuttal is then conquered by the Arabs.

Emperor Xuan Zong discards the policy of conscripting men into the Chinese army to be replaced every three years, replacing them with long-service soldiers who are more battle-hardened and efficient (approximate date).

==== By topic ====

====== Catastrophe ======

For two years Japan has been suffering from a major smallpox epidemic. Perhaps as much as one-third of the population has perished.

=== 738 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Charles Martel, Merovingian mayor of the palace, begins a campaign against the Saxons (in modern-day Westphalia) on the northeast frontier. They are subdued and must pay him tribute.

Moors under Uqba ibn Al-Hajjaj cross the Pyrenees into France. Uqba fortifies Narbonne and reconquers Avignon, Arles, Nimes. He then advances into Provance, and penetrates as far as Piedmont; he then heads North, and conquers Dauphiné, destroying the city of Saint-Paul, taking Valence, Vienne and Lyón, which he uses as a base to attack Bourgogne.

Kormesiy, ruler (khagan) of the Bulgarian Empire, is deposed by the nobility. He is replaced on the throne by his son Sevar, who is a descendant of the royal Dulo clan.

Felice Cornicola is appointed hypatos (Byzantine consul) and magister militum of Venice.

====== Britain ======

King Swæfberht of Essex dies after a 23-year reign. He is succeeded by Saelred, a minor member of the Essex royal family.

====== Mesoamerica ======

The Mayan city-state Xukpi (Copán) is defeated by a rival city-state, Quiriguá. Xukpi leader Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil ("Eighteen Rabbit") is deposed thereafter.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Boniface visits Rome, and is made papal legate of the Frankish Kingdom. He establishes many bishoprics in Bavaria.

=== 739 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

The Lombards under King Liutprand sack the Exarchate of Ravenna, and threaten Rome. Pope Gregory III asks Charles Martel, Merovingian mayor of the palace, to help fight the Lombards (he also requests assistance in fighting the Byzantines and the Arabs). Liutprand signs a peace accord, and pulls back his forces to Pavia. After the pope's appeal to the Franks, a relationship begins that will continue as the Frankish Kingdom gains power.

Umayyad conquest of Gaul: Charles Martel attacks Duke Maurontus of Provence and his Muslim allies. His brother Childebrand captures Marseille, one of the largest cities still in Umayyad hands. Maurontus is forced to go into hiding in the Alps.

King Favila of Asturias dies after a 2-year reign (probably killed by a bear). He is succeeded by his brother-in-law Alfonso I, husband of his sister Ermesinda.

Duke Pemmo of Friuli is deposed by Liutprand, and succeeded by his son Ratchis. He flees with his followers, but Ratchis secures his father's pardon.

Theodatus Ursus is appointed hypatos (Byzantine consul) and magister militum of Venice.

====== Africa ======

The Great Berber Revolt: The Berbers break out in revolt against the Umayyad rulers at Maghreb, in response to the oppressive, (and, by Islamic law, illegal) tax-collection and slave-tribute. The rebellion is led by the chieftain (alleged water-carrier) Maysara al-Matghari. He successfully seizes Tangier, and captures rapidly much of western Morocco. The Berber rebellion which erupts not only undermines caliphal rule and fragments the wilayat or province of Ifriqiya (North Africa), but paves the way for the emergence of autonomous local Arab dynasties.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Boniface, Anglo-Saxon missionary who has been Christianizing Bavaria, founds the bishoprics of Salzburg, Regensburg, Freising, and Passau.

Willibrord, the first bishop of Utrecht in the Netherlands, and Northumbrian missionary, dies at Echternach (modern Luxembourg).


Year 733 (DCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 733 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Agiprand of Spoleto

Agiprand was briefly the Duke of Spoleto between 742 and 744.In late 741, Thrasimund II refused to return to Pope Gregory III those cities he had promised him and Gregory's successor, Zachary, turned for support to King Liutprand. Zachary donated a Roman army to support the Lombards and together they took Spoleto and Liutprand installed his own nephew, Agiprand, as duke.

