Pope Evaristus

Pope Evaristus (died c. 107 AD) is accounted as the fifth Bishop of Rome, holding office from c. 99 to his death c. 107.[1][2] He was also known as Aristus. He is venerated as a saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church[3], the Catholic Church, and Oriental Orthodoxy.

Pope Saint

Evaristus
Papa Evaristo
Papacy beganc. 99
Papacy endedc. 107
PredecessorClement I
SuccessorAlexander I
Personal details
Birth nameEvaristus or Aristus
Born17 April 44
Bethlehem, Judea
Diedc. 107
Rome, Roman Empire
Sainthood
Feast day26 October

Biography

Little is known about St. Evaristus. According to the Liber Pontificalis, he came from a family of Greek Jews living in Bethlehem.[4] He was elected during the reign of the Roman emperor Trajan, and succeeded Clement I in the See of Rome.

Eusebius, in his Church History IV, I, stated that Evaristus died in the 12th year of the reign of Emperor Trajan after holding the office of bishop of the Romans for eight years. He is said by the Liber Pontificalis to have divided Rome into several titles, assigning a priest to each, and appointed seven deacons for the city.

He is usually accorded the title of martyr; however, there is no confirmation of this, as Pope Evaristus is listed without that title in the Roman Martyrology, with a feast day on 26 October.[5] It is probable that Evaristus was buried near Saint Peter's tomb in the Vatican.[6] It is also probable that John the Apostle died during the beginning of Evaristus' reign.

See also

References

  1. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope St. Evaristus" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  2. ^ According to Annuario Pontificio, he died in 108.
  3. ^ Orthodox England - The Holy Orthodox Popes of Rome
  4. ^ Anastasius (bibliothecarius) (1602). Bibliothecarii Historia, de vitis romanorvm pontificvm a b.Petro apostolo vsqve ad Nicolavm I. nunquam hactenus typis excusa. Deinde Vita Hadriani II. et Stephani VI. auctore Gvilielmo Bibliothecario. Ex bibliotheca Marci Velseri ... Accessere variae lectiones, partim ex codie. mss. Biblioth. vaticanae, partim ex conciliorum tomis, Annalibus ecclesiast. Caes. Baronij ... exceptae. in typographeio I. Albini. p. 3. 1 Euaristus, natione Grecus, ex patre Iudaeo nomine Iuda, de ciuitate Bethleem, sedit ann. VIIII m. X d. II. Fuit autem temporibus Domitiani et Neruae Traiani, a consulatu Valentis et Veteris (96) usque ad Gallo et Bradua consulibus (108). Martyrio coronatur. 2 Hic titulos in urbe Roma diuidit presbiteris et VII diaconos ordinauit qui custodirent episcopum praedicantem, propter stilum ueritatis. 3 Hic fecit ordinationes III per mens. Decemb., presbiteros XVII, diaconos II ; episcopos per diuersa loca XV. Qui etiam sepultus est iuxta corpus beati Petri, in Vaticanum, VI kal. Nouemb. Et cessauit episcopatus dies XVIIII.
  5. ^ "Martyrologium Romanum" (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2001 ISBN 88-209-7210-7)
  6. ^ Catholic Online. "St. Evaristus".

External links

Titles of the Great Christian Church
Preceded by
Clement I
Bishop of Rome
Pope

98–105
Succeeded by
Alexander I
100s (decade)

The 100s decade ran from January 1, 100, to December 31, 109.

== Events ==

=== AD 100 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Trajan and Sextus Julius Frontinus become Roman Consuls.

Bricks become the primary building material in the Roman Empire.

Pliny the Younger advances to consulship, giving his panegyric on Trajan in the process.

The Roman Army reaches 300,000 soldiers.

Titus Avidius Quietus' rule as governor of Roman Britain ends.

Timgad (Thamugas), a Roman colonial town in North Africa is founded by Trajan.

Trajan creates a policy intended to restore the former economic supremacy of Italy.

The future emperor, Hadrian, marries Vibia Sabina.

====== Europe ======

Lions became extinct in the Balkans in the AD 100s

====== Asia ======

Pakores (last king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom) takes the throne.

Paper is used by the general populace in China, starting around this year.

The Kingdom of Himyarite is conquered by the Hadramaut.

====== Americas ======

The Hopewell tradition begins in what is now Ohio c. this date.

Teotihuacan, at the center of Mexico, reaches a population of 50,000.

