Pope Gelasius II (c. 1060/1064 – 29 January 1119), born Giovanni Caetani or Giovanni da Gaeta (also called Coniulo), was Pope from 24 January 1118 to his death in 1119. A monk of Monte Cassino and chancellor of Pope Paschal II, Caetani was unanimously elected to succeed him. In doing so he also succeeded to the conflicts with Emperor Henry V over investiture. Gelasius spent a good part of his brief papacy in exile.
|Papacy began||24 January 1118|
|Papacy ended||29 January 1119|
|Ordination||9 March 1118|
|Consecration||10 March 1118|
|Created cardinal||September 1088|
by Urban II
|Birth name||Giovanni Caetani|
Gaeta, Principality of Capua
|Died||29 January 1119|
Cluny, Duchy of Burgundy, Kingdom of France
|Other popes named Gelasius|
|Papal styles of|
Pope Gelasius II
|Reference style||His Holiness|
|Spoken style||Your Holiness|
|Religious style||Holy Father|
He was born between 1060 and 1064 at Gaeta into the Pisan branch of the Caetani family, and became a monk of Monte Cassino. Pope Urban II, who wished to improve the style of papal documents, brought him to Rome and made Caetani a papal subdeacon (August 1088) and cardinal deacon of Santa Maria in Cosmedin (probably on 23 September 1088). As chancellor of the Holy Roman Church from 1089 to 1118, he drastically reformed the papal administration, establishing a permanent staff of clerks for the papacy, overcoming the previous custom of relying on Roman notaries to write papal documents, and introducing the minuscule curial script. His tenure also established the precedent of the papal chancellor always being a cardinal and holding the office for life or until elected pope.
Shortly after his unanimous election to succeed Pope Paschal II in 1118, he was seized by Cencio II Frangipane, a partisan of Holy Roman Emperor Henry V, but was freed by a general uprising of the Romans on his behalf.
Henry V sought to enforce the privilege of investiture conceded (and later revoked in 1112) by the papacy, under duress, by Paschal II. He drove Gelasius II from Rome in March 1118, pronounced his election null and void, and set up Maurice Bourdin, Archbishop of Braga, as antipope under the name of Gregory VIII.
Gelasius II fled to Gaeta, where he was ordained a priest on 9 March 1118 and on the following day received episcopal consecration. He at once excommunicated Henry V and the antipope and, under Norman protection, was able to return to Rome in July. But the disturbances of the imperialist party, especially those of the Frangipani, who attacked the Pope while celebrating Mass in the church of St. Prassede, compelled Gelasius II to go once more into exile. He set out for France, consecrating the cathedral of Pisa on the way, and arrived at Marseille in October. He was received with great enthusiasm at Avignon, Montpellier and other cities, held a synod at Vienne in January 1119, and was planning to hold a general council to settle the investiture contest when he died at Abbey of Cluny.
|Catholic Church titles|
A papal election subsequent to the death of Pope Victor III in 1087 was held on 12 March 1088. Six cardinal-bishops, assisted by two lower-ranking cardinals, elected Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia Odon de Lagery as the new Pope. He assumed the name Urban II.1110s
The 1110s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1110, and ended on December 31, 1119.
== Events ==
=== 1110 ===
May – First Crusade: Crusaders conquer Beirut.
December 4 – First Crusade: Crusaders conquer Sidon.
Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor invades Italy.
Inge the Younger becomes joint king of Sweden, with his brother Philip.
The Rus' Primary Chronicle ends.
Construction begins on Fontevraud Abbey, in France.
Mawdud of Mosul captures all land belonging to the Crusader County of Edessa, east of the Euphrates.
Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus renews his war with the Seljuk Turks.
=== 1111 ===
==== By area ====
====== Asia ======
Battle of Shaizar: Crusaders and Seljuk Turks fight to a draw in Syria.
The Donglin Academy is established, in Song Dynasty China.
====== Europe ======
April 13 – Henry V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor, by Pope Paschal II.
May 24 – The Commune of Laus is destroyed by Milanese troops.
Baldwin VII becomes Count of Flanders.
