Pope Eugene I

Pope Eugene I (d. 2 June 657), also known as Eugenius I, was Pope from 10 August 654 to his death in 657. He was a native of Rome, born to one Rufinianus.

In June 653, in the midst of a dispute with Byzantine Emperor Constans II over Monothelitism (the belief that Jesus had that only a single, divine will), Pope Martin I was seized and carried to Constantinople and subsequently exiled to Cherson in the Crimea. Initially, in the pontiff's absence, the church was probably governed by the archpriest, archdeacon and the primicerius of the notaries. Over a year later, and with no sign of Martin's return, Eugene was chosen to succeed. If the emperor expected Eugene to take a different approach from that of his predecessor, he was disappointed.

Pope Saint

Eugene I
Papa Eugenio I (1)
Papacy began10 August 654
Papacy ended2 June 657
PredecessorMartin I
SuccessorVitalian
Personal details
Birth nameEugenius
BornRome, Byzantine Empire
Died2 June 657 (aged 42)
Rome, Byzantine Empire
Sainthood
Feast day2 June
Other popes named Eugene
Papal styles of
Pope Eugene I
Emblem of the Papacy SE
Reference styleHis Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous styleSaint

Early life

Little is known of Pope Eugene's early life other than that he was a Roman from the Aventine and was known for his holiness, gentleness, and charity. He had been a cleric from his youth and held various positions within the Church of Rome.[1][2]

Election under unusual circumstances

On the banishment of Pope Martin I by Byzantine Emperor Constans II, he showed greater deference than his predecessor to the emperor's wishes and made no public stand against the Monothelitism of the patriarchs of Constantinople.[3]

Martin I was carried off from Rome on 18 June 653 and was kept in exile until his death in September 655. Little is known about what happened in Rome after Pope Martin's departure, but it was typical in those days for the Holy See to be governed by the archpriest and archdeacon.[4]

After a year and two months, a successor was found to Martin in Eugene.[4]

Reign

Almost immediately after his election, Eugene was forced to deal with the heresy of Monothelitism, i.e., that Christ had only one will.

Constantinople letter affair

One of the first acts of the new pope was to send papal legates to Constantinople with letters to Emperor Constans II informing him of his election and professing his faith. The legates unfortunately allowed themselves to be deceived, or bribed, and brought back a synodical letter from Patriarch Peter of Constantinople (656–666), while the emperor's envoy, who accompanied them, brought offerings for St. Peter and a request from the emperor that the pope would enter into communion with the Patriarch of Constantinople. Peter's letter proved to be written in a difficult and obscure style and avoided making any specific declaration as to the number of "wills or operations" in Christ. When its contents were read to the clergy and people in the church of St. Mary Major in 656, they not only rejected the letter with indignation, but would not allow the pope to leave the basilica until he had promised that he would not on any account accept it.[4]

So furious were the Byzantine officials at this harsh rejection of the wishes of their emperor and patriarch that they threatened to roast Eugene, just as they had roasted Pope Martin I. Eugene's persecution was averted by the ensuing conquest of the Muslims, who took Rhodes in 654 and defeated Constans himself in the naval battle of Phoenix (655).[4]

Later years

It was almost certainly this pope who received the youthful St. Wilfrid on the occasion of his first visit to Rome (c. 654). At Rome he gained the affection of Archdeacon Boniface, a counsellor of the apostolic pope, who presented him to his master. Eugene "placed his blessed hand on the head of the youthful servant of God, prayed for him, and blessed him." Nothing more is known of Eugene except that he consecrated twenty-one bishops for different parts of the world, and that he was buried in St. Peter's Basilica.[4]

He died in 657 and was acclaimed a saint, his day being the 2nd of June, although, according to Anastasius, he died on the 1st of that month.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Saint of the Day, June 2: Eugenius I". SaintPatrickDC.org. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
  2. ^ "St. Eugene I". Christ's Faithful People. Archived from the original on 2006-05-20.
  3. ^ Chisholm 1911.
  4. ^ a b c d e Mann 1909.

References

  • The Book of Saints, by the Ramsgate Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine's Abbey

Attribution

External links

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Martin I
Pope
654–657
Succeeded by
Vitalian
650s

The 650s decade ran from January 1, 650, to December 31, 659.

