Pope Felix I

Pope Felix I (died 30 December 274) was the Bishop of Rome or Pope from 5 January 269 to his death in 274.

Pope Saint

Felix I
PopeFelixI
Pope Felix I fresco in Sistine Chapel
Papacy began5 January 269
Papacy ended30 December 274
PredecessorDionysius
SuccessorEutychian
Personal details
Birth nameFelix
BornRome, Roman Empire
Died30 December 274
Rome, Roman Empire
Sainthood
Feast day30 December
30 May (1960 Calendar)
Other popes named Felix

Life and works

A Roman by birth,[1] Felix was chosen as Pope on 5 January 269,[1] in succession to Pope Dionysius, who had died on 26 December 268.[1]

Felix was the author of an important dogmatic letter on the unity of Christ's Person. He received the emperor Aurelian's aid in settling a theological dispute between the anti-Trinitarian Paul of Samosata, who had been deprived of the bishopric Antioch by a council of bishops for heresy and the orthodox Domnus, Paul's successor.[2] Paul refused to give way, and in 272 the emperor Aurelian was asked to decide between the rivals. He ordered the church building to be given to the bishop who was "recognized by the bishops of Italy and of the city of Rome" (Felix). See Eusebius, Hist. Ecc. vii. 30.[3]

The text of that letter was later interpolated by a follower of Apollinaris in the interests of his sect.[4]

The notice about Felix in the Liber Pontificalis ascribes to him a decree that Masses should be celebrated on the tombs of martyrs ("Hic constituit supra memorias martyrum missas celebrare"). The author of this entry was evidently alluding to the custom of celebrating Mass privately at the altars near or over the tombs of the martyrs in the crypts of the catacombs (missa ad corpus), while the solemn celebration always took place in the basilicas built over the catacombs. This practice, still in force at the end of the fourth century, dates apparently from the period when the great cemeterial basilicas were built in Rome, and owes its origin to the solemn commemoration services of martyrs, held at their tombs on the anniversary of their burial, as early as the third century. Felix probably issued no such decree, but the compiler of the Liber Pontificalis attributed it to him because he made no departure from the custom in force in his time.[4]

Death and veneration

The acts of the Council of Ephesus give Pope Felix as a martyr; but this detail, which occurs again in the biography of the pope in the Liber Pontificalis, is unsupported by any authentic earlier evidence and is manifestly due to a confusion of names. According to the notice in the Liber Pontificalis, Felix erected a basilica on the Via Aurelia; the same source also adds that he was buried there.[5] The latter detail is evidently an error, for the fourth-century Roman calendar of feasts says that Pope Felix was interred in the Catacomb of Callixtus on the Via Appia.[6] The statement of the Liber Pontificalis concerning the pope's martyrdom results obviously from a confusion with a Roman martyr of the same name buried on the Via Aurelia, and over whose grave a church was built. In the Roman "Feriale" or calendar of feasts, referred to above, the name of Felix occurs in the list of Roman bishops (Depositio episcoporum), and not in that of the martyrs.[4]

According to the above-mentioned detail of the Depositio episcoporum, Felix was interred in the catacomb of Callixtus on 30 December,[4] "III Kal. Jan." (third day to the calends of January) in the Roman dating system. Saint Felix I is mentioned as Pope and Martyr, with a simple feast, on 30 May. This date, given in the Liber Pontificalis as that of his death (III Kal. Jun.), is probably an error which could easily occur through a transcriber writing "Jun." for "Jan."[4] This error persisted in the General Roman Calendar until 1969 (see General Roman Calendar of 1960), by which time the mention of Saint Felix I was reduced to a commemoration in the weekday Mass by decision of Pope Pius XII (see General Roman Calendar of Pope Pius XII). Thereafter, the feast of Saint Felix I, no longer mentioned in the General Roman Calendar, is celebrated on his true day of death, 30 December, and without the qualification of "martyr".[7]