Agiprand was already the duke of Clusium when he was invested with Spoleto. Agiprand escorted Zachary back to Rome from Interamna and restored the cities he requested.

Agiprand's reign did not survive the death of Liutprand, when he was removed from power by Thrasimund.


Aistulf (also Ahistulf, Aistulfus, Haistulfus etc.; Italian: Astolfo; died 756 AD) was the Duke of Friuli from 744, King of Lombards from 749, and Duke of Spoleto from 751. His father was the Duke Pemmo.After his brother Ratchis became king, Aistulf succeeded him in Friuli. He succeeded him later as king when Ratchis abdicated to a monastery. Aistulf continued the policy of expansion and raids against the papacy and the Eastern Roman exarchate of Ravenna. In 751, he captured Ravenna itself and even threatened Rome, claiming a capitation tax. He also conquered the Istria region from Eastern Roman occupation in the same year.

The popes, thoroughly irritated and alarmed, and despairing of aid from the Roman Emperor, turned to the Carolingian mayors of the palace of Austrasia, the effective rulers of the Frankish kingdom. In 741, Pope Gregory III asked Charles Martel to intervene, but he was too busy elsewhere and declined. In 753, Pope Stephen II visited Charles Martel's son Pepin the Short, who had been proclaimed king of the Franks in 751 with the consent of Pope Zachary. In gratitude for the papal consent to his coronation, Pepin crossed the Alps, defeated Aistulf, and gave to the pope the lands which Aistulf had torn from the ducatus Romanus and the exarchate (Emilia-Romagna and the Pentapolis).

Aistulf died hunting in 756. He was succeeded by Desiderius as king of the Lombards and by Alboin as duke of Spoleto. He had given Friuli to his brother-in-law Anselm, abbot of Nonantula, whose sister Gisaltruda he had married, when he succeeded to the kingship in 749.

Cuthbert of Canterbury

Cuthbert (died 26 October 760) was a medieval Anglo-Saxon Archbishop of Canterbury in England. Prior to his elevation to Canterbury, he was abbot of a monastic house, and perhaps may have been Bishop of Hereford also, but evidence for his holding Hereford mainly dates from after the Norman Conquest of England in 1066. While Archbishop, he held church councils and built a new church in Canterbury. It was during Cuthbert's archbishopric that the Diocese of York was raised to an archbishopric. Cuthbert died in 760 and was later regarded as a saint.

Duchy of Perugia

The Duchy of Perugia was a duchy (Latin: ducatus) in the Italian part of the Byzantine Empire. Its civil and military administration was overseen by a duke (dux) appointed by and under the authority originally of the Praetorian Prefect of Italy (554–584) and later of the Exarch of Ravenna (584–751). Its chief city and namesake was Perugia (Perusia), located at its centre. It was a band of territory connecting the Duchy of the Pentapolis to its northeast with the Duchy of Rome to its southwest, and separating the duchies of Tuscia (to its northwest) and Spoleto (to its southeast), both parts of the Lombard Kingdom of Italy. It was of great strategic significance to the Byzantines since it provided communication between Rome, the city of the Popes, and Ravenna, the capital of the Exarchate. Since it cut off the Duke of Spoleto from his nominal overlord, the king ruling from Pavia, it also disturbed the Lombard kingdom, which was a constant thorn in the Byzantines' side. This strategic importance meant that many Lombard and Byzantine armies passed through it.