== Events ==

=== 650 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

The Khazar Khaganate extends from the Dnieper to the Caspian Sea, and establishes the city, Itil, as its capital on the shore of the Caspian. Northward it extends to the headwaters of the Volga. Their rulers accept the Jewish religion, apparently to assert their independence from both Muslims and Christians (approximate date).

A Rashidun army under Abd ar-Rahman ibn Rabiah is annihilated by the Khazars, near the city of Balanjar (Northern Caucasus). During the battle, both sides use catapults against the other (approximate date).

====== Britain ======

The Mercians under King Penda move on East Anglia, destroy the monastery at Burgh Castle and expel King Anna who probably flees to Magonsæte (approximate date).

King Oswiu of Bernicia seeks Irish support against the forces of Penda. While in Ireland he has a liaison with Fín, the granddaughter of King Colmán Rímid Uí Néill (approximate date).

King Cloten of Dyfed (Southern Wales) marries Princess Ceindrech of Brycheiniog, and unites the two kingdoms (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

The first Chinese paper money is issued, yet these banknotes will not become government-issued until the Song Dynasty era Sichuan province issues them in the year 1024, with the central government of China following suit in the 12th century.

Emperor Kōtoku is presented a white pheasant; he is pleased and begins a new Japanese era name (nengo) to be called Hakuchi, meaning 'The White Pheasant'.

====== Americas ======

Yuknoom the Great, ruler of Calakmul, attacks Dos Pilas and forces its leader, B'alaj Chan K'awiil, and a likely heir to the throne of Tikal, to take refuge at Aguateca, beginning the Second Tikal-Calakmul War.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

St. Martin's Church is built in Canterbury, England (approximate date).

====== Art and science ======

The panel of the Tamamushi Shrine, the so called "Hungry Tigress Jataka", is made during the Asuka period (Japan). It is now kept at Horyu-ji Treasure House (approximate date).

=== 651 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

King Clovis II of Neustria and Burgundy marries Balthild, an Anglo-Saxon aristocrat sold into slavery in Gaul. She has been owned by Clovis' mayor of the palace, Erchinoald, who gives her to him to garner royal favour (approximate date).

====== Britain ======

King Oswiu of Bernicia declares war on his rival, King Oswine of Deira. Oswine refuses to engage him in battle, and retreats to Gilling (North Yorkshire). Oswine is betrayed by a friend, and murdered by Oswiu's soldiers.

Œthelwald succeeds his uncle Oswine as king of Deira, and allies himself with Oswiu's enemy, King Penda of Mercia. Queen Eanflæd of Bernicia donates the estate of Gilling for the foundation of a monastery.

====== Persia ======

King Yazdegerd III of Persia is murdered in a miller's hut near Merv by his followers, ending both Persian resistance to Arab conquest, and the Sassanid Empire.

====== Arabian Empire ======

The Rashidun army under Abdullah ibn Aamir invades Afghanistan, and captures the main forts in Khorasan (modern Iran). The Muslim Arabs occupy the cities of Balkh and Herat, which surrender peacefully.

An embassy led by Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas arrives in the capital Chang'an via an oversea route. They are greeted by Emperor Gao Zong, who orders the establishment of the first Chinese mosque.

The Qur'an is compiled by Caliph Uthman ibn Affan in its present form. The text become the model from which copies are made and promulgated throughout the urban centers of the Arab world.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

The Hôtel-Dieu de Paris is founded by bishop Landry (Landericus). It becomes the first major hospital in Paris.

=== 652 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

King Rothari dies after a 16-year reign, and is succeeded by his son Rodoald as king of the Lombards.

====== Britain ======

King Penda of Mercia invades Bernicia, and besieges King Oswiu at Bamburgh, in North East England.

====== Arab Empire ======

Arab–Byzantine War: An Arab fleet under Abdullah ibn Sa'ad defeats the Byzantine fleet (500 ships) off the coast of Alexandria.

Siege of Dongola: A Rashidun army (5,000 men) under Abdullah ibn Sa'ad besieges Dongola in the Kingdom of Makuria (modern Sudan).

Uthman ibn Affan establishes a treaty (the Baqt) between the Christian Nubians and the Muslims in Egypt, that lasts for six centuries.

