Pope Eutychian

Pope Eutychian (died 7 December 283), also called Eutychianus, was the Bishop of Rome from 4 January 275 to his death in 283.[2][3]

Pope Saint

Eutychian
Eutychian
Papacy began4 January 275
Papacy ended7 December 283
PredecessorFelix I
SuccessorCaius
Personal details
Birth nameEutychianus
BornTuscany[1]
Died7 December 283
Rome, Roman Empire
Sainthood
Feast day8 December

Biography

His original epitaph was discovered in the catacomb of Callixtus (see Kraus, Roma sotterranea, p. 154 et seq.), but almost nothing more is known of him. Even the date of his reign is uncertain. Liber Pontificalis gives a reign of 8 years and 11 months, from 275 to 283. Eusebius, on the other hand says his reign was only 10 months.[3]

Eutychian is said to have allowed the blessing of grapes and beans on the altar and to have buried 324 martyrs with his own hands. Some historians doubt these traditions, since there was no persecution of Christians after the death of Aurelian in 275 and blessing the produce of the fields is believed to belong to a later period.[4]

His feast is kept on 8 December.[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. "Saint Eutychian". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 16 August 2016.
  2. ^ Annuario Pontificio, 2012.
  3. ^ a b c Wikisource-logo.svg Kirsch, Johann Peter (1909). "Pope St. Eutychianus" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. 5. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  4. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainKirsch, Johann Peter (1909). "Pope St. Eutychianus" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. 5. New York: Robert Appleton.

External links

Titles of the Great Christian Church
Preceded by
Felix I
Bishop of Rome
Pope

275–283
Succeeded by
Caius
270s

The 270s decade ran from January 1, 270, to December 31, 279.

== Events ==

=== 270 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Claudius II Gothicus dies of plague while preparing to fight the Vandals and Sarmatians, who have invaded Pannonia. He is succeeded by his brother Quintillus, who briefly holds power over the Roman Empire.

Quintillus commits suicide and is succeeded by an associate of his brother Lucius Domitius Aurelianus, the military leader who distinguished himself last year at the Battle of Naissus (Serbia).

Aurelianus pushes the Goths back across the Danube and recovers Roman territory.

The Romans leave Utrecht after regular invasions of Germanic tribes.

Crisis of the Third Century: An economic crisis strikes the Roman empire; due to the partition of the empire, invasions and usurpations and the sacking of the countryside and cities by invaders, agricultural and industrial production are significantly decreased, and mines lie unused. A monetary crisis ensues, including inflation of up to 1,000 % in certain areas of the empire.

====== Asia ======

Fan Hsiung, aka Pham Hung, comes to power in Champa and raids the Chinese-occupied territory of Tonkin.

Seocheon becomes ruler of the Korean kingdom of Goguryeo.

====== Egypt ======

The Kingdom of Aksum (modern Ethiopia) begins minting its own gold coins to facilitate international trade, following the model of Roman coinage.

Anthony the Great, a Christian saint from Egypt, regarded as Father of All Monks, enters the wilderness to become ascetic.

==== By topic ====

====== Technology ======

The Chinese invent gunpowder (black powder), a mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate. It appears to have first been used only for fireworks.

=== 271 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Aurelian pushes the Vandals back from Pannonia and forces them to withdraw over the Danube. He withdraws the Roman army from Dacia (modern Romania). (Note: This may have lasted until 272. Both years are mentioned by various sources.)

January

Battle of Placentia: The Juthungi invade Italy and sack the city of Piacenza. A Roman army (15,000 men) under Emperor Aurelian is ambushed and defeated.

Battle of Fano: The Juthungi move towards a defenceless Rome. Aurelian rallies his men and defeats the Germanic tribes on the Metauro River, just inland of Fano.

Battle of Pavia: The Roman army pursues the Alamanni in Lombardy. Aurelian closes the passes in the Alps and encircles the invaders near Pavia. The Alamanni are destroyed and Aurelian receives the title Germanicus Maximus.

Felicissimus, financial minister of the state treasury, leads an uprising of mint workers against Aurelian. He is defeated and killed on the Caelian Hill.

Aurelian begins construction of a new defensive wall to protect Rome. The Aurelian Walls, 19 kilometers (12 mi), enclose the city with fortifications.