Santarém and Sintra are captured by the Almoravid troops of General Sir ibn Abi Bakr. The efforts of the Berbers to reconquer lost ground lead to the sack of Coimbra. That same year the city experienced the sole urban rebellion against their lord to take place in Portugal.
Alfonso VII becomes King of Galicia.
Domnall Ua Briain becomes King of the Hebrides and the Isle of Man, following a request from the people of that kingdom to the King of Munster, to send them a ruler.
==== By topic ====
====== Religion ======
The Synod of Rathbreasail marks the transition of the Irish church, from a monastic to a diocesan structure.
=== 1112 ===
==== By place ====
====== Europe ======
February 3 – The count of Barcelona, Ramon Berenguer III, obtains the county of Provence, due to his marriage to the heiress, Douce.
Easter – The people of Laon, France, having proclaimed a commune, murder their bishop, Waldric, in his cathedral.
Salzwedel, Germany is founded.
The German Margraviate of Baden is founded by Herman II.
Afonso I becomes Count of Portugal.
Otto, Count of Ballenstedt is made Duke of Saxony by Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, but later stripped of the title.
Gallus Anonymus begins to write Gesta principum Polonorum, to Bolesław III Wrymouth.
=== 1113 ===
Pierre Abélard opens his school in Paris, France.
Alaungsithu succeeds Kyanzittha, as king of Burma.
Suryavarman II's reign begins, in the Khmer Empire.
Vladimir II Monomakh's reign begins, in Kievan Rus'.
Bridlington Priory is founded in England.
The Order of the Knights of the Hospital of Saint John, founded to protect pilgrims to the Holy Land, is formally recognized by the papal bull Pie Postulatio Voluntatis.
A riot erupts in Kiev.
The Republic of Florence conquers the neighboring city of Montecascioli, as part of its effort to extend its domination over the contado.
Queen Urraca of Castile unsuccessfully attempts to seize Burgos from her ex-husband, King Alfonso I of Aragon and Navarre.
A Thousand Li of Rivers and Mountains, the only extant work by Chinese painter Wang Ximeng, is finished.
=== 1114 ===
==== By place ====
====== Asia ======
The Song Dynasty emperor Huizong sends a gift of Chinese musical instruments, for use in royal banquets to the Goryeo court of Korea, by request from the Goryeo king Yejong.
====== Europe ======
January 7 – Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England, marries Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor.
May 11 – The Cathedral of Chichester, constructed of wood, is destroyed by fire
Ramon Berenguer III of Barcelona, and his Pisan allies, conquer Ibiza and Mallorca.
Battle of Martorell The Almoravid governor of Zaragoza, Muhàmmad ibn al-Hajj, launches an offensive against the County of Barcelona, but is defeated by Ramon Berenguer III.
As part of the Norman expansion southward, Count Routrou II of Perche enters the service of the king of Castille, Alfonso the Battler.
The Polovtsy attack the Byzantine Empire.
=== 1115 ===
February 11 – Battle of Welfesholz: Lothair of Supplinburg defeats Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor.
February 13 (traditional date) – Clairvaux Abbey is founded in France, by Bernard.
September 14 – Battle of Sarmin in Syria: Roger of Salerno's Crusaders rout the Seljuk Turks, under Bursuq ibn Bursuq.
Anselm of Laon becomes archdeacon of Laon.
Peter Abélard becomes canon of Notre Dame de Paris, and meets Héloïse d'Argenteuil.
Stephen of England becomes count of Mortain.
Arnulf of Chocques is accused of sexual relations with a Muslim woman, and is briefly removed from his position as Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, by the papal legate.
Jurchen people establish the Jin dynasty of China.
The Crusader castle of Montreal is built by Baldwin I of Jerusalem, in Jordan.
The Mixtec lord Eight Deer Jaguar Claw is defeated in battle, and sacrificed by a coalition of city-states, led by his brother-in-law 4 Wind, at Tilantongo.
Earliest likely date – Hugh of Saint Victor joins the Victorines in Paris, France.
=== 1116 ===
==== By area ====
====== Africa ======
Baldwin I of Jerusalem undertakes an invasion of Egypt.
The Zirid ruler of Ifriqiya, Ali ibn Yahya, conquers the independent island of Jerba, then acting as an independent piratical republic.