Thomas Noble, an American historian, has surmised that by 739–740, when Pope Gregory III was negotiating with Charles Martel, Duke of the Franks, for assistance against the Lombards, the Pope already envisaged an independent republic of his "peculiar people" (peculiarem populum), meaning the inhabitants of the duchies of Perugia and Rome who, so remote from either Ravenna or the Byzantine capital, Constantinople, depended upon the Pope for defence and for their foreign relations. Hildeprand, the heir to the throne, and Peredeo, Duke of Vincenza, united to take Ravenna, probably in 737–740. According to the contemporary Lombard historian Paul the Deacon, this occurred before "the Romans, swollen with their accustomed pride, assembled on every side under the leadership of Agatho, duke of the Perugians, and came to seize Bononia (Bologna), where Walcari, Peredeo, and Rotcari were then staying in camp, but the latter rushed upon the Romans, made a great slaughter of them and compelled those who were left to seek flight." According to modern historians Georg Waitz, Jan Hallenbeck, and Paolo Delogu, this took place before the ephemeral conquest of Ravenna. The most common interpretation is that Agatho was trying to regain Bologna, which was a part of his duchy until it was conquered by Liutprand around 727–730, and in so doing broke a truce between the Byzantines and Lombards, thus provoking an assault on Ravenna.In 749, the Lombard king Ratchis invaded the duchies of Perugia and Pentapolis, besieging the capital city of the former. Pope Zachary met the king at Perugia and convinced him to lift the siege and abdicate to a monastery. It has been suggested that Ratchis was forced to attack Byzantine Italy by a part of Lombard nationalists, or conversely that he attacked because Zachary had broken the terms of his predecessor's Peace of Terni, a twenty-year truce. In any case, "all Italy was quiet" between Ratchis's accession in 745 and his attack on Perugia in 749, according to Zachary's biographer in the Liber pontificalis.With the collapse of the exarchate and the capture of Ravenna by the Lombards in 751, the duchy of Perugia was left under de facto Papal authority by 752. In a passage of the Ludovicianum that can date no earlier than 774, the cities of the Roman duchy are listed from north to south, with the cities of the duchy of Perugia added to those of Roman Tuscany, indicating that by the time of conquest of the Lombard kingdom by the Franks, Perugia had been incorporated into the Papally-ruled duchy of Rome. In fact, the duchy of Perugia as a distinct political unit cannot be charted later than the 740s.

Eutychius (exarch)

Eutychius was the last Exarch of Ravenna (c. 727–751).

The Exarchate of Ravenna had risen in revolt in 727 at the imposition of iconoclasm; the Exarch Paul lost his life attempting to quash the revolt. In response, Emperor Leo III the Isaurian (r. 717–741) sent the eunuch patrician Eutychius to take control of the situation. In certain historical works, Eutychius is mentioned as having served as exarch already in 710/11–713, between the tenures of John III Rizocopus and Scholasticus. This is however a modern interpolation based on an erroneous reading of the Liber pontificalis. Eutychius landed in Naples, where he called upon loyal citizens to assassinate Pope Gregory II. When the citizens responded by pledging to defend the Pope and to die in his defense, Eutychius turned his attention to the Lombards, offering King Liutprand and the Lombard dukes bribes if they would abandon Pope Gregory. Despite all of this, according to Jeffrey Richards, Pope Gregory persisted in his efforts to preserve imperial rule in Italy.Eutychius's efforts eventually gained results: King Liutprand came to an agreement with the Exarch, and agreed to support him in return for assistance in subjecting the duchies of Benevento and Spoleto. Pope Gregory, however, met with Liutprand, and convinced him to abandon the effort, then with Liutprand's help effected a reconciliation with Eutychius. When one Tiberius Petasius proclaimed himself emperor in Tuscia and Eutychius found himself critically short of manpower, Pope Gregory ordered the Roman army to help him put down the rebellion, and Petasius was killed.Conflict with the Lombards resulted in disaster in 737, when the exarchate's capital, Ravenna, was seized by Liutprand. Further warfare erupted in 739. Pope Gregory III had supported the dukes of Benevento and Spoleto against Liutprand, causing the latter to invade central Italy. The exarchate, as well as the Duchy of Rome, was ravaged and Ravenna fell to the Lombards; Eutychius was forced to go to the Venetian islands. He appealed to the inhabitants to help liberate Ravenna, and the Venetian fleet sailed with him to recover the city.Shortly after the accession of Pope Zachary in 741, Liutprand planned to campaign against the Lombard Duchy of Spoleto, which had defied him. Zachary, however, marched north to the Lombard capital of Pavia and convinced Liutprand to abort the expedition and to restore some of the territory he had captured. Nevertheless, Liutprand saw this treaty as between him and the Pope alone; in the words of Jeffrey Richards, "he still regarded the exarch as fair game." In 743, Liutprand marched on Ravenna, and Eutychius was so impoverished in resources that he, Archbishop John V of Ravenna, and the leading citizens petitioned the pope to intervene. Pope Zachary began a diplomatic offensive to dissuade Liutprand from conquering Ravenna, and on his journey to the Lombard court at Ticinum, he was met at the church of St. Christopher at Aquila by Exarch Eutychius and citizens of Ravenna. "The sight of the exarch begging the pope to save him from the Lombards testifies more powerfully than anything else to the utter enfeeblement of the exarchate and the effective transfer of authority in Catholic Byzantine Italy from the imperial governor to the pope," observes Richards. Pope Zachary was successful in convincing Liutprand to put off his intended campaign and return the rural districts around Ravenna he had seized.