====== Europe ======

Victorinus, Emperor of the Gallic Empire, is assassinated by Attitianus, reportedly for reasons of personal revenge. Domitianus presumably serves as Emperor for a few days before being replaced by Tetricus I.

====== Syria ======

Zenobia proclaims herself to be Empress, and breaks all relations with the Roman Empire.

Zenobia gives her son Vaballathus the title of Augustus.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

King Shapur I builds the Academy of Gundishapur (Iran), which becomes the intellectual center of the Sassanid Empire. The Nestorians fleeing religious persecution seek his protection. He commissions the refugees to translate Greek and Syriac works on astronomy, medicine and philosophy.

A magnetic compass is first used in China.

=== 272 ===

==== By topic ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Aurelian sends his commander Marcus Aurelius Probus to restore Roman rule in Egypt.

During the Siege of Tyana, Emperor Aurelian has a dream of Apollonius of Tyana and spares the city.

Battle of Immae: Aurelian defeats the forces of the Palmyrene Empire near Antioch. Queen Zenobia flees under cover of darkness to Emesa (Syria).

Battle of Emesa: Aurelian destroys the Palmyrene heavy cavalry (clibanarii) and conquers Palmyra. Zenobia escapes to Persia but is captured on the Euphrates.

Aurelian lays siege to Palmyra after a revolt; he restores Roman control and sacks the city. Zenobia and her son Vabalathus are forced to parade in golden chains through the streets of Rome.

Rome forms an alliance with the king of Aksum (Axum).

Dacia is abandoned.

====== Persia ======

King Shapur I of Persia dies after a reign of more than 30 years; he is succeeded by his eldest son Hormizd I.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Dometius succeeds Titus as Patriarch of Constantinople.

Saint Denis, first Bishop of Paris, and two of his disciples are beheaded on the road to the Temple of Mercury that stands atop a hill outside of the city. The hill will later be called Montmartre (Mountain of Martyrs) in Lutetia (modern Paris).

Paul of Samosata is deposed as Patriarch of Antioch.

=== 273 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Aurelian sacks the city of Palmyra for a second time after putting down a new revolt.

The kingdom of Palmyra is reunited with the Roman Empire.

Aurelian refuses to wear the imperial crown and coat.

Marcus Claudius Tacitus, future Roman Emperor, is consul in Rome.

Tetricus I and Tetricus II are deposed as Gallic Emperors by Aurelian.

Administrative reorganization of Italy: Aurelian adopts as permanent the reforms instituted by Caracalla.

Aurelian increases Rome's daily bread ration to nearly 1.5 pounds and adds pig fat to the list of foods distributed free to the populace.

Cassius Longinus, counselor of queen Zenobia, is executed by the Romans for conspiring against Aurelian.

An Indian delegation visits Aurelian.

====== Persia ======

King Hormizd I of Persia dies after a brief reign in which he has shown tolerance toward the ascetic, anti-materialist Manichean faith. He is succeeded by his brother Bahram I, who has been governing the province of Atropatene.

=== 274 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Battle of Châlons: Emperor Aurelian reconquers the Gallic Empire (Gaul and Britain). Tetricus I surrenders his army near Châlons-sur-Marne, France. With the conquests of the Palmyrene Empire and the Gallic Empire, the Roman Empire is united again.

Rome greets Aurelian as Restitutor Orbis ("Restorer of the World") and accords him a magnificent triumph (victory procession), which is graced by his captives Tetricus I and his son Tetricus II.

Aurelian issues an important reform of Roman currency.

Germanic tribes take advantage of the destroyed Roman forces of the Rhine. They pillage and depopulate large areas of Gaul, including Paris. The Rhine border is lost for 20 years. Franks live in the area of present southern Netherlands, northern Belgium and Rhineland from now on.

December 25 – Aurelian has a temple dedicated to Sol Invictus, on the third day after the solstice and day of rebirth of the Sun. This religion, which is in essence monotheistic, becomes the state religion of Rome.

Britain rebels over the value of coinage.

====== Africa ======

The Kingdom of Aksum attains great prosperity thanks to its control of Red Sea trade.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

March 2 – Mani, a sage of Persia, dies at Gundeshapur after 30 years of preaching his "heresy" at the court of the late Sassanian King Shapur I and on long journeys to Khorasan, India and China. He is executed or allowed to die in prison, and claims to be a prophet of God. Mani combines Zoroastrian dualism with Christian theology, and his disciples gain wide support for Manichaeism, despite opposition from Byzantine and Roman Emperors.