The Moche civilization emerges, and starts building a society in present-day Peru.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

In China, the wheelbarrow makes its first appearance.

Main hall, Markets of Trajan, Rome, is made (until AD 112).

====== Religion ======

Appearance of the first Christian dogma and formulas regarding morality.

The Gospel of John is widely believed to have been written around this date.

The compilation of the Kama sutra begins in India.

The Temple of the God of Medicine is built in Anguo, China.

The Fourth Buddhist Council is convened c. this year.

=== 101 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Trajan starts an expedition against Dacia, exceeding the limits of the Roman Empire set by Augustus.

The Second Battle of Tapae is fought.

Epictetus writes and publishes The Discourses.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Plutarch writes his Parallel Lives of Famous Men (in Greek Βίοι Παράλληλοι) containing fifty biographies, of which 46 are presented as pairs comparing Greek and Roman celebrities—for example Theseus and Romulus, Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar, Demosthenes and Cicero.

=== 102 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Lucius Julius Ursus Servianus and Lucius Licinius Sura become Roman Consuls.

Emperor Trajan returns to Rome after a successful campaign against Dacia, through which he reestablishes clear Roman sovereignty over king Decebalus.

Trajan divides Pannonia into two provinces sometime between this year and 107.

The port of Portus is enlarged.

====== Asia ======

Having organised the territories of the Tarim basin, Chinese general Ban Chao retires to Luoyang, and dies shortly thereafter.

=== 103 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Trajan and Manius Laberius Maximus become Roman Consul.

Pliny the Younger becomes a member of the college of Augurs (103–104).

Legio X Gemina moves to Vienna where it remains until the 5th century.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

In Palmyra, Syria, a Temple of the Sun is erected to the god Baal.

=== 104 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Pliny the Younger is a member of the college of Augurs (103–104).

Nijmegen is renamed Ulpia Noviomagus Batavorum.

A fire breaks out in Rome.

Trajan gives the order to have the Alcántara Bridge built over the Tagus River at Alcántara (Hispania), constructed by the architect Lacer.

Apollodorus of Damascus builds a stone bridge over the Danube more than 1,000 meters (3,300 feet) long, almost 20 meters (66 feet) high and 15 meters (49 feet) wide. The bridge connects what is now Serbia with Romania (at the time known as Dacia).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

In India, figures of Buddha replace abstract motifs on decorative items.

=== 105 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Trajan starts the second expedition against Dacia, he leaves with the Imperial Roman fleet from Brundusium. Permanent castrum of Legio II Adiutrix at Aquincum (modern Budapest) in Pannonia.

Legio XXX Ulpia Victrix and II Traiana Fortis are created by Trajan.

The Romans conquer Kerak from the Nabateans.

Pacorus II of Parthia dies after a 27-year reign in which he has reclaimed all of his empire. His successor Vologases III reigns until 147 AD, suppressing brief rebellions as he battles against the Kushan and Alani.

====== Asia ======

Emperor He Di dies after a 17-year reign in which court eunuchs and the emperor's in-laws have regained influence. Empress Deng Sui placed her son Shang Di (barely 3 months old) on the throne, as the fifth emperor of the Chinese Eastern Han Dynasty.

Last year (17th) of yongyuan era and start of yuanxing era of the Chinese Eastern Han Dynasty.

A peace treaty is signed between Baekje and Silla in the Korean peninsula (the war started in AD 85).

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Papermaking is refined by the Chinese eunuch Cai Lun, who receives official praise from the emperor for his methods of making paper from tree bark, hemp, remnant rags and fish nets. Paper had been made in China from the 2nd century BC, but Cai Lun's paper provides a writing surface far superior to pure silk and is much less costly to produce. Bamboo and wooden slips will remain the usual materials for books and scrolls in most of the world for another 200 years, and paper will remain a Chinese secret for 500 years.

The Trajan Bridge is finished. For more than a thousand years, it is the longest arch bridge in the world to have been built, in terms of both total and span length.

====== Religion ======

Pope Alexander I succeeds Pope Evaristus as the sixth pope – traditionally.

Change of Patriarch of Constantinople from Patriarch Plutarch to Patriarch Sedecion.

=== 106 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Ignatius writes a letter to Christians in Smyrna (around this year) where the term Catholic Church is used. This is the earliest surviving witness to the use of the term "Catholic Church".