Several years later, however, in 751, the Lombard king Aistulf captured Ravenna. The Exarchate came to an end, and Byzantine Italy was confined to Sicily and the southern, Greek-speaking regions.

Gregory III

Gregory III may refer to:

Pope Gregory III, in office 731–741

Gregory III, Count of Tusculum, r. 1058–1108

Grigor III Pahlavuni, Armenian Catholicos of Cilicia in 1113–1166

Gregory III Šubić of Bribir, died in 1342 or 1356, Croatian noble

Patriarch Gregory III of Alexandria, Greek Orthodox patriarch, in office 1354–1366

Patriarch Gregory III of Constantinople, in office 1443–1450

Gregory III Laham, Patriarch of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church from 2000

Pope Gregory

Gregory has been the name of sixteen Roman Catholic Popes and two Antipopes. The Latin name is Gregorius.

Pope Gregory I "the Great" (590–604), after whom the Gregorian chant is named

Pope Gregory II (715–731)

Pope Gregory III (731–741)

Pope Gregory IV (827–844)

Pope Gregory V (996–999)

Pope Gregory VI (1045–1046)

Antipope Gregory VI

Pope Gregory VII (1073–1085), after whom the Gregorian Reform is named

Pope Gregory VIII (1187)

Antipope Gregory VIII

Pope Gregory IX (1227–1241)

Pope Gregory X (1271–1276)

Pope Gregory XI (1370–1378)

Pope Gregory XII (1406–1415)

Pope Gregory XIII (1572–1585), after whom the Gregorian calendar is named

Pope Gregory XIV (1590–1591)

Pope Gregory XV (1621–1623)

Pope Gregory XVI (1831–1846)

Saint Boniface

Saint Boniface (Latin: Bonifatius; c. 675 – 5 June 754 AD), born Winfrid (also spelled Winifred, Wynfrith, Winfrith or Wynfryth) in the Devon town of Crediton, England, was a leading figure in the Anglo-Saxon mission to the Germanic parts of the Frankish Empire during the 8th century. He organised significant foundations of the Catholic Church in Germany and was made archbishop of Mainz by Pope Gregory III. He was martyred in Frisia in 754, along with 52 others, and his remains were returned to Fulda, where they rest in a sarcophagus which became a site of pilgrimage. Boniface's life and death as well as his work became widely known, there being a wealth of material available—a number of vitae, especially the near-contemporary Vita Bonifatii auctore Willibaldi, legal documents, possibly some sermons, and above all his correspondence. He became the patron saint of Germania, known as the "Apostle of the Germans".