December 30 – Pope Felix I dies in Rome after a 5-year reign.

====== Transportation ======

Japanese shipwrights build a 100-foot oar-powered vessel for Emperor Ōjin. The Japanese will not use sails for another seven centuries.

=== 275 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Aurelian prepares a campaign against the Sassanids in Asia Minor. In Thrace, while waiting to cross the Bosphorus with his army, he hands out severe punishments to corrupt soldiers and makes a list of high-ranking officers marked for execution.

September – Aurelian falls victim to a conspiracy of the Praetorian Guard and is murdered near Byzantium (Turkey).

September 25 – Marcus Claudius Tacitus is proclaimed Emperor by the Senate, his half brother Marcus Annius Florianus becomes Praetorian prefect.

Gaul is pillaged by the Franks and the Alemanni.

====== India ======

The Pallava dynasty begins in Southern India.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

January 4 – Pope Eutychian succeeds Pope Felix I as the 27th pope.

=== 276 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Tacitus doubles the silver content of the aurelianianus and halves its tariffing to 2.5 d.c. carry the value marks X.I.

Marcus Annius Florianus defeats the Goths and Alans who have invaded Asia Minor. Tacitus dies of illness or is murdered at Tyana in Cappadocia.

Florianus becomes Roman Emperor; he breaks off his campaign against the Heruli and marches from the Bosporus with support from the Roman legions in Britain, Gaul, Spain and Italy to fight an indecisive battle with Marcus Aurelius Probus in Cilicia.

Florianus holds power for some weeks, but is assassinated by his own troops near Tarsus (Turkey). Probus, age 44, is proclaimed new Emperor of Rome.

Probus appoints Marcus Aurelius Carus to Prefect of the Praetorian Guard; he returns the aurelianianus to the standard and official tariffing of Aurelian.

====== Persia ======

King Bahram I of Persia dies after a 3-year reign in which the Zoroastrian priests at Ctesiphon (Iran) put pressure on him to persecute Buddhists, Christians, and Manichaeans. He is succeeded by his son Bahram II.

====== Sri Lanka ======

Reign of Mahasena in Ceylon. Orthodox and unpopular, he tries to introduce Mahayana Buddhism to the country.

=== 277 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Probus travels with his army west across the Sea of Marmara (Turkey) and through the provinces of Thrace, Moesia, and Pannonia to defeat the Goths along the lower Danube. He acquires from the troops the title of Gothicus.

Probus enters Rome to have his position as Emperor ratified by the Senate.

====== China ======

Tuoba Xilu succeeds his father Tuoba Liwei as chieftain of the Tuoba clan.

=== 278 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Probus defeats the Alamanni, advancing through the Neckar valley. He expels the Franks from Gaul and reorganizes the Roman defenses on the Rhine.

Probus resettles the Germanic tribes in the devastated provinces of the Roman Empire. He adopts the titles of Gothicus Maximus and Germanicus Maximus.

Piracy along the coast of Lycia and Pamphylia: The Romans besiege the city of Cremna (Pisidia) and kill the Isaurian robber Lydius.

=== 279 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Probus defeats the Burgundians and Vandals in Raetia and Pannonia (modern Switzerland and Hungary).

====== China ======

Winter – Conquest of Wu by Jin: The Jin dynasty conquers Eastern Wu, the last of the three contending powers in China during the Three Kingdoms period.

275

Year 275 (CCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Aurelianus and Marcellinus (or, less frequently, year 1028 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 275 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

280s

The 280s decade ran from January 1, 280, to December 31, 289.

== Events ==

=== 280 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Proculus, Roman usurper, starts a rebellion at Lugdunum (Lyon, France) and proclaims himself emperor.

Emperor Probus drives the Alans off to Asia Minor and suppresses the revolt in Gaul; Proculus is executed.

The Germans destroy the Roman fleet on the Rhine; Bonosus is proclaimed emperor at Colonia Agrippina (Cologne).

Probus defeats the army under Bonosus. Bonosus sees no way out and hangs himself. His family is treated with honours.