Emperor Trajan conquers the Dacian Fortresses of the Orăştie Mountains and surrounds the capital, Sarmizegetusa. The Dacians are defeated in the Battle of Sarmizegetusa, the city is encircled with a circumvallation line. When the Romans destroy the water pipes, king Decebalus flees and commits suicide.

On August 11, the south-eastern part of Dacia (modern Romania) becomes a Roman province: Roman Dacia. The veterans of the legions are given land in the new province for their service in the Roman army.

Trajan annexes Nabataean Arabia (with its capital Petra) as a Roman province.

Aelian writes his Taktike Theoria (probable date).

====== Asia ======

Change of Han Hedi to Han Shangdi of the Chinese Eastern Han Dynasty. First and the only year of yanping era.

Change of Han Shangdi to Han Andi of the Chinese Eastern Han Dynasty.

=== 107 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Lucius Licinius Sura and Quintus Sosius Senecio become Roman Consuls.

Emperor Trajan divides Pannonia into two portions sometime between 102 and this year.

An Indian ambassador is received by Trajan.

====== Asia ======

First year of the yongchu era of the Chinese Eastern Han Dynasty.

Han Andi (An-ti, Ngan-ti), a young man, becomes emperor of China, giving power to Empress Deng Sui.

Suishō, King of Wa (Japan), sends 160 slaves as presents to the Emperor An of Han.

=== 108 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Appius Annius Trebonius Gallus and Marcus Appius Bradua become Roman Consul.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Tacitus writes Histories, which covers the period from AD 69 to AD 96.

The Hypogeum of Yarhai, an underground tomb from the Syrian city of Palmyra dedicated to the family of Yarhai is built.

=== 109 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

June 24 – The Aqua Traiana is inaugurated by emperor Trajan; the aqueduct channels water from Lake Bracciano, 40 kilometers (25 mi) north-west of Rome.

The Via Traiana is constructed at the emperor Trajan's personal expense; the road connects Benevento with Brundisium (Brindisi).

The Baths of Trajan built by the architect Apollodorus of Damascus are dedicated during the Calends. The thermae are constructed on the platform of the Palace of Nero (Domus Aurea) in Rome.

Osroes I of Parthia succeeds his brother Pacorus II and rules over the western Parthian Empire.

Pliny the Younger is legate to Bithynia.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

The Christian Church proclaims itself to be universal (catholic).

105

Year 105 (CV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Candidus and Iulius (or, less frequently, year 858 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 105 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

90s

The 90s ran from 90 AD to 99 AD.

== Events ==

=== AD 90 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

The Romans build a small garrison in the suburbs of modern Regensburg (approximate date).

Pliny the Younger's appointment as urban quaestor ends.

Emperor Domitian and Nerva are Roman Consuls.

Cologne becomes the capital of Germania Inferior.

A humiliating peace is bought by Domitian from Decebalus of Dacia.

====== Asia ======

Continuing his conquest of the Tarim basin, Chinese General Ban Chao defeats the Kushan led by Kanishka.

==== By topic ====

====== Art ======

Young Flavian Woman is made. It is now kept at Musei Capitolini, Rome (approximate date).

====== Literature ======

The Roman epic poet Gaius Valerius Flaccus dies, having written works that include the Argonautica, describing the voyage of Jason and the Argonauts to retrieve the Golden Fleece from the mythical land of Colchis.

====== Religion ======

Drafting of The Gospel of John.

=== AD 91 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Manius Acilius Glabrio and Marcus Ulpius Traianus become Roman Consul.

Pliny the Younger is named a tribunus plebis.

====== Asia ======

The Chinese government reestablishes the Protectorate of the Western Regions.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Rome is described by Statius in his poems.

=== AD 92 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Roman emperor Domitian becomes a Roman Consul.

The Marcomanni are defeated by the Romans at the Danube. However, they are not entirely subdued.

The Roman army moves into Mesopotamia.

The Flavian Palace is completed on the Palatine.

=== AD 93 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Pliny the Younger is named a Praetor.

Josephus completes his Jewish Antiquities (or in 94).

Emperor Domitian persecutes the Christians.

====== Asia ======

The Xianbei incorporates 100,000 Xiongnu in Mongolian steppe.

=== AD 94 ===

==== Roman Empire ====

Emperor Domitian rebuilds and rededicates the Curia Julia (meeting place of the Roman Senate), which had burned down in AD 64.

Domitian bans philosophers from Rome.

==== Asia ====

The Chinese General Ban Chao completes his conquest of the Tarim Basin by taking Yanqi.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

The Roman poet Statius retires to Naples from Rome.