====== Americas ======
The Aztecs leave Aztlán, searching for the site of what will eventually become Tenochtitlán (later Mexico City).
====== Europe ======
July 15 – Doge Ordelafo Faliero, of the Republic of Venice, conquers the troops of Stephen II of Hungary, who have arrived to relieve Zadar; the remaining towns of Dalmatia surrender to Venice.
August 3 – In England, the Monastery at Peterborough is destroyed by fire
The Portuguese, under the leadership of Countess Theresa, take two Galician cities, Tui and Ourense. In reply, the sister of Countess Theresa, Queen Urraca of Leon and Castile, attacks Portugal.
Almoravid troops conquer the Balearic islands, whose Muslim king has been severely weakened by Pisan and Catalan raiders.
==== By topic ====
====== Arts and technology ======
The modern book, of separate pages stitched together, is invented in China.
Construction starts on the Chennakesava Temple in India.
Aak music is introduced to the Korean court, by Emperor Huizong of the Song Dynasty.
=== 1117 ===
==== Africa ====
Conflict between the de facto independent republics of Mahdia and Gabes in Ifriqiya. Madhia is supported by the Zirid dynasty while Gabes receives the aid of the Roger I of Sicily.
==== Asia ====
Arslan-Shah of Ghazna loses the Battle of Ghazni.
Pelusium is razed by Baldwin I of Jerusalem.
Miidera and the sohei of Enryakuji attack Nara, Japan.
==== Europe ====
Borivoj II of Bohemia becomes prince in place of Vladislav I of Bohemia.
The people of Santiago de Compostela (present-day Spain) try to burn their prelate in his palace, along with the queen.
Iceland ends slavery.
Short-lived Almoravid reconquest of Coimbra (Portugal).
Stephen II of Hungary regains Dalmatia from the Republic of Venice while the Venetians are on a naval expedition, Doge Ordelafo Faliero dying in battle near Zadar; Domenico Michele, elected Doge to succeed him, reconquers the territory and agrees a 5-year truce.
=== 1118 ===
==== By place ====
====== Europe ======
Peace between England and Flanders is agreed upon.
====== =British isles= ======
Enna mac Donnchada mac Murchada becomes King of Dublin in Ireland.
Cu Faifne mac Congalaig becomes King of Uí Failghe in Ireland.
Maelsechlainn Ua Faelain becomes King of the Déisi Muman in Ireland.
The cantrefs of Rhos and Rhufoniog are annexed by Gruffudd ap Cynan, King of Gwynedd in Wales.
The Archbishop of York is no longer required to be crowned by the Archbishop of Canterbury.
Reconstruction begins on Peterborough Cathedral in England, destroyed by fire in 1116.
====== =Byzantine Empire= ======
John II Comnenus succeeds Alexius I, as Byzantine emperor.
====== =Eastern Europe= ======
Đorđe, Vojislavljević ruler of Serbia, is overthrown by Uroš I of Raška.
George I of Duklja is overthrown by his cousin Grubeša.
Radostl becomes Bishop of Krakow.
Zbraslav, now part of Prague, is founded.
Sylvester of Kiev becomes bishop of Pereyaslav.
====== =France= ======
A rebellion against Henry I of England breaks out in Normandy.
Alberich of Rheims becomes Master at the school of Rheims.
Charles I, Count of Flanders marries Margaret of Clermont.
Peter Abelard and Héloïse d'Argenteuil have a child and marry secretly in Paris. Her uncle Fulbert has Abelard castrated, and both Abelard and Héloïse enter religious orders.
Amaury IV of Montfort divorces his wife Richilde, daughter of Baldwin II, Count of Hainaut.
Wulgrin III becomes Count of Angoulême.
Gervais becomes Count of Rethel.
Montlhéry Castle is dismantled by Louis VI of France.
====== =Germany= ======
Magdeburg is almost destroyed by fire.
Reichenbach Abbey is founded.
Zwickau, Eisenstadt, Kirchgandern, and Wolfenbüttel are first mentioned.
Otto of Bamberg is suspended by the Pope, and Norbert of Xanten defends himself against charges of heresy, at the Synod of Fritzlar.
====== =Italy= ======
January 24 – Pope Gelasius II succeeds Pope Paschal II as the 161st pope.