Norman F. Cantor notes the three roles Boniface played that made him "one of the truly outstanding creators of the first Europe, as the apostle of Germania, the reformer of the Frankish church, and the chief fomentor of the alliance between the papacy and the Carolingian family." Through his efforts to reorganize and regulate the church of the Franks, he helped shape the Latin Church in Europe, and many of the dioceses he proposed remain today. After his martyrdom, he was quickly hailed as a saint in Fulda and other areas in Germania and in England. He is still venerated strongly today by German Catholics. Boniface is celebrated (and criticized) as a missionary; he is regarded as a unifier of Europe, and he is seen (mainly by Catholics) as a Germanic national figure.

Saint Gregory (disambiguation)

Saint Gregory, also Pope Gregory I or Gregory the Dialogist (c. 540 – 604), was Pope from 590 until his death.

Saint Gregory may also refer to:

Gregory Thaumaturgus, (Gregory the Wonderworker), or Gregory of Neocaesarea (died 270)

Gregory of Spoleto (died 304)

Gregory the Illuminator, or Gregory the Enlightener (died 331), Armenian saint, founder of the Armenian Apostolic Church

Gregory of Nazianzus the Elder (died 373), bishop of Nazianzus, father of Gregory the Theologian and Caesarius of Nazianzus

Gregory of Nazianzus, or Gregory the Theologian (died 390), one of the Three Holy Hierarchs

Gregory of Nyssa (died after 394), Bishop of Nyssa

Gregory of Tours (died 594), Gallo-Roman historian and Bishop of Tours

Pope Gregory II (died 731), Pope from 715 to his death

Pope Gregory III (died 741), Pope from 731 to his death

Gregory of Utrecht, (died c. 770), German bishop

Gregory of Dekapolis (died 816), Byzantine monk

Gregory of Crete (Gregory of Akrita, died 820), Cretan saint venerated January 5

Gregory of Narek (died c. 1003): Armenian monk and mystic

Gregory of Moesia, (died 1012), Bulgarian bishop venerated January 8

Pope Gregory VII (died 1085), Pope from 1073 to his death

Gregory the Wonderworker of the Kiev Near Caves (died 1093), Kievan saint venerated January 8

Gregory the Iconographer (12th century), Kievan iconographer and saint venerated August 8

Gregory of Assos (died 1150), Bishop of Assos, venerated March 4

Gregory of Novgorod (died 1193), Archbishop of Novgorod, venerated May 24

Gregory of Nicomedia (died 1240), Byzantine ascetic and saint venerated April 2

Gregory the Byzantine (died 1310), Byzantine monk and saint venerated April 6

Gregory of Sinai (died 1347), Byzantine monk

Gregory the Singer (died 1355), Byzantine monk and saint venerated October 1

Gregory Palamas (died 1359), Archbishop of Thessalonica

Gregory the Hermit (14th century), Kievan saint venerated January 8

Gregory (14th century), founder of Osiou Gregoriou monastery

Gregory of Rostov (died 1416), Abbott of Kamenny Monastery and Archbishop of Rostov, Yiaroslavl and White Lake, venerated May 3

Gregory of Pelsheme (died 1442), Abbot of Pelsheme and Wonderworker of Vologda, venerated September 30

Patriarch Gregory V of Constantinople (1746–1821), Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople

Gregory (Orologas) of Kydonies (1864–1922), Metropolitan of Cydoniae

Grigol Peradze (1899–1942), Georgian Archimandrite

San Callisto

San Callisto (English: Saint Callistus, Latin: S. Calixti) is a Roman Catholic titular church in Rome, Italy, built over the site of Saint Pope Callistus I and the location of his martyrdom. The original building dates form the time of Pope Gregory III who ordered the building of a church on the site. The church has been rebuilt twice since, first in the twelfth century and again the current church in 1610. In 1458 Pope Callixtus III granted it a titular church as a seat for Cardinals.Established in 1517, the Titulus San Calixti is currently held by Willem Jacobus Cardinal Eijk.