Abdel al Rahman ibn Awf, companion (sahabah) of Muhammad, frees 30,000 slaves at his death (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

The registers of population are prepared in Japan. Fifty houses are made a township, and for each township there is appointed an elder. The houses are all associated in groups of five for mutual protection, with one elder to supervise them one with another. This system prevails until the era of World War II.

The Giant Wild Goose Pagoda is constructed in Chang'an (modern Xi'an), during the Tang Dynasty (China). It is completed in the same year, during the reign of Emperor Gao Zong.

=== 653 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Emperor Constans II voluntarily surrenders Armenia to the Arabs, following a truce with Muawiyah, governor of Syria. Muawiyah grants the Armenians virtual autonomy, and appoints the nakharar Theodor Rshtuni as ruler of Armenia.

Muawiyah leads a raid against Rhodes, taking the scattered pieces of the Colossus of Rhodes (one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World) and shipping it back to Syria, where he destroys the bronze scrap to make coins.

====== Europe ======

King Rodoald is murdered after a six-month reign, and is succeeded by Aripert I, who is elected as king of the Lombards. He spreads Catholicism over the Lombard realm and builds many new churches through the kingdom.

Atto succeeds Theodelap as duke of Spoleto, in Central Italy (approximate date).

====== Britain ======

King Penda of Mercia secures dominance over the area of Middle Anglia, where he establishes his son Peada as ruler.

Peada marries Alchflaed, daughter of King Oswiu of Bernicia, and is baptised at Ad Murum (in the region of Hadrian's Wall) by bishop Finan.

King Œthelwald of Deira rejects Oswiu's overlordship, and turns to Penda instead. Penda mounts another attack against Bernicia (approximate date).

Talorgan I, nephew of Oswiu, is crowned king of the Picts. He probably accepts Northumbrian overlordship and pays tribute.

King Sigeberht I of Essex dies after a 36-year reign, and is succeeded by his relative Sigeberht II.

Sigeberht II is persuaded by Oswiu to adopt Christianity, as part of a mobilization against Penda.

====== Asia ======

Emperor Kōtoku sends an embassy to the court of the Tang Dynasty in China. Japanese ambassadors, priests and students sail for the capital Chang'an, but some of the ships are lost en route.

Prince Tenji of Japan changes his residence to Asuka (Nara Prefecture), with other imperial family members and ministers. Only Emperor Kōtoku stays in the Naniwa Palace (approximate date).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

June 17 – Pope Martin I is arrested in the Lateren in Rome, along with Maximus the Confessor, on the orders of Emperor Constans II, and taken to imprisonment in Constantinople.

Northumbrian missionaries under St. Cedd are despatched to Essex, to found the monastery at Bradwell-on-Sea.

The Temple of Sinheungsa in Gangwon Province (South Korea) is constructed by the Buddhist monk Jajang.

=== 654 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Emperor Constans II appoints his son Constantine IV, age 2, co-emperor (Augustus). He is too young to rule as monarch of the Byzantine Empire, and his title remains a given name.

====== Europe ======

King Recceswinth draws up at Toledo the Liber Judiciorum, a Visigothic code based on Roman law, that establishes equality between Goths and Hispano-Romans without regard to racial or cultural differences.

====== Britain ======

King Penda of Mercia defeats the East Anglians at Bulcamp near Blythburgh (Suffolk). King Anna of East Anglia and his son Jurmin are killed.

Æthelhere succeeds his brother Anna as king of East Anglia, and accepts Mercian overlordship (approximate date).

====== Arabian Empire ======

Muawiyah, governor of Syria, stations a large garrison on Cyprus. He conquers the Greek island of Kos in the Dodecanese.

Arab invaders cross the Oxus River, in what later will be Uzbekistan. Nomadic Turkic tribes continue to control Central Asia.

====== Asia ======

November 24 – Emperor Kōtoku dies after a 9-year reign; Kōgyoku (his elder sister) is restored on the throne under the name Saimei.

Takamuko no Kuromaro, a Japanese diplomat, is sent to the Tang Dynasty again, but dies upon his arrival in Chang'an.

Nakatomi no Kamatari, the inner minister (naidaijin) of Japan, is granted the Shikwan (the Purple Cap).