According to more recent studies, the oldest liturgical books indicate that the saint honoured on 30 May was a little-known martyr buried on the Via Aurelia, who was mistakenly identified with Pope Felix I,[8] an error similar to but less curious than the identification in the liturgical books, until the mid-1950s, of the martyr saint celebrated on 30 July with the antipope Felix II.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Annuario Pontificio 2012 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2008 ISBN 978-88-209-8722-0), p. 8*
  2. ^ "St. Felix I". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
  3. ^ Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Felix (Popes)" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  4. ^ a b c d e Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope St. Felix I" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  5. ^ "Hic fecit basilicam in Via Aurelia, ubi et sepultus est"
  6. ^ "III Kal. Januarii, Felicis in Callisti", it reads in the Depositio episcoporum.
  7. ^ Martyrologium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2001 ISBN 88-209-7210-7)
  8. ^ Calendarium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 1969), p. 125

External links

Titles of the Great Christian Church
Preceded by
Dionysius
Bishop of Rome
Pope

269–274
Succeeded by
Eutychian
260s

The 260s decade ran from January 1, 260, to December 31, 269.

== Events ==

=== 260 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Battle of Edessa: With a large army, said to number 70,000 men, Valerianus attempts to drive the Persians back from Edessa. The Roman army is surrounded and most of its troops are killed or captured. Valerianus is taken prisoner for the remainder of his life.

Shapur I sends Valerian to Bishapur and uses the captured Roman army for engineering plans. They construct the Band-e Kaisar (Bridge of Valerian).

Gallienus becomes the sole emperor of Rome; during his reign the Pannonian governor Ingenuus revolts on the Danube.

Gallienus evacuates the fortifications (limes) in the Agri Decumates (Germania Superior), covering the Black Forest area in the face of invading Alamanni.

Gallienus establishes himself at Mediolanum (modern Milan); he reorganizes the army, supported by elite cavalry, and dispatches troops to the Rhine frontier.

Postumus, Roman usurper, forms the Gallic Empire and protects the Rhine against an invasion of Germanic tribes.

Saloninus, son of Gallienus, is proclaimed Augustus by his troops. Postumus besieges Cologne, where Silvanus is praetorian prefect and Roman ruler of Gaul.

Postumus executes Saloninus and his adviser Silvanus after breaching the walls of Cologne. He is recognized as emperor and establishes his capital at Trier.

Postumus wins over all the Roman provinces west of the Alps, including Gaul, Britain and Hispania.

The Roman fort of Wiesbaden (Germany) is captured by the Alamanni.

The Franks take control over the Scheldt estuary (approximate date).

====== Persia ======

Persian king Shapur I destroys Caesarea Mazaca in Asia Minor.

====== China ======

The Cao Wei emperor Cao Mao attempts to lead a coup against the increasingly powerful regent Sima Zhao, but is himself killed before it comes to fruition.

Cao Huan succeeds Cao Mao as emperor of Cao Wei.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Earliest known date of chess.

====== Religion ======

Pope Dionysius convenes a synod at Rome to demand an explanation from bishop Dionysius of Alexandria, who has been charged with separating the members of the Trinity as three distinct deities.

Paul of Samosata becomes Patriarch of Antioch.

=== 261 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Gallienus crushes the Alemanni at Milan (possible date).

Gallienus repeals the edict of 258, which led to the persecution of the Christians.

Gallienus usurpers: The rebellion of Macrianus Major, Macrianus Minor, and Quietus against Gallienus comes to an end. They march from Asia to Europe but are defeated in Thrace by Gallienus' general Aureolus, and both are killed. Quietus flees to Emesa, where he is killed by Odaenathus of Palmyra.

Roman–Persian Wars: Balista, Roman usurper, collects ships from Cilician ports and defeats the Persian fleet near Pompeiopolis, capturing the harem of king Shapur I.

Britain elects to join the Gallic Empire.

====== Asia ======

Michu ascends the Silla throne, becoming the first king of the long Kim line.

=== 262 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

The Goths invade Asia Minor and destroy the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus.

An earthquake strikes Ephesus and Pergamon and another strikes Cyrene.

The Heruls accompany the Goths, ravaging the coasts of the Black Sea and the Aegean.

=== 263 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

King Odenathus of Palmyra declares himself ruler of the area west of the River Euphrates and is declared Dux Orientalis by the Roman emperor Gallienus.

====== Asia ======

Conquest of Shu by Wei: The Chinese state of Cao Wei conquers Shu Han, one of its two rival states.