March 10 – Gregory VIII is elected antipope.
The cathedral of Ferentino is completed.
The restoration of Santa Maria in Cosmedin begins.
The economic competition between Milan and Como drives the two cities to war.
====== =Scandinavia= ======
Upon the death of his brother Philip, Inge the Younger becomes sole king of Sweden.
Þorlákur Runólfsson becomes Bishop of Skálholt.
====== =Spain= ======
The Almoravids lose their control of the Ebro valley:
Pope Gelasius II grants the status of Crusade to the Christian effort in the Ebro Valley, attracting numerous Gascon, Occitan and Norman knights.
December 18 – Alfonso the Battler expels the Moors from Zaragoza.
The troops of Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona, led by archbishop Oleguer Bonestruga, capture Tarragona from the Moors.
====== Asia ======
====== =East Asia= ======
The Genei era begins in Japan.
The Zenghe era of Emperor Huizong of Song China ends, and the Chonghe era begins.
The Yongning era of Emperor Chongzong of Western Xia ends.
====== =Caucasus= ======
David IV of Georgia captures Lori from the Seljuk Turks.
David IV of Georgia settles a number of Kipchaks in Georgia.
====== =Western Asia= ======
June 11 – Roger of Salerno, Prince of Antioch, captures Azaz from the Seljuk Turks.
The Byzantine general Philocales captures Sardis, from the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm.
Baldwin I of Jerusalem invades Egypt.
Baldwin of Le Bourg succeeds his cousin Baldwin I, as King of Jerusalem.
Roman of Le Puy becomes lord of Oultrejordain.
Joscelin I succeeds Baldwin of Le Bourg, as Count of Edessa.
Garmond of Picquigny becomes Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem.
Suleyman I ibn al-Ghazi becomes emir of Aleppo.
Ahmed Sanjar and Mahmud II proclaim themselves rival Seljuk sultans, upon the death of Mehmed I of Great Seljuk.
Al-Mustarshid becomes Abbasid caliph.
Bahram Shah becomes Ghaznavid Emperor.
====== =South Asia= ======
June 29 – Vikram Chola becomes regent of the Chola kingdom.
Battle of Kennagal: The Hoysala Empire defeats the Chalukya.
=== 1119 ===
==== By area ====
====== Asia ======
June 28 – Battle of Ager Sanguinis: Ilghazi, the ruler of Aleppo, wipes out a Crusader army from the Principality of Antioch.
August 14 – Battle of Hab: Baldwin II of Jerusalem's Crusaders defeat Ilghazi's army, saving Antioch.
====== Europe ======
August 20 – Battle of Bremule: Henry I of England routs Louis VI.
September 19 – A severe earthquake hits Gloucestershire & Warwickshire, England.
Robert Bruce, 1st Lord of Cleveland and Annandale, grants and confirms the church of St. Hilda of Middleburg (Middlesbrough) to Whitby.
==== By topic ====
====== Religion ======
February 2 – Pope Callixtus II succeeds Pope Gelasius II, as the 162nd pope.
The Knights Templar is founded by Hugh de Payns.
The Councils of Toulouse and Reims are held.
The archbishop of Tarragona, Oleguer Bonestruga, very successfully preaches a Crusade against the Moors in Catalonia.
In Toulouse, the Church condemns the Petrobrusian heresy.
====== Technology ======
In his Pingzhou Table Talks published in this year, Song Dynasty Chinese author Zhu Yu writes of the earliest known use of separate hull compartments in ships.
Zhu Yu's book is the first to report the use of a magnetic compass for navigation at sea, although the first actual description of the magnetic compass is by another Chinese writer (Shen Kuo) in his Dream Pool Essays (published in 1088).1118
Year 1118 (MCXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.1118 papal election
The Papal election of 1118 saw the election of Pope Gelasius II as the successor of Pope Paschal II, who died January 21, 1118 in Rome after an over 18-year pontificate.1119
Year 1119 (MCXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.1119 papal election
The papal election of 1119 (held January 29 to February 2) was, by an order of magnitude, the smallest papal election of the 12th century currently considered legitimate by the Roman Catholic Church.