Santa Maria in Aquiro

Santa Maria in Aquiro is a church in Rome, Italy. It is dedicated to Mary, mother of Jesus, and is located on Piazza Capranica.

The church is ancient – it was restored by Pope Gregory III in the 8th century, and thus must have existed before then. One theory is that it was the titulus Equitii, though San Martino ai Monti is a more likely candidate. It is also referred to as Santa Maria della Visitazione, notably by Pope Urban VI in 1389. The origins of the name are nebulous; most attribute it to a corruption of the term a Cyro, perhaps referring in early days to a neighborhood resident. According to another theory Acyro refers to a curruption of the Latin word "circus", a stadium for horse racing, which was located in the vicinity. In 1540 Pope Paul III granted the church to the Confraternity of Orphans, and it was restored in 1588.

Signum manus

Signum manus (sometimes also known as Chrismon) refers to the medieval practice, current from the Merovingian period until the 14th century in the Frankish Empire and its successors, of signing a document or charter with a special type of monogram or royal cypher.

The term Chrismon was introduced in New Latin specifically as a term for the Chi Rho monogram. As this symbol was used in Merovingian documents at the starting point of what would diversify into the tradition of "cross-signatures", German scholarship of the 18th century extended use of the term Chrismon to the entire field. In medievalist paleography and Diplomatik (ars diplomaticae, i.e. the study of documents or charters), the study of these signatures or sigils was known as Chrismologia or Chrismenlehre, while the study of cross variants was known as Staurologia.Chrismon in this context may refer to the Merovingian period abbreviation I. C. N. for in Christi nomine, later (in the Carolingian period) also I. C. for in Christo, and still later (in the high medieval period) just C. for Christus.A cross symbol was often drawn as an invocation at the beginning of documents in the early medieval West.

At the end of documents, commissioners or witnesses would sign with a signum manus, often also in the form of a simple cross. This practice is widespread in Merovingian documents of the 7th and 8th centuries. A related development is the widespread use of the cross symbol on the obverse side of early medieval coins, interpreted as the signum manus of the moneyer.

The tradition of minting coins with the monogram of the ruling monarch on the obverse side originates in the 5th century, both in Byzantium and in Rome. This tradition was continued in the 6th century by Germanic kings, including the Merovingians. These early designs were box monograms. The first cruciform monogram was used by Justinian I in the 560s. Tiberius III used a cruciform monogram with the letters R, M for Rome and T, B for Tiberius; Pope Gregory III used the letters G, R, E, O.The earliest surviving Merovingian royal charters, dating to the 7th century, have the box monograms of Chlothar II and Clovis II. Later in the 7th century, the use of royal monograms was abandoned entirely by the Merovingian kings; instead, royal wax seals were first attached to the documents, and the kings would sign their name in full.

The signum manus in the form of a modified cross symbol first appears in charters of both Frankish Gaul and Anglo-Saxon England in the late 7th and early 8th century. Charlemagne first used his cruciform monogram, likely inspired by the earlier papal monograms, in 769, and he would continue to use it for the rest of his reign. The monogram spells KAROLVS, with the

consonants K, R, L, S at the ends of the cross-arms, and the vowels A, O, V displayed in ligature at the center.Louis the Pious abandoned the cross monogram, using again a H-type or box monogram.

Synod of Rome

The Synod of Rome may refer to a number of synods or councils of the Roman Catholic Church, held in Rome.