=== AD 95 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Domitian and Titus Flavius Clemens become Roman Consul.

Domitian executes senators out of paranoiac fears that they are plotting to kill him.

Manius Acilius Glabrio is commanded by Domitian to descend into the arena of the Colosseum to fight a lion. After he kills the animal, the crowd greets him with applause, but the emperor banished and put him to death.

==== By topic ====

====== Medicine ======

In Rome a severe form of malaria appears in the farm districts and will continue for the next 500 years, taking out of cultivation the fertile land of the Campagna, whose market gardens supply the city with fresh products. The fever drives small groups of farmers into the crowded city, while they bring the malaria with them, and lowers Rome's live-birth rate while rates elsewhere in the empire rising.

====== Religion ======

Latest date for the writing of The Book of Revelation.

=== AD 96 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

September 18 – Emperor Domitian is stabbed to death by a freedman at age 44 after a 15-year reign in a palace conspiracy involving officers of the Praetorian Guard. The Flavian dynasty ends.

Nerva is declared emperor by the Senate as the new ruler of the Roman Empire. He recalls citizens exiled by Domitian, this is the beginning of the Era of the Five Good Emperors. The Antonines dynasty starts.

Under Nerva, the Roman Senate regains much of the power usurped by Domitian.

Marcus Ulpius Traianus becomes governor of Upper Germany.

The Arch of Titus is completed in Rome.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

End of the period covered by Tacitus in his Histories.

====== Religion ======

The Book of Revelation is written (traditional date).

A schism in Buddhism creates a new, popular religion in India, mahâyâna (Grand Vehicle).

=== AD 97 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

October 28 – Emperor Nerva recalls his general Marcus Ulpius Trajanus, age 44, from the German frontier and is forced by the Praetorian Guard to adopt him as his successor.

Tacitus advances to consulship.

The Roman colony of Cuicul is started in Numidia.

Nerva recognizes the Sanhedrin of Jamnia as an official governmental body of the Jews, and the patriarch or nasi is designated as the representative of the Jewish people in Rome.

Sextus Julius Frontinus is appointed superintendent of the aqueducts (curator aquarum) in Rome. At least 10 aqueducts supply the city with 250 million US gallons (950,000 m3) of water per day, the public baths used half the supply.

====== Asia ======

Chinese general Ban Chao orders his lieutenant, Gan Ying, to establish regular relations with the Parthians.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Pope Evaristus succeeds Pope Clement I as the fifth pope (according to Catholic tradition; none of the Popes until the mid second century is certain).

=== AD 98 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

January 1 – Emperor Nerva suffers a stroke during a private audience.

January 27 – Nerva dies of a fever at his villa in the Gardens of Sallust and is succeeded by his adopted son Trajan. Trajan is the first Roman Emperor born in Italica, near Seville. A brilliant soldier and administrator, he enters Rome without ceremony and wins over the public. Continuing the policies of Augustus, Vespasian and Nerva, he restores the Senate to its full status in the government and begins a form of state welfare aimed at assuring that poor children are fed and taken care of. He has a specific vision of the Empire, which reaches its maximum extent under his rule, and keeps a close watch on finances. Taxes, without any increase, are sufficient during his reign to pay the considerable costs of the budget. The informers used by Domitian to support his tyranny are expelled from Rome. In order to maintain the Port of Alexandria, Trajan reopens the canal between the Nile and the Red Sea.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Tacitus finishes his Germania (approximate date).

====== Commerce ======

The silver content of the Roman denarius rises to 93 percent under emperor Trajan, up from 92 percent under Domitian.

=== AD 99 ===

Emperor Trajan returns to Rome from an inspection of the Roman legions along the Rhine and Danube frontiers.

Emissaries of the Kushan Empire reach Emperor Trajan.

Richimerus I fights a battle with a combined army of Romans and Gauls at Basana near Aachen.29 August - Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 581, recording the sale of a slave girl, is written.

AD 97

AD 97 (XCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Augustus and Rufus (or, less frequently, year 850 Ab urbe condita). The denomination AD 97 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

April 17

April 17 is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 258 days remain until the end of the year.

Catholic Church in Israel

The Catholic Church in Israel is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, in full communion with the Holy See in Rome.