Sima Zhao, regent of the Cao Wei state, receives and accepts the nine bestowments, state chancellorship, and the title Duke of Jin from Cao Huan.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Chinese mathematician Liu Hui writes a commentary on The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, describing what will later be called Gaussian elimination, computing pi, etc.

=== 264 ===

==== By place ====

====== Asia ======

Zhong Hui's Rebellion is quelled.

Sima Zhao, regent of the Cao Wei state, styles himself the King of Jin, the penultimate step before usurpation.

Sun Hao succeeds Sun Xiu as emperor of the Chinese state of Eastern Wu.

=== 265 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Gallienus tries twice to crush the usurper Postumus, but on the first occasion Aureolus, commander of the elite cavalry, carelessly lets him escape. The second time, Gallienus sustains an arrow wound and has to break off his siege of a Gallic town where Postumus has holed up. He makes no other serious attempt to overcome his rival, devotes his attention to the political and military problems in the Danube and eastern parts of the Roman Empire.

Postumus makes no move to march on Rome and claim his territory south of Gaul.

Gallienus gives the order to fortify Milan and Verona.

Gallienus repels the invasion of the Goths in the Balkans.

A general of Gallienus' army, Victorinus, defects to Postumus.

=== 266 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

King Odaenathus of Palmyra invades Persia to conquer the capital, Ctesiphon, and twice comes as far as the walls of the Persian capital, but fails to take it. After his victories in the East he pronounces himself with the title "king of kings".

====== Ireland ======

The rule of High King Cormac mac Airt ends (approximate date).

====== China ======

February 266: Sima Yan, regent of the Chinese state of Cao Wei, forces the last Cao Wei emperor Cao Huan to abdicate in his favour on 4 February 266. The Cao Wei state's existence comes to an end. Sima Yan establishes the Jin dynasty and becomes its first emperor on 8 February 266, and is historically known as "Emperor Wu of Jin". He establishes his capital at Luoyang and gives his male relatives independent military commands throughout his empire.

=== 267 ===

==== Roman Empire ====

First Gothic invasion: The Goths, originally from Scandinavia, with the Sarmatians (from modern Iran), invade the Balkans and Greece. They ravage Moesia and Thrace.

The Heruli invade the Black Sea coast; they unsuccessfully attack Byzantium and Cyzicus. The Roman fleet defeats the Herulian fleet (500 ships) but allows them to escape into the Aegean Sea, where they raid the islands of Lemnos and Skyros.

The Goths sack several cities of southern Greece including Athens, Corinth, Argos and Sparta. An Athenian militia force (2,000 men), under the historian Dexippus, pushes the invaders to the north where they are intercepted by the Roman army under emperor Gallienus. He wins an important victory near the Nestos River, on the boundary between Macedonia and Thrace.

Aureolus, charged with defending Italy, defeats Victorinus (co-emperor of Gaul), is proclaimed emperor by his troops, and begins his march on Rome.

==== Near East ====

King Odaenathus of Palmyra makes plans for a campaign in Cappadocia against the Goths. He is assassinated along with his eldest son, evidently on orders from emperor Gallienus. His wife Zenobia succeeds him, and rules with her young son Vaballathus the Palmyrene Empire.

=== 268 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

September – Battle of Naissus: Emperor Gallienus, aided by Aurelian, defeats a Gothic coalition (50,000 warriors) near Naissus (Niš, modern Serbia).

Gallienus is killed by his own senior officers at Mediolanum (Milan) while besieging his rival Aureolus, one of the Thirty Tyrants. Aureolus is murdered in turn by the Praetorian guard.

Marcus Aurelius Claudius is charged by the Senate for having murdered Gallienus (it will never be proven). He becomes the new emperor of Rome and will reign as Claudius II.

Claudius II asks the Senate to spare the lives of Gallienus's family and political supporters. Emperor Gallienus is deified and buried in a family tomb on the Appian Way.

The Alamanni invade Italy north of the Po River.

The Visigoths first appear as a distinct people.

November – Battle of Lake Benacus: A Roman army (35,000 men) under emperor Claudius II defeats the Germanic tribes of the Alamanni along the banks of Lake Garda.