Muyeol becomes king of the Korean kingdom of Silla.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

August 10 – The exiled Pope Martin I is deposed, and succeeded by Eugene I, as the 75th pope of the Roman Catholic Church. On September 17, Martin is taken to Constantinople and publicly humiliated, for having condemned the Byzantine Emperor Constans II in 649.

Philibert, Frankish abbot, receives a gift from King Clovis II of Neustria, and founds Jumièges Abbey in Normandy.

=== 655 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Battle of the Masts: Emperor Constans II personally commands the Byzantine fleet (500 ships), and sets off to challenge the Arab navy. He sails to the province of Lycia (now in Turkey) in the southern region of Asia Minor. The two forces meet off the coast of Mount Phoenix, near the harbour of Phoenix (modern Finike). The Arabs under Abdullah ibn Sa'ad are victorious in battle, although losses are heavy for both sides. Constans barely escapes to Constantinople.

====== Britain ======

November 15 – Battle of the Winwaed: King Oswiu of Bernicia defeats his rival, King Penda of Mercia at Cock Beck, near what later will be Leeds (Yorkshire). Kings Cadafael Cadomedd of Gwynedd and Œthelwald of Deira, allies of Mercia, withdraw their forces before the battle begins. It marks the defeat of the last credible pagan force in England. It also sows the seeds which will lead to Anglo-Saxon acceptance of the Catholic Church (approximate date).

Oswiu becomes overlord (bretwalda) over much of Great Britain. He establishes himself as king of Mercia, setting up his son-in-law, Penda's son Peada, as a subject king over Middle Anglia.

====== Asia ======

Empress Kōgyoku re-ascends to the throne of Japan, beginning a new reign as Saimei-tennō.

Arab armies conquer Khurasan (Iran), and the Silk Road along Transoxiana (Central Asia).

King Vikramaditya I of Chalukya (India) re-unites the kingdom, after defeating his brothers.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

May 15 – Pope Martin I is banished to Chersonesos Taurica (Ukraine). He dies later in the Crimean Peninsula after a 6-year reign, leaving Eugene I as the uncontested pope (see 654).

Peada founds Peterborough Cathedral (Province of Canterbury). It becomes one of the first centres of Christianity in England. Deusdedit is consecrated to archbishop of Canterbury.

=== 656 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

February 1 – King Sigebert III of Austrasia, age 25, dies after a 22-year reign. His 5-year-old son Dagobert II is kidnapped by the court chancellor, Grimoald the Elder, who makes his own son king, and exiles him to an Irish monastery. Dagobert is placed with Dido, bishop of Poitiers, while Grimoald's son Childebert the Adopted assumes the Austrasian throne.

====== Britain ======

King Oswiu of Northumbria invades Pengwern (modern Wales) and kills King Cynddylan in battle, near the River Trent. Cynddylan's brother Morfael and the rest of the royal family flee to Glastening (Wessex).

King Œthelwald of Deira is removed from office by his uncle Oswiu, because of his desertion at the Battle of the Winwaed, and replaced by the latter's son Alhfrith, as subject king in a united Northumbria.

====== Arabian Empire ======

First Islamic Civil War: An armed revolt erupts in Egypt; several Muslim sympathisers travel to Medina to rally support, beginning the fitna (literally meaning the 'trail of faith'). The Muslim expansion comes to a halt as the martial energies of the Islamic forces are directed inwards.

June 20 – Uthman ibn Affan is murdered at Medina after an 11-year reign. He is succeeded by Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law Ali ibn Abi-Talib, who becomes the fourth caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate. He makes Kufah (Iraq) his capital, but the succession is disputed.

November 7 – Battle of the Camel: Rebel Arabs under Aisha (widow of Muhammad) begin a revolt against Ali. They are defeated at Basra, and Aisha is exiled to Medina. During the battle 10,000 people lose their lives, with each party bearing equal loss.

Abdullah ibn Sa'ad, governor of Upper Egypt, dies after a 12-year regime in which he has defeated neighboring Nubia.

====== Asia ======

Empress Saimei of Japan builds a new palace at Asuka (Nara Prefecture), because her former residence took fire. This construction is called the "Mad Canal" by the people of that day, wasting the labor of tens of thousand workers and a large amount of money.