Julius Saturninus, governor of Syria, is in Alexandria, charged with the defense of the East. He is declared emperor and withdraws to Apamea. Probus besieges the city and puts him to death.

Roman territory is under constant threat of raids from Franks. The cities in Gaul are reinforced with defensive walls.

====== Europe ======

The Thuringii, a Germanic tribe, appears in the Harz Mountains (Thuringia) of central Germania.

====== China ======

Emperor Wu of the Jin dynasty completes the unification of China, which was previously divided between three contending powers during the Three Kingdoms period. The Jin dynasty's capital of Luoyang becomes a thriving centre of commerce as foreign diplomats and traders travel there.

====== Persia ======

King Bahram II of the Sassanid Empire (Persia) sends envoys to seek peaceful relations with Rome.

====== India ======

The Gupta Empire (India) is founded (approximate date).

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

The Greek mathematician Pappus demonstrates geometrically the property of the center of gravity.

=== 281 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Probus returns to Rome, where he celebrates his triumph over the Vandals and the usurpers (Bonosus, Julius Saturninus and Proculus).

=== 282 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Probus travels towards Sirmium (Serbia). He tries to employ his troops in peaceful projects, such as draining the swamps in Pannonia.

Probus is murdered by his discontented troops. Marcus Aurelius Carus, an Illyrian and praetorian prefect, is proclaimed new emperor.

Carus defeats the Quadi and Sarmatians on the Danube; for his victories he is given the title Germanicus Maximus.

Carus appoints his oldest son Marcus Aurelius Carinus, Caesar and co-emperor of the western Roman Empire.

====== Asia ======

A new city is constructed in Fuzhou, slightly south of the original city Ye (the main street of the city has remained unchanged since that time).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

The Patriarch Theonas of Alexandria becomes one of the first bishops to use the title Pope.

=== 283 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Carus travels through Thrace and Asia Minor; he invades the Persian Empire. After a long march he conquers Ctesiphon, the capital of the Persian kingdom, and presses on with the Roman army beyond the Tigris.

Carus receives for his victories in Persia the title of Persicus Maximus.

Carus dies in mysterious circumstances during the war against the Sassanids; during a violent dust storm he is killed by a stroke of lightning.

Marcus Aurelius Carinus succeeds his father Carus.

December – Numerian is proclaimed Emperor by his soldiers.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

December 17 – Pope Caius succeeds Pope Eutychian as the 28th pope.

=== 284 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

November 20 – Emperor Numerian travels through Bithynia (Asia Minor) on his way home to Rome. Suffering from an inflammation of the eyes, he travels in a closed litter in which soldiers find his decaying corpse.

November 20 – Diocletian, age 39, is proclaimed new emperor. He establishes himself at Nicomedia (modern İzmit, Turkey) and accepts the purple imperial vestments, claiming that the praetorian prefect (and rival for the throne) Arrius Aper murdered Numerian, killing him on the spot for the alleged deed. Diocletian carries out reforms of the Roman army, increasing conscription, and admitting large numbers of barbarian volunteers. In the winter he advances with his army across the Balkans.

Sabinus Julianus, Roman usurper against Emperor Carinus, revolts in the Roman province of Pannonia on the edge of the Balkans. He invades northern Italy and declares himself emperor.

The Bagaudae, a group of peasant insurgents, begin a revolt in Gaul against the Roman Empire.

Diocletian declares the Dardani, a region located in Illyria, as a Roman province separate from Moesia.

====== Asia ======

Yurye becomes king of the Korean kingdom of Silla.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Patriarch Rufinus I succeeds Dometius of Byzantium as Patriarch of Constantinople.

=== 285 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Early – Emperor Carinus marches from Britain to northern Italy, and defeats the army of the usurper Sabinus Julianus at Verona

Summer – Battle of the Margus: Emperor Diocletian defeats the forces of Carinus in the valley of the Margus (Serbia)

July 21 or July 25 – Diocletian appoints his fellow-officer Maximian to the office of caesar, or junior co-emperor

Late summer – Diocletian defends the Danube against Sarmatian raids. He transfers his capital to Nicomedia (modern-day İzmit in Turkey).