Deruvian

Deruvian (Medieval Latin: Deruvianus), also known by several other names including Damian, was a possibly legendary 2nd-century bishop and saint, said to have been sent by the pope to answer King Lucius's request for baptism and conversion to Christianity. Together with his companion St Fagan, he was sometimes reckoned as the apostle of Britain. King Lucius's letter (in most accounts, to Pope Eleutherius) may represent earlier traditions but does not appear in surviving sources before the 6th century; the names of the bishops sent to him does not appear in sources older than the early 12th century, when their story was used to support the independence of the bishops of St Davids in Wales and the antiquity of the Glastonbury Abbey in England. The story became widely known following its appearance in Geoffrey of Monmouth's pseudohistorical History of the Kings of Britain. This was influential for centuries and its account of SS Fagan and Deruvian was used during the English Reformation to support the claims of both the Catholics and Protestants. Geoffrey's account is now considered wholly implausible, but Christianity was well-established in Roman Britain by the third century. Some scholars therefore argue the stories preserve a more modest account of the conversion of a Romano-British chieftain, possibly by Roman emissaries by these names.

Probably mistakenly, Deruvian's story has been given to the obscure St Dyfan thought to have been the namesake of Merthyr Dyfan and Llanddyfnan. His feast day does not appear in any medieval Welsh calendar of the saints and is not presently observed by the Anglican, Catholic, or Orthodox churches in Wales.

List of Palestinians

The following Lists of Palestinians are lists of notable people with either a self-designation (endonym) or a foreign appellation (exonym) as "Palestinian", or who were born in the region of Palestine.

Anyone with roots in the region that is now Israel, the West Bank and Gaza is technically a Palestinian, but today the term predominantly associates with the descendants of the indigenous population of the region.Whilst the history of a distinct Palestinian national identity is a disputed issue amongst scholars, and politicians, approximately 12 million people today identify as Palestinians, as defined in the Palestinian National Charter of 1968.

List of canonised popes

This article lists the Popes who have been canonised or recognised as Saints in the Roman Catholic Church they had led. A total of 83 (out of 266) Popes have been recognised universally as canonised saints, including all of the first 35 Popes (31 of whom were martyrs) and 52 of the first 54. If Pope Liberius is numbered amongst the Saints as in Eastern Christianity, all of the first 49 Popes become recognised as Saints, of whom 31 are Martyr-Saints, and 53 of the first 54 Pontiffs would be acknowledged as Saints. In addition, 13 other Popes are in the process of becoming canonised Saints: as of December 2018, two are recognised as being Servants of God, two are recognised as being Venerable, and nine have been declared Blessed or Beati, making a total of 95 (97 if Pope Liberius and Pope Adeodatus II are recognised to be Saints) of the 266 Roman Pontiffs being recognised and venerated for their heroic virtues and inestimable contributions to the Church.

The most recently reigning Pope to have been canonised was Pope John Paul II, whose cause for canonisation was opened in May 2005. John Paul II was beatified on May 1, 2011, by Pope Benedict XVI and later canonised, along with Pope John XXIII, by Pope Francis on April 27, 2014. Pope Francis also canonised Pope Paul VI on October 14, 2018.

List of extant papal tombs

A pope is the Bishop of Rome and the leader of the Catholic Church. Approximately 100 papal tombs are at least partially extant, representing less than half of the 264 deceased popes, from Saint Peter to Saint John Paul II.For the first few centuries in particular, little is known of the popes and their tombs, and available information is often contradictory. As with other religious relics, multiple sites claim to house the same tomb. Furthermore, many papal tombs that recycled sarcophagi and other materials from earlier tombs were later recycled for their valuable materials or combined with other monuments. For example, the tomb of Pope Leo I was combined with Leos II, III, and IV circa 855, and then removed in the seventeenth century and placed under his own altar, below Alessandro Algardi's relief, Fuga d'Attila. The style of papal tombs has evolved considerably throughout history, tracking trends in the development of church monuments. Notable papal tombs have been commissioned from sculptors such as Michelangelo and Gian Lorenzo Bernini.

Most extant papal tombs are located in St. Peter's Basilica, other major churches of Rome (especially Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, Santa Maria sopra Minerva and Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore), or other churches of Italy, France, and Germany.

List of non-extant papal tombs

This is a list of non-extant papal tombs, which includes tombs not included on the list of extant papal tombs. Information about these tombs is generally incomplete and uncertain.