====== Polynesia ======

September 24 – A total solar eclipse is observable from Easter Island. The next at this location will not occur until July 11, 2010.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Li Xiăn, seventh son of the Chinese emperor Gao Zong, is made crown prince. His lavish palatial mansion in Chang'an is converted into a Daoist abbey during the Tang Dynasty (approximate date).

The Yasaka Shrine is constructed in the Gion district of Kyoto (Japan).

=== 657 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Grimoald the Elder, mayor of the palace of Austrasia, is deposed by Clovis II, king of Neustria. Clovis also captures Grimoald's son Childebert the Adopted, executing them both.

Clovis II dies and is succeeded by his eldest son Chlothar III, age 5, who becomes king of Neustria and Burgundy, under the regency of his mother Balthild.

====== Arab Empire ======

Battle of Siffin: Muslim forces under Ali ibn Abi-Talib fight an inconclusive battle against Muawiyah ibn Abu Sufyan, on the banks of the Euphrates, near Raqqa (Syria).

====== Asia ======

Tang campaigns against the Western Turks: Emperor Gao Zong dispatches a military campaign led by Su Dingfang. He annexes the Western Turkic Khaganate.

Gao Zong commissions the pharmacology publication of an official materia medica, documenting the use of 833 different substances for medicinal purposes.

====== Americas ======

In the course of the Second Tikal-Calakmul War, the Snake Lord (Yuknoom Ch'een II) makes a direct attack against Tikal itself, driving out its new ruler Nuun Ujol Chaak, and establishing Calakmul as the regional superpower. B'alaj Chan K'awiil, the one time heir apparent to rule Tikal, swears his allegiance to the new overlord.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

June 1 – Pope Eugene I dies at Rome after a reign of nearly 2½ years. He is succeeded by Vitalian as the 76th pope.

Hilda, Anglo-Saxon abbess, founds a monastery at Streaneshalch, on the Yorkshire coast at Whitby (England).

=== 658 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Emperor Constans II undertakes an expedition to the Balkan Peninsula, and defeats the Avars in Macedonia. He temporarily reasserts Byzantine rule, and resettles some of them in Anatolia to fight against the Rashidun Caliphate (approximate date).

====== Europe ======

The confederation of Slavic tribes falls apart after the death of King Samo. A Slav principality is formed from the kingdom's remnants in Carinthia (modern Austria), and the Avars capture most of its territory in Hungary (approximate date).

====== Britain ======

Battle of Peonnum: King Cenwalh and the Wessex Saxons make a push against Dumnonia (South West England). They are victorious at Penselwood in Somerset, and the Dumnonia-Wessex border is set at the River Parrett (approximate date).

A revolt led by three Mercian noblemen (Immin, Eata, and Eadberht) installs Wulfhere (son of king Penda) as ruler of Mercia, and drives out the supporters of King Oswiu of Northumbria.

====== Asia ======

The Chinese Buddhist monks Zhi Yu and Zhi You recreate several south-pointing chariots, for the Japanese prince Tenji. This is a 3rd-century device made by Ma Jun, and acts as a mechanical-driven directional-compass vehicle (according to the Nihon Shoki).

Chinese forces defeat the Western Turkic Kaganate (Central Asia). The West kaganate becomes a vassal of the Tang Dynasty. During the power vacuum, Turgesh tribes emerge as the leading power (approximate date).

=== 659 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Arab–Byzantine War: Emperor Constans II signs a peace treaty with the Rashidun Caliphate. He uses the pause to strengthen his defences, and consolidates Byzantine control over Armenia. Constans establishes the themata, dividing territorial command in Anatolia.

Constans II elevates his son Heraclius to the rank of co-emperor (Augustus), alongside his brother Tiberius.

====== Asia ======

A Japanese embassy is sent to the Chinese Empire, and received in an audience by Emperor Gao Zong. The Tang Dynasty is determined in the next year to take administrative measures in regard to Japan. The envoys are detained.

====== Middle East ======

The Battle of Nahrawan takes place between Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib and the Khawarij terrorists in Nahrawan, Iraq.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

March 17 – Gertrude of Nivelles, daughter of Pepin of Landen (mayor of the palace of Austrasia), requests on her deathbed a burial wearing a plain linen shroud. This is the traditional (pagan) practice of a 'furnished' grave.