Pope Gelasius II had died in Cluny having been expelled from Rome by Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, as a result of the Investiture Controversy. Probably only two cardinal bishops, four cardinal priests and four cardinal deacons participated in the election. The election took place in Cluny Abbey in France, while the rest of the College of Cardinals remained in Rome. A non-cardinal Guy de Bourgogne, the Archbishop of Vienne, was elected Pope Callixtus II, and crowned in Vienne on February 9; Callixtus II reached Rome on June 3, 1120.Alberic of Monte Cassino
Alberic of Monte Cassino was a Cardinal in the Roman Catholic Church who died in 1088. He was a cardinal from 1057.
He was (perhaps) a native of Trier, and became a Benedictine. He successfully opposed the teachings of Berengarius, which were considered heretical by the Pope, defending the measures of Gregory VII during the Investiture Controversy.
He composed several theological and scientific works and lives of saints, and is the author of the earliest medieval treatise on ars dictaminis, or letter-writing (De dictamine).
Many of his letters are found in the works of St. Peter Damian.One of his pupils, John of Gaeta, was the future Pope Gelasius II.Cencio II Frangipane
Cencius II or Cencio II Frangipane was the son of either of Cencio I or of John, a brother of one Leo. He was the principal representative of the Frangipani family of Rome in the early twelfth century.
One night in 1118, he interrupted the College of Cardinals in Santa Maria in Pallara sul Palatino, near his castle, and arrested the newly elected Pope Gelasius II and some of his followers. Popular opinion turned so against him, however, that he was forced to release the pope. In that one night, however, the whole relationship between the Frangipani and the Gregorian reformers broke down. In Spring 1121, Pope Callistus II destroyed the Frangipani fortress in Rome and prohibited its reconstruction.
With Cardinal Aimerico of Santa Maria Novella, in 1124, Cencio allied to force the election of Honorius II. In 1125, the pope granted him the county of Ceccano and from there he sacked the Abbey of Montecassino. In 1128, Cencio and Aimerico together travelled to the court of Count Roger II of Sicily to invest him with the Duchy of Apulia from the pope.
Cencio later fell out with Aimerico. On 14 February 1130, Aimerico's candidate, Innocent II, was elected pope, but immediately opposed by the Roman nobility, including Cencio, who sent a letter dated 18 May to Lothair of Supplinburg, King of Germany, asking him to support the antipope Anacletus II. Cencio was exiled from the city for the next three years until his return on 4 June 1133 to be present at Lothair's imperial coronation.Gelasius
Gelasius may refer to:
Pope Gelasius I (died 496)
Pope Gelasius II (died 1119)
Gelasius of Cyzicus (fifth century), ecclesiastical writer
Gelasius of Caesarea (died 395), bishop of Caesarea
Gelasius, Archbishop of Armagh (1137 to 1174)
Gelasius O'Cullenan, Cistercian Abbot of Boyle, IrelandGenoa Cathedral
Genoa Cathedral, Cathedral of Saint Lawrence (Italian: Duomo di Genova, Cattedrale di San Lorenzo) is a Roman Catholic cathedral in the Italian city of Genoa. It is dedicated to Saint Lawrence (San Lorenzo), and is the seat of the Archbishop of Genoa. The cathedral was consecrated by Pope Gelasius II in 1118 and was built between the twelfth century and the fourteenth century as fundamentally a medieval building, with some later additions. Secondary naves and side covers are of Romanesque style and the main facade is Gothic from the early thirteenth century, while capitals and columns with interior corridors date from the early fourteenth century. The bell tower and dome were built in the sixteenth century.Giovanni (name)
Giovanni is a male Italian given name (from Latin Ioannes). It is the Italian equivalent of John. Giovanni is frequently contracted to Gianni, Gian, or Gio, particularly in the name Gianbattista, and can also be found as a surname. It is sometimes spelled as Geovanni, Giovonnie or Giovannie when used as an English female name. Its female counterpart is Giovanna.Landulf II (archbishop of Benevento)
Landulf II (died 4 August 1119) was the Archbishop of Benevento from 8 November 1108 to his death. He succeeded Roffredo more than a year after the latter's death on 9 September 1107. The main source for his eventful reign is the contemporary chronicler and fellow Lombard and Benventan Falco.