Chronologically, the main locations of destroyed or unknown papal tombs have been: the obscure tombs of the first two centuries of popes near Saint Peter, the repeated waves of translations from the Catacombs of Rome, the demolition of the papal tombs in Old St. Peter's Basilica, and the 1306 and 1361 fires in the Basilica of St. John Lateran.

Papal tombs have also been destroyed by other instances of fire, remodeling, and war (most recently, World War II). Others are unknown due to creative or geographically remote methods of martyrdom, or—in the case of Pope Clement I—both. Burial in churches outside the Aurelian Walls of Rome (Italian: fuori le Mura)—in the basilicas of Paul or Lorenzo—have not generally survived.

List of people from Greece

This is a list of notable Greeks.

List of popes by country

This page is a list of popes by country of origin. They are listed in chronological order within each section.

As the office of pope has existed for almost two millennia, many of the countries of origin of popes no longer exist, and so they are grouped under their modern equivalents. Popes from Italy are in a separate section, given the very large number of popes from that peninsula.

List of popes who died violently

A collection of popes who have had violent deaths through the centuries. The circumstances have ranged from martyrdom (Pope Stephen I) to war (Lucius II), to a beating by a jealous husband (Pope John XII). A number of other popes have died under circumstances that some believe to be murder, but for which definitive evidence has not been found.

October 26

October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 66 days remain until the end of the year.

Saint-Évariste-de-Forsyth, Quebec

Saint-Évariste-de-Forsyth is a municipality in the Municipalité régionale de comté de Beauce-Sartigan in Quebec, Canada. It is part of the Chaudière-Appalaches region and the population is 647 at the 2006 census.

As with several other municipalities located in the Eastern Townships, Saint-Évariste-de-Forsyth derives its name from its Roman Catholic parish and its township. The parish is named after Pope Evaristus and the township after lumber baron James Bell Forsyth.

Saint Peter's tomb

Saint Peter's tomb is a site under St. Peter's Basilica that includes several graves and a structure said by Vatican authorities to have been built to memorialize the location of Saint Peter's grave. St. Peter's tomb is near the west end of a complex of mausoleums that date between about AD 130 and AD 300. The complex was partially torn down and filled with earth to provide a foundation for the building of the first St. Peter's Basilica during the reign of Constantine I in about AD 330. Though many bones have been found at the site of the 2nd-century shrine, as the result of two campaigns of archaeological excavation, Pope Pius XII stated in December 1950 that none could be confirmed to be Saint Peter's with absolute certainty. Following the discovery of bones that had been transferred from a second tomb under the monument, on June 26, 1968, Pope Paul VI claimed that the relics of Saint Peter had been identified in a manner considered convincing.The grave claimed by the Church to be that of Saint Peter lies at the foot of the aedicula beneath the floor. The remains of four individuals and several farm animals were found in this grave. In 1953, after the initial archeological efforts had been completed, another set of bones were found that were said to have been removed without the archeologists' knowledge from a niche (loculus) in the north side of a wall (the graffiti wall) that abuts the red wall on the right of the aedicula. Subsequent testing indicated that these were the bones of a 60- to 70-year-old man. Margherita Guarducci argued that these were the remains of Saint Peter and that they had been moved into a niche in the graffiti wall from the grave under the aedicula "at the time of Constantine, after the peace of the church" (313). Antonio Ferrua, the archaeologist who headed the excavation that uncovered what is known as Saint Peter's Tomb, said that he wasn't convinced that the bones that were found were those of Saint Peter.The upper image shows the area of the lower floor of St. Peter's Basilica that lies above the site of Saint Peter's tomb. A portion of the aedicula that was part of Peter's tomb rose above level of this floor and was made into the Niche of the Pallium which can be seen in the center of the image.

Santa Prassede

The Basilica of Saint Praxedes (Latin: Basilica Sanctae Praxedis, Italian: Basilica di Santa Prassede all’Esquillino), commonly known in Italian as Santa Prassede, is an ancient titular church and minor basilica in Rome, Italy, located near the papal basilica of Saint Mary Major. The current Cardinal Priest of Titulus Sancta Praxedis is Paul Poupard.

1st–4th centuries
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
5th–8th centuries
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
9th–12th centuries
Papal selection before 1059
Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
13th–16th centuries
Viterbo (1257–1281)
Orvieto (1262–1297)
Perugia (1228–1304)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
Western Schism (1378–1417)
Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)
Reformation Papacy (1534–1585)
Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)
17th–20th centuries
Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848)
Roman Question (1870–1929)
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21st century
History of the papacy
Virgin Mary
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See also

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