Pope Dionysius

Pope Dionysius can also refer to Pope Dionysius of Alexandria.
Pope Saint

Papacy began22 July 259
Papacy ended26 December 268
PredecessorSixtus II
SuccessorFelix I
Personal details
Birth nameDionysius
Possibly Magna Graecia in Italy.
Died26 December 268
Rome, Roman Empire
Feast day26 December
Venerated inCatholic Church

Pope Dionysius (died 26 December 268) served as the Bishop of Rome or Pope from 22 July 259 to his death in 268. His task was to reorganize the Roman church, after the persecutions of the Emperor Valerian I and the edict of toleration by his successor Gallienus. He also helped rebuild the churches of Cappadocia, devastated by the marauding Goths.


Dionysius may have been born in Magna Græcia, but this has not been verified. He was elected pope in 259, after the martyrdom of Sixtus II in 258. The Holy See had been vacant for nearly a year due to difficulty in electing a new pope during the violent persecution which Christians faced.[1] When the persecution had begun to subside, Dionysius was raised to the office of Bishop of Rome. Emperor Valerian I, who had led the persecution, was captured and killed by the King of Persia in 260.[1] The new emperor, Gallienus, issued an edict of toleration, restoring the churches, cemeteries and other properties it had held, leading to the nearly 40-year "Little Peace of the Church".[2] To the new pope fell the task of reorganizing the Roman church, which had fallen into great disorder. On the protest of some of the faithful at Alexandria, he demanded from the bishop of Alexandria, also called Dionysius, explanations concerning his doctrine regarding the relation of God to the Logos, which was satisfied.[1]

Pope Dionysius sent large sums of money to the churches of Cappadocia, which had been devastated by the marauding Goths, to rebuild and to ransom those held captive. He brought order to the Church and procured a peace after Emperor Gallienus issued an edict of toleration which was to last until 303. He died on 26 December 268.[1]

In art, he is portrayed in papal vestments, along with a book.[1]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e Kirsch, Johann Peter (1909). "Pope St. Dionysius" in The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 5. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  2. ^ Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica, 7.13; translated by G.A. Williamson, Eusebius: The History of the Church (Harmonsworth: Penguin, 1965), p. 299


  • Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope St. Dionysius" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.


External links

Titles of the Great Christian Church
Preceded by
Sixtus II
Bishop of Rome

Succeeded by
Felix I

Year 259 (CCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Aemilianus and Bassus (or, less frequently, year 1012 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 259 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.


Year 260 (CCLX) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Saecularis and Donatus (or, less frequently, year 1013 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 260 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.


The 260s decade ran from January 1, 260, to December 31, 269.

== Events ==

=== 260 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Battle of Edessa: With a large army, said to number 70,000 men, Valerianus attempts to drive the Persians back from Edessa. The Roman army is surrounded and most of its troops are killed or captured. Valerianus is taken prisoner for the remainder of his life.

Shapur I sends Valerian to Bishapur and uses the captured Roman army for engineering plans. They construct the Band-e Kaisar (Bridge of Valerian).

Gallienus becomes the sole emperor of Rome; during his reign the Pannonian governor Ingenuus revolts on the Danube.

Gallienus evacuates the fortifications (limes) in the Agri Decumates (Germania Superior), covering the Black Forest area in the face of invading Alamanni.

Gallienus establishes himself at Mediolanum (modern Milan); he reorganizes the army, supported by elite cavalry, and dispatches troops to the Rhine frontier.

Postumus, Roman usurper, forms the Gallic Empire and protects the Rhine against an invasion of Germanic tribes.

Saloninus, son of Gallienus, is proclaimed Augustus by his troops. Postumus besieges Cologne, where Silvanus is praetorian prefect and Roman ruler of Gaul.

Postumus executes Saloninus and his adviser Silvanus after breaching the walls of Cologne. He is recognized as emperor and establishes his capital at Trier.

Postumus wins over all the Roman provinces west of the Alps, including Gaul, Britain and Hispania.

The Roman fort of Wiesbaden (Germany) is captured by the Alamanni.

The Franks take control over the Scheldt estuary (approximate date).

====== Persia ======

Persian king Shapur I destroys Caesarea Mazaca in Asia Minor.

====== China ======

The Cao Wei emperor Cao Mao attempts to lead a coup against the increasingly powerful regent Sima Zhao, but is himself killed before it comes to fruition.

Cao Huan succeeds Cao Mao as emperor of Cao Wei.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Earliest known date of chess.

====== Religion ======

Pope Dionysius convenes a synod at Rome to demand an explanation from bishop Dionysius of Alexandria, who has been charged with separating the members of the Trinity as three distinct deities.

Paul of Samosata becomes Patriarch of Antioch.

=== 261 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Gallienus crushes the Alemanni at Milan (possible date).

Gallienus repeals the edict of 258, which led to the persecution of the Christians.

Gallienus usurpers: The rebellion of Macrianus Major, Macrianus Minor, and Quietus against Gallienus comes to an end. They march from Asia to Europe but are defeated in Thrace by Gallienus' general Aureolus, and both are killed. Quietus flees to Emesa, where he is killed by Odaenathus of Palmyra.