Landulf was a son of Gaideris, probably of local origin. Landulf was the cardinal-priest of San Lorenzo in Lucina when he was elected archbishop. He was consecrated to his office by Pope Paschal II himself during a synod in Benevento lasting from October to November 1108. He was a reformer and he directed his energies towards restructuring his ancient diocese, which corresponded roughly to the Principality of Benevento, which was technically papal property. In 1112, he played an essential rôle in the selection of rector for the territory.
Despite these characteristics, Landulf was a supporter of the popular party and the Normans and opponent of the pro-papal aristocracy, led by the papal constable Landulf of Greca. A great many feudi (vassals) of the archdiocese were Normans. Discord, however, reached such a level between the two Landulfs that the constable was forced to flee to Montefusco and the archbishop went to Rome in 1114 to seek mediation. The pope responded by sending a Romuald, cardinal-deacon of Santa Maria in Via Lata, and Peter, cardinal-bishop of Porto, to arbitrate between the disputants. Landulf, moreover, had made peace with Robert I of Capua and Jordan of Ariano, who had attacked the city. The pope accused Landulf of exceeding his authority by making truces without papal permission. Romuald found the archbishop to blame for the conflict with Greca and the pope deposed him from his see at the Council of Ceprano in October that year. An eyewitness account of this is probably found in Falco.
The Abbey of Montecassino intervened on Landulf's behalf with the pope and, on 11 August 1116, he was reappointed. On 10 March 1118, he was in Gaeta to greet Pope Gelasius II in his exile. On 10 March 1119, he convoked a local synod to put an end to the ongoing violence. Attended by many cardinals and bishops, the council provided little help to the situation.
Landulf was a promoter of local hagiography and cults. He also built a new episcopal cathedral and translated the bodies of the saints kept at the old one there on 15 May. He died 4 August 1119, leaving us some sermons, hagiographies, and a passion.List of papal conclaves
There have been 110 papal elections that have produced popes currently recognized by the Catholic Church as legitimate. There was no fixed process for papal succession before 1059 and popes were often selected with substantial secular involvement, if not outright appointment. Since the promulgation of In nomine Domini (1059), however, suffrage has been limited to the College of Cardinals.Papal elections since 1276 have taken the form of papal conclaves, which are elections that follow a set of rules and procedures developed in Ubi periculum (1274) and later papal bulls; observance of the conclave varied until 1294, but all papal elections since have followed relatively similar conclave procedures.
Although the cardinals have historically gathered at a handful of other locations within Rome and beyond, only five elections since 1455 have been held outside the Apostolic Palace. Twenty-eight papal elections have been held outside Rome, in: Terracina (1088), Cluny (1119), Velletri (1181), Verona (1185), Ferrara (October 1187), Pisa (December 1187), Perugia (1216, 1264–1265, 1285, 1292–1294, 1304–1305), Anagni (1243), Naples (1254, 1294), Viterbo (1261, 1268–1271, July 1276, August–September 1276, 1277, 1281–1282), Arezzo (January 1276), Carpentras/Lyon (1314–1316), Avignon (1334, 1342, 1352, 1362, 1370), Konstanz (1417) and Venice (1799–1800). Three elections moved between locations while in progress: the elections of 1268–71, 1292–94, and 1314–16.List of the creations of the cardinals
List of the promotions of the cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. Dates of the consistories are known or possible to establish only from the pontificate of Pope Gelasius II (1118–1119). Information concerning the number and names of the cardinals created before this pontificate are certainly incomplete. For the later period, the available data are probably complete, but, for some pontificates (particularly in the 12th century), it is impossible to establish the exact number of promotions, because in some cases there are doubts whether the promotion really took place, and in some others it is not possible to ascertain whether the records describe two separate individuals or one individual who held two cardinal titles during his lifetime.
The numbers in the list do not include the cardinals created in pectore whose names were never published, those who declined the appointment, and those who died before their announced promotion took place.Mirabeau, Vaucluse
Mirabeau is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.
It has several buildings from the 13th century in the centre, including the Chapel de MadelinnePietro Senex
Pietro Senex (died 1134) was Cardinal-Bishop of Porto from 1102 until his death.