Some of these synods include:

Synod of Rome (313), attended by the bishop of Beneventum, and Reticius, bishop of Autun

Council of Rome (382), a meeting of Christian Church officials and theologians under the authority of Pope Damasus I

Synod of Rome (465), attended by Concordius, bishop of Bari

Synod of Rome (499), attended by Saint Justus, bishop of Acerenza and Menecrates, bishop of Cariati

Synod of Rome (721), a synod held in St. Peter's Basilica under the authority of Pope Gregory II

Synods of Rome (727), held under the authority of Pope Gregory II

Synods of Rome (731), two synods held in St. Peter's Basilica under the authority of Pope Gregory III

Synod of Rome (732), a synod held in Rome under the authority of Pope Gregory III

Synod of Rome (745) held under the authority of Pope Zachary

Synod of Rome (898) Multiple councils held by John the XI to rectify the wrongs of the Cadaver Synod

Synod of Rome (963), a possibly uncanonical synod held in St. Peter's Basilica under the authority of the Holy Roman Emperor to depose Pope John XII

Synod of Rome (964), a synod held in St. Peter's Basilica, for the purpose of condemning the Synod of Rome (963) and to depose Pope Leo VIII

Synod of Rome (732)

The Synod of Rome (732) was a synod held in Rome in the year 732 under the authority of Pope Gregory III.

Synods of Rome (731)

The Synods of Rome in 731 were two synods held in St. Peter’s Basilica in the year 731 under the authority of Pope Gregory III to defend the practice of Icon veneration.

Transamund II of Spoleto

Transamund II was the Lombard Duke of Spoleto from 724 to 745, though he was twice driven from power by the king, Liutprand. Transamund rose to power by deposing his own father, Faroald II, and tonsuring him in a monastery.

In 737 or 738, Transamund captured Gallese and thus disrupted communication between Rome and Ravenna. Pope Gregory III offered to pay for the return of Gallese in return for a peace treaty with Transamund. The treaty included the Gregory, Duke of Benevento. Liutprand rejected the treaty as contrary his interests and attacked Transamund as a traitor. He had taken Spoleto by 16 June 739 and appointed Hilderic as his replacement. Transamund fled to Rome, where Liutprand besieged him. The king took Amelia, Orte, Bomarzo, and Bieda, but still the pope refused to release his refugee. Gregory even wrote to ask Charles Martel, Duke of the Franks, for assistance. Charles, however, refused.In December 740, Transamund recovered his duchy and killed Hilderic with Papal-Beneventan aid, but did not return the confiscated papal cities and his alliance with the pope ruptured. Liutprand did not recognise Transamund's reconquest and set out to dispossess him a second time. This time Liutprand met with Gregory's successor, Zachary, in 742 and, promising to restore the four towns, allied with the Romans and forced Transamund to flee again. Transamund was caught and put in a monastery. Agiprand, Liutprand's nephew, was put in his place. The new duke of Benevento, Godescalc, who had succeeded Gregory without royal assent and continued to support Transamund, was the next object of royal wrath.

On Liutprand's death in 744, Transamund managed to regain power in Spoleto. He lasted another year under the weak King Hildeprand the Useless until he died.


Vivilo (also Vivolus) was the first bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Passau after the reorganization of the Bavarian Catholic church, appointed by Saint Boniface in 739. Vivilo is the only one of four new bishops mentioned in a letter by Pope Gregory III confirming the establishments of four dioceses in Bavaria—that of Passau, Regensburg, Salzburg, and Freising.From his name it can be concluded that he was probably from Anglia. The bishops' ordination was given to Vivilo around 731/737 in Rome by Pope Gregory III. personally.

Due to a lack of sources, there is little known about Vivilo. Documents and letters from the tenth century claimed that Vivilo had been Bishop of Lauriacum before his Passover, and then moved his seat to Passau (Lorcher fakes). Thus, claims of the Diocese of Passau should be based on a privilege against the Archbishopric of Salzburg for the church organization in the East.

1st–4th centuries
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
5th–8th centuries
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
9th–12th centuries
Papal selection before 1059
Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
13th–16th centuries
Viterbo (1257–1281)
Orvieto (1262–1297)
Perugia (1228–1304)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
Western Schism (1378–1417)
Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)
Reformation Papacy (1534–1585)
Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)
17th–20th centuries
Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848)
Roman Question (1870–1929)
Vatican City (1929–present)
21st century
History of the papacy
Virgin Mary
See also

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