====== Europe ======

Victorinus is declared emperor of the Gallic Empire by the legions at Augusta Treverorum (Trier), following the murders of his predecessors. He is recognized by the provinces of Gaul and Britain, but Hispania might have reunited with the Roman Empire.

==== By Topic ====

====== Religion ======

December 26 – Pope Dionysius dies at Rome after a 9-year reign and is succeeded by Pope Felix I.

=== 269 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Second Gothic invasion: The Goths and other German tribes attack Bosphorean towns on the coast of the Black Sea. Some 2,000 ships and 320,000 men from the Danube enter Roman territory. Emperor Claudius II defeats the invaders and receives the title Gothicus for his triumph. Many of the prisoners will serve in the Roman legions and settle in vacant lands in the Danubian provinces.

Claudius II travels to Sirmium and prepares a war against the Vandals, who raid Pannonia.

The Heruli capture Athens and raid the Aegean Islands as far as Crete and Rhodes.

Marcus Cassianius Latinius Postumus is killed by his own troops after not allowing them to sack the city of Mogontiacum.

====== Eastern Roman Empire and Egypt ======

Queen Zenobia conquers Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, parts of Mesopotamia and Anatolia and Egypt, giving her control of Rome's grain supply. The library at Alexandria is partly burned during a raid by Zabdas, general of Zenobia.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

January 5 – Pope Felix I succeeds Pope Dionysius as the 26th pope.

Paul of Samosata is deposed as Patriarch of Antioch (though he is not removed until 272).

268

Year 268 (CCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Paternus and Egnatius (or, less frequently, year 1021 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 268 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

269

Year 269 (CCLXIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Claudius and Paternus (or, less frequently, year 1022 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 269 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

270s

The 270s decade ran from January 1, 270, to December 31, 279.

274

Year 274 (CCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Aurelianus and Capitolinus (or, less frequently, year 1027 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 274 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

275

Year 275 (CCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Aurelianus and Marcellinus (or, less frequently, year 1028 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 275 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Altar in the Catholic Church

In a Catholic church, the altar is the structure upon which the Eucharist is celebrated.The altar, centrally located in the sanctuary, is to be the focus of attention in the church. At the beginning of the Roman Rite of Mass, the priest first of all reverences the altar with a kiss and only after that goes to the chair at which he presides over the Introductory Rites and the Liturgy of the Word. Except in Solemn Mass, a priest celebrating Tridentine Mass (use of the 1962 version of which is by the 7 July 2007 motu proprio Summorum Pontificum still authorized for use both privately and, under certain conditions, publicly) remains at the altar the whole time after saying the Prayers at the Foot of the Altar.

The rite of dedication of a church includes that of the altar of the church and celebration of Mass on that altar is "the principal and the most ancient part of the whole rite" in accordance with the saying of the Fathers of the Church: "This altar should be an object of awe: by nature it is stone, but it is made holy when it receives the body of Christ."In Greek and some other languages used in the Byzantine Rite, the same word (βωμός in Greek) is used for an altar (in general) and for the area surrounding it; that is to say, the entire sanctuary. To refer unambiguously to the altar itself the terms "Holy Table" (Greek Ἁγία Τράπεζα) or "Throne" (chu Prestól) are used.

December 30

December 30 is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. One day remains until the end of the year.

Gallo-Roman culture

The term "Gallo-Roman" describes the Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire. This was characterized by the Gaulish adoption or adaptation of Roman morals and way of life in a uniquely Gaulish context. The well-studied meld of cultures in Gaul gives historians a model against which to compare and contrast parallel developments of Romanization in other, less-studied Roman provinces.