He was born probably in Rome. He appears for the first time as cardinal in March 1102, when he exercised the legatine duties in Benevento. From 1106 until 1109 he is attested as governor of Benevento. He belonged to the sixteen cardinals who confirmed the treaty of Ponte Mammolo between Pope Paschal II and Emperor Henry V (April 1111). He participated in the Lateran council in the following year. He subscribed the papal bulls between March 8, 1114 and April 10, 1129. Papal vicar at Rome, 1117–20. He participated in the papal election, 1118, in which pope Gelasius II was elected. In March 1119 he presided over the ratification by the Roman clergy of the election of Pope Callixtus II, made in Cluny by few cardinals present at the deathbed of Gelasius II. He served as legate of Callixtus II in Venice and Outremer. During the papal election, 1124 he unsuccessfully opposed the intervention of Roberto Frangipani, which resulted with the election of Pope Honorius II. He became dean of the College of Cardinals ca. 1126. In the papal election, 1130 he gave his vote to Pietro Pierleoni, who became antipope Anacletus II, and consecrated him to the episcopate on February 23, 1130. He subscribed the electoral decree of Anacletus on February 14, 1130, and the bulls issued by antipope on March 27 and April 24 of the same year. He died probably in 1134, at very advanced age, without making submission to the legitimate pope Innocent II.Pons of Melgueil
Pons of Melgueil (c. 1075 – 1126) was the seventh Abbot of Cluny from 1109 to 1122.
Pons was the second child of Peter I of Melgueil and Almodis of Toulouse. He was descended from a noble lineage of Languedoc which had long supported the Gregorian reform. He himself was a nephew and godson of Pope Paschal II. He was an oblate at the abbey of Saint-Pons-de-Thomières, before pronouncing his vows with the Benedictines at Cluny.Pons was elected to succeed Hugh of Semur after the latter's death. For most of his abbacy he continued Hugh's policies: the construction of the third great abbey church of Cluny ("Cluny III"), expansion of the Cluniac order into northern France and England, and mediating the Investiture Controversy between Emperor and Pope.In 1118 the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry V, still contesting the Investiture Controversy, marched on Rome and Pope Gelasius II fled to Cluny. Before his death in 1119, Gelasius indicated that either Archbishop Guy of Vienne, or Pons of Cluny be chosen to succeed him. Guy was elected and took the name Callixtus II. Relations were strained between Rome and Cluny for a time. In 1119 Pons' government was publicly protested by Bérard de Châtillon, the Bishop of Mâcon, and Humbaud, the Archbishop of Lyon.
In the consistory of January 1120 Pope Calixtus II named Pons a cardinal-deacon. He also canonized Pons' predecessor and raised the Diocese of Santiago de Compostela to metropolitan status for the benefit of Pons' friend, Diego Gelmírez.In 1122, on a pretext of extravagance, Pons' own monks challenged his leadership. Pope Callistus II summoned him to Rome to attend the First Ecumenical Lateran Council and the abbot resigned his post. He then went to Jerusalem and a year later, returned to Italy and founded a small monastery near Vicenza. In 1123 he was one of the participants in the Diet of Worms.
Pons tried to regain his position in 1125 but was arrested. He died in prison. Historians have generally rejected the official rationale for Pons' removal. Pietro Zerbi argued that he was the victim of opposition from the bishops disadvantaged by the many privileges his order received under his and Hugh's management. Adriaan Bredero believed he was brought down by a faction of reform-minded monks who desired to bring Cluny closer to the ideal of Cîteaux. Financial difficulties had also appeared for Cluny during Pons' abbacy, after Alfonso VI of León defaulted on his pledged annual donations (the so-called "Alfonsine census") in 1111. They did not resume, as the source of the monies, the parias León had been collecting, had dried up c. 1100.Pope Gelasius
Pope Gelasius can refer to:
Pope Gelasius I, in office 492–496
Pope Gelasius II, in office 1118–1119
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
Papal selection before 1059
Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
Western Schism (1378–1417)
Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)
Reformation Papacy (1534–1585)
Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)
Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848)
Roman Question (1870–1929)
Vatican City (1929–present)
|History of the papacy|