Leodegar, an opponent of Ebroin (mayor of the palace), is appointed bishop of Autun in Burgundy.

654

Year 654 (DCLIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 654 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

657

Year 657 (DCLVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 657 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

August 10

August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 143 days remain until the end of the year.

The term 'the 10th of August' is widely used by historians as a shorthand for the Storming of the Tuileries Palace on the 10th of August, 1792, the effective end of the French monarchy until it was restored in 1814.

Byzantine Papacy

The Byzantine Papacy was a period of Byzantine domination of the Roman papacy from 537 to 752, when popes required the approval of the Byzantine Emperor for episcopal consecration, and many popes were chosen from the apocrisiarii (liaisons from the pope to the emperor) or the inhabitants of Byzantine-ruled Greece, Syria, or Sicily. Justinian I conquered the Italian peninsula in the Gothic War (535–554) and appointed the next three popes, a practice that would be continued by his successors and later be delegated to the Exarchate of Ravenna.

With the exception of Pope Martin I, no pope during this period questioned the authority of the Byzantine monarch to confirm the election of the bishop of Rome before consecration could occur; however, theological conflicts were common between pope and emperor in the areas such as monothelitism and iconoclasm.

Greek-speakers from Greece, Syria, and Sicily replaced members of the powerful Roman nobles in the papal chair during this period. Rome under the Greek popes constituted a "melting pot" of Western and Eastern Christian traditions, reflected in art as well as liturgy.

Irschenberg

Irschenberg is a municipality in the district of Miesbach in the German state of Bavaria, about 46 km (29 mi) southeast of Munich. It consists of numerous hamlets situated on the Irschenberg hill range.

The hill is a notorious ascent of the Bundesautobahn 8 motorway running from Munich to Salzburg laid out from 1934 on. A rest area and a motel were attached in 1951.

The name was formerly rendered as "Irish mountain", referring to the monk Marinus, who settled in the area in the course of the Hiberno-Scottish mission under Pope Eugene I and, according to legend, about 697 was martyred by burning at the stake (see the coat of arms). His grave is marked by the pilgrimage church of Wilparting, visible from the motorway and a popular photo scene. Actually Irschen may stem from ursus ("bear").

Originally a part of the Bishopric of Freising, the area fell into possession of the Lords of Hohenwaldeck at Miesbach until their county was incorporated into the Bavarian Electorate in 1734.

June 2

June 2 is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 212 days remain until the end of the year.

Lateran Council of 649

The Lateran Council of 649 was a synod held in the Basilica of St. John Lateran to condemn Monothelitism, a Christology espoused by many Eastern Christians. The Council did not achieve ecumenical status in either East or West, but represented the first attempt of a pope to convene an ecumenical council independent of the Roman emperor.

According to Ekonomou, the irony of the Council was that the denunciation of the theology of Constantinople came from the "collaboration of a Greco-Palestinian pope and a Constantinopolitan monk employing a style of theological discourse whose tradition was purely Eastern." Although Pope Martin I and Maximus the Confessor were abducted by Constans II and tried in Constantinople for their role in the Council (Martin I being replaced as pope before dying in exile), their position was ultimately endorsed by the Third Council of Constantinople in 680.

List of canonised popes

This article lists the Popes who have been canonised or recognised as Saints in the Roman Catholic Church they had led. A total of 83 (out of 266) Popes have been recognised universally as canonised saints, including all of the first 35 Popes (31 of whom were martyrs) and 52 of the first 54. If Pope Liberius is numbered amongst the Saints as in Eastern Christianity, all of the first 49 Popes become recognised as Saints, of whom 31 are Martyr-Saints, and 53 of the first 54 Pontiffs would be acknowledged as Saints. In addition, 13 other Popes are in the process of becoming canonised Saints: as of December 2018, two are recognised as being Servants of God, two are recognised as being Venerable, and nine have been declared Blessed or Beati, making a total of 95 (97 if Pope Liberius and Pope Adeodatus II are recognised to be Saints) of the 266 Roman Pontiffs being recognised and venerated for their heroic virtues and inestimable contributions to the Church.