Interpretatio romana offered Roman names for Gaulish deities such as the smith-god Gobannus, but of Celtic deities only the horse-patroness Epona penetrated Romanized cultures beyond the confines of Gaul.The barbarian invasions beginning in the early fifth century forced upon Gallo-Roman culture fundamental changes in politics, in the economic underpinning, in military organization. The Gothic settlement of 418 offered a double loyalty, as Western Roman authority disintegrated at Rome. The plight of the highly Romanized governing class is examined by R.W. Mathisen, the struggles of bishop Hilary of Arles by M. Heinzelmann.Into the seventh century, Gallo-Roman culture would persist particularly in the areas of Gallia Narbonensis that developed into Occitania, Cisalpine Gaul, Orléanais, and to a lesser degree, Gallia Aquitania. The formerly Romanized north of Gaul, once it had been occupied by the Franks, would develop into Merovingian culture instead. Roman life, centered on the public events and cultural responsibilities of urban life in the res publica and the sometimes luxurious life of the self-sufficient rural villa system, took longer to collapse in the Gallo-Roman regions, where the Visigoths largely inherited the status quo in 418. Gallo-Roman language persisted in the northeast into the Silva Carbonaria that formed an effective cultural barrier with the Franks to the north and east, and in the northwest to the lower valley of the Loire, where Gallo-Roman culture interfaced with Frankish culture in a city like Tours and in the person of that Gallo-Roman bishop confronted with Merovingian royals, Gregory of Tours. Based on mutual intelligibility, David Dalby counts seven languages descended from Gallo-Romance: Gallo-Wallon, French, Franco-Provençal (Arpitan), Romansh, Ladin, Friulian, and Lombard. However, other definitions are far broader, variously encompassing the Rhaeto-Romance languages, Occitano-Romance languages, and Gallo-Italic languages.

List of canonised popes

This article lists the Popes who have been canonised or recognised as Saints in the Roman Catholic Church they had led. A total of 83 (out of 266) Popes have been recognised universally as canonised saints, including all of the first 35 Popes (31 of whom were martyrs) and 52 of the first 54. If Pope Liberius is numbered amongst the Saints as in Eastern Christianity, all of the first 49 Popes become recognised as Saints, of whom 31 are Martyr-Saints, and 53 of the first 54 Pontiffs would be acknowledged as Saints. In addition, 13 other Popes are in the process of becoming canonised Saints: as of December 2018, two are recognised as being Servants of God, two are recognised as being Venerable, and nine have been declared Blessed or Beati, making a total of 95 (97 if Pope Liberius and Pope Adeodatus II are recognised to be Saints) of the 266 Roman Pontiffs being recognised and venerated for their heroic virtues and inestimable contributions to the Church.

The most recently reigning Pope to have been canonised was Pope John Paul II, whose cause for canonisation was opened in May 2005. John Paul II was beatified on May 1, 2011, by Pope Benedict XVI and later canonised, along with Pope John XXIII, by Pope Francis on April 27, 2014. Pope Francis also canonised Pope Paul VI on October 14, 2018.

List of people from Rome

This is a list of notable people who were born, lived or are/were famously associated with Rome, Italy.

List of popes by country

This page is a list of popes by country of origin. They are listed in chronological order within each section.

As the office of pope has existed for almost two millennia, many of the countries of origin of popes no longer exist, and so they are grouped under their modern equivalents. Popes from Italy are in a separate section, given the very large number of popes from that peninsula.

List of popes who died violently

A collection of popes who have had violent deaths through the centuries. The circumstances have ranged from martyrdom (Pope Stephen I) to war (Lucius II), to a beating by a jealous husband (Pope John XII). A number of other popes have died under circumstances that some believe to be murder, but for which definitive evidence has not been found.

May 30 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)

May 29 - Eastern Orthodox Church calendar - May 31

All fixed commemorations below celebrated on June 12 by Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar.For May 30th, Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar commemorate the Saints listed on May 17.

Pope Felix

Pope Felix could refer to:

Pope Felix I (269–274)

Antipope Felix II (355–365)

Pope Felix III (483–492)

Pope Felix IV (526–530)

Antipope Felix V, Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy (1439–1449)

Reverianus

Saint Reverianus of Autun (French: Révérien, Rirand, also Revenerius, Rivianus, Reverentianus, Reveriano, Reverie) (died June 1, 273 AD) was a 3rd-century bishop of Autun.

St. Felix, Prince Edward Island

St. Felix (population: 250) is a municipality that holds community status in Prince Edward Island, Canada. It is located in Prince County, 4 km (2.5 mi) south of Tignish.

The Tignish River (also known as Harper's Brook) begins in the community and runs to DeBlois.

The community's name is derived from Pope Felix I.

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