Carausius, naval commander at Bononia (modern-day Boulogne), is given the task of clearing the English Channel of Frankish and Saxon pirates

Maximian is sent to pacify Gaul, where the Bagaudae, a band of peasants, are revolting against the Roman Empire

=== 286 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

April 1 – Emperor Diocletian elevates his friend Maximian to co-emperor, giving him the title Augustus. The Bagaudae are crushed, after their revolt in Gaul.

Carausius, commander of the Classis Britannica, is accused of piracy and sentenced to death. He responds by declaring himself emperor of Britain and Northwestern Gaul. His forces consist of the newly built Roman fleet and three legions in Britain. The Carausian Revolt is supported by Gaulish merchant ships and barbarian mercenaries.

Diocletian divides the empire in two, after economic and military problems. He gives Maximian control over the Western Roman Empire and appoints himself ruler of the Eastern Roman Empire (later known as the Byzantine Empire).

====== Asia ======

Tuoba Chuo succeeds his brother Tuoba Xilu as chieftain of the Tuoba clan.

Chaekgye becomes king of the Korean kingdom of Baekje.

=== 287 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Diocletian and Maximian become Roman Consuls.

Diocletian signs a peace treaty with Bahram II, king of Persia, and installs Tiridates III as king of Armenia.

Diocletian re-organizes the Mesopotamian frontier and fortifies the city of Circesium (modern Busayrah) on the Euphrates.

September – The first Indiction begins.

=== 288 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Diocletian conducts a military campaign in Raetia (Switzerland).

Maximian builds in Gaul a Roman fleet to fight Carausius, usurper of Britain.

=== 289 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Diocletian gains several victories along the Danube against the Sarmatians. He is given the honorable title of Sarmaticus Maximus.

Maximian attempts to reconquer Britain from the usurper Carausius, but fails due to bad weather. He loses his fleet and accepts a peace treaty.

Constantius Chlorus divorces his wife (or concubine) Helena, mother of Constantine I, and marries emperor Maximian's stepdaughter, Theodora.

283

Year 283 (CCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Carus and Carinus (or, less frequently, year 1036 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 283 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Catacomb of Callixtus

The Catacomb(s) of Callixtus (also known as the Cemetery of Callixtus) is one of the Catacombs of Rome on the Appian Way, most notable for containing the Crypt of the Popes (Italian: Cappella dei Papi), which once contained the tombs of several popes from the 2nd to 4th centuries.

December 8

December 8 is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 23 days remain until the end of the year.

Eutychianus

Eutychianus:

Pope Eutychian (275-283)

Flavius Eutychianus, Roman consul in 398

Eutychianus of Adana, 6th century writer

List of canonised popes

This article lists the Popes who have been canonised or recognised as Saints in the Roman Catholic Church they had led. A total of 83 (out of 266) Popes have been recognised universally as canonised saints, including all of the first 35 Popes (31 of whom were martyrs) and 52 of the first 54. If Pope Liberius is numbered amongst the Saints as in Eastern Christianity, all of the first 49 Popes become recognised as Saints, of whom 31 are Martyr-Saints, and 53 of the first 54 Pontiffs would be acknowledged as Saints. In addition, 13 other Popes are in the process of becoming canonised Saints: as of December 2018, two are recognised as being Servants of God, two are recognised as being Venerable, and nine have been declared Blessed or Beati, making a total of 95 (97 if Pope Liberius and Pope Adeodatus II are recognised to be Saints) of the 266 Roman Pontiffs being recognised and venerated for their heroic virtues and inestimable contributions to the Church.

The most recently reigning Pope to have been canonised was Pope John Paul II, whose cause for canonisation was opened in May 2005. John Paul II was beatified on May 1, 2011, by Pope Benedict XVI and later canonised, along with Pope John XXIII, by Pope Francis on April 27, 2014. Pope Francis also canonised Pope Paul VI on October 14, 2018.

List of popes by country

This page is a list of popes by country of origin. They are listed in chronological order within each section.

As the office of pope has existed for almost two millennia, many of the countries of origin of popes no longer exist, and so they are grouped under their modern equivalents. Popes from Italy are in a separate section, given the very large number of popes from that peninsula.

List of popes who died violently

A collection of popes who have had violent deaths through the centuries. The circumstances have ranged from martyrdom (Pope Stephen I) to war (Lucius II), to a beating by a jealous husband (Pope John XII). A number of other popes have died under circumstances that some believe to be murder, but for which definitive evidence has not been found.

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