The most recently reigning Pope to have been canonised was Pope John Paul II, whose cause for canonisation was opened in May 2005. John Paul II was beatified on May 1, 2011, by Pope Benedict XVI and later canonised, along with Pope John XXIII, by Pope Francis on April 27, 2014. Pope Francis also canonised Pope Paul VI on October 14, 2018.

List of popes by country

This page is a list of popes by country of origin. They are listed in chronological order within each section.

As the office of pope has existed for almost two millennia, many of the countries of origin of popes no longer exist, and so they are grouped under their modern equivalents. Popes from Italy are in a separate section, given the very large number of popes from that peninsula.

List of saints

This is an incomplete list of Christian saints in alphabetical order by Christian name, but, where known and given, a surname, location, or personal attribute (included as part of the name) may affect the ordering.

One list says there are 810 canonized Roman Catholic saints (who have been through the formal institutional process of canonization), although some give numbers in the thousands. (Pope John Paul II alone canonized 110 individuals, plus many group canonizations such as 110 martyr saints of China, 103 Korean martyrs, 117 Vietnamese martyrs, Mexican Martyrs, Spanish martyrs and French revolutionary martyrs.) Among the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Communions, the numbers may be even higher, since there is no fixed process of "canonization" and each individual jurisdiction within the two Orthodox communions independently maintains parallel lists of saints that have only partial overlap. Note that 78 popes are considered saints.The Anglican Communion recognizes pre-Reformation saints, as does the United Methodist Church. Persons who have led lives of celebrated sanctity or missionary zeal are included in the Calendar of the Prayer Book "without thereby enrolling or commending such persons as saints of the Church". Similarly, any individuals commemorated in the Lutheran calendar of saints will be listed as well.

Wikipedia contains calendars of saints for particular denominations, listed by the day of the year on which they are traditionally venerated, as well as a chronological list of saints and blesseds, listed by their date of death.

Pope Eugene

Pope Eugene could refer to:

Pope Eugene I (654–657)

Pope Eugene II (824–827)

Pope Eugene III (1145–1153)

Pope Eugene IV (1431–1447)

Pope Vitalian

Pope Vitalian (Latin: Vitalianus; d. 27 January 672) reigned from 30 July 657 to his death in 672. He was born in Segni, Lazio, the son of Anastasius.

Saint Ildefonsus (El Greco, El Escorial)

Saint Ildefonsus is a 1609 painting by El Greco. It and his Saint Peter were both painted for the Iglesia de San Vicente, Toledo. It has also previously been misidentified as Pope Eugene I or saint Blaise. It is now in the Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo de El Escorial.

Ildefonsus is shown in a chasuble, pallium and mitre, holding a bishop's staff and an open book. The full robes emphasise the model's anatomy, showing Michelangelo's influence on El Greco.

Sant'Eugenio

Sant'Eugenio is a titular church in Rome, Italy, dedicated to Pope Eugene I (A.D. 654–657).

Type of Constans

The Type of Constans (also called Typos of Constans) was an imperial edict issued by Byzantine Emperor Constans II in 648 in an attempt to defuse the confusion and arguments over the Christological doctrine of Monotheletism. For over two centuries, there had been a bitter debate regarding the nature of Christ: the orthodox Chalcedonian position defined Christ as having two natures in one person, whereas Monophysite opponents contended that Jesus Christ possessed but a single nature. At the time, the Byzantine Empire had been at near constant war for fifty years and had lost large territories. It was under great pressure to establish domestic unity. This was hampered by the large number of Byzantines who rejected the Council of Chalcedon in favour of Monophysitism.

The Type attempted to dismiss the entire controversy, on pain of dire punishment. This extended to kidnapping the Pope from Rome to try him for high treason and mutilating one of the Type's main opponents. Constans died in 668. Ten years later his son, Constantine IV, fresh from a triumph over his Arab enemies and with the predominately Monophysitic provinces irredeemably lost, called the Third Council of Constantinople. It decided with an overwhelming majority to condemn Monophysitism, Monotheletism, the Type of Constans and its major supporters. Constantine put his seal to the Council's decisions, and reunited such of Christendom as was not under Arab suzerainty.

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