Roman–Persian Wars: Balista, Roman usurper, collects ships from Cilician ports and defeats the Persian fleet near Pompeiopolis, capturing the harem of king Shapur I.

Britain elects to join the Gallic Empire.

====== Asia ======

Michu ascends the Silla throne, becoming the first king of the long Kim line.

=== 262 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

The Goths invade Asia Minor and destroy the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus.

An earthquake strikes Ephesus and Pergamon and another strikes Cyrene.

The Heruls accompany the Goths, ravaging the coasts of the Black Sea and the Aegean.

=== 263 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

King Odenathus of Palmyra declares himself ruler of the area west of the River Euphrates and is declared Dux Orientalis by the Roman emperor Gallienus.

====== Asia ======

Conquest of Shu by Wei: The Chinese state of Cao Wei conquers Shu Han, one of its two rival states.

Sima Zhao, regent of the Cao Wei state, receives and accepts the nine bestowments, state chancellorship, and the title Duke of Jin from Cao Huan.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Chinese mathematician Liu Hui writes a commentary on The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, describing what will later be called Gaussian elimination, computing pi, etc.

=== 264 ===

==== By place ====

====== Asia ======

Zhong Hui's Rebellion is quelled.

Sima Zhao, regent of the Cao Wei state, styles himself the King of Jin, the penultimate step before usurpation.

Sun Hao succeeds Sun Xiu as emperor of the Chinese state of Eastern Wu.

=== 265 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Gallienus tries twice to crush the usurper Postumus, but on the first occasion Aureolus, commander of the elite cavalry, carelessly lets him escape. The second time, Gallienus sustains an arrow wound and has to break off his siege of a Gallic town where Postumus has holed up. He makes no other serious attempt to overcome his rival, devotes his attention to the political and military problems in the Danube and eastern parts of the Roman Empire.

Postumus makes no move to march on Rome and claim his territory south of Gaul.

Gallienus gives the order to fortify Milan and Verona.

Gallienus repels the invasion of the Goths in the Balkans.

A general of Gallienus' army, Victorinus, defects to Postumus.

=== 266 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

King Odaenathus of Palmyra invades Persia to conquer the capital, Ctesiphon, and twice comes as far as the walls of the Persian capital, but fails to take it. After his victories in the East he pronounces himself with the title "king of kings".

====== Ireland ======

The rule of High King Cormac mac Airt ends (approximate date).

====== China ======

February 266: Sima Yan, regent of the Chinese state of Cao Wei, forces the last Cao Wei emperor Cao Huan to abdicate in his favour on 4 February 266. The Cao Wei state's existence comes to an end. Sima Yan establishes the Jin dynasty and becomes its first emperor on 8 February 266, and is historically known as "Emperor Wu of Jin". He establishes his capital at Luoyang and gives his male relatives independent military commands throughout his empire.

=== 267 ===

==== Roman Empire ====

First Gothic invasion: The Goths, originally from Scandinavia, with the Sarmatians (from modern Iran), invade the Balkans and Greece. They ravage Moesia and Thrace.

The Heruli invade the Black Sea coast; they unsuccessfully attack Byzantium and Cyzicus. The Roman fleet defeats the Herulian fleet (500 ships) but allows them to escape into the Aegean Sea, where they raid the islands of Lemnos and Skyros.

The Goths sack several cities of southern Greece including Athens, Corinth, Argos and Sparta. An Athenian militia force (2,000 men), under the historian Dexippus, pushes the invaders to the north where they are intercepted by the Roman army under emperor Gallienus. He wins an important victory near the Nestos River, on the boundary between Macedonia and Thrace.

Aureolus, charged with defending Italy, defeats Victorinus (co-emperor of Gaul), is proclaimed emperor by his troops, and begins his march on Rome.

==== Near East ====

King Odaenathus of Palmyra makes plans for a campaign in Cappadocia against the Goths. He is assassinated along with his eldest son, evidently on orders from emperor Gallienus. His wife Zenobia succeeds him, and rules with her young son Vaballathus the Palmyrene Empire.

=== 268 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

September – Battle of Naissus: Emperor Gallienus, aided by Aurelian, defeats a Gothic coalition (50,000 warriors) near Naissus (Niš, modern Serbia).

Gallienus is killed by his own senior officers at Mediolanum (Milan) while besieging his rival Aureolus, one of the Thirty Tyrants. Aureolus is murdered in turn by the Praetorian guard.

Marcus Aurelius Claudius is charged by the Senate for having murdered Gallienus (it will never be proven). He becomes the new emperor of Rome and will reign as Claudius II.

Claudius II asks the Senate to spare the lives of Gallienus's family and political supporters. Emperor Gallienus is deified and buried in a family tomb on the Appian Way.

The Alamanni invade Italy north of the Po River.

The Visigoths first appear as a distinct people.

November – Battle of Lake Benacus: A Roman army (35,000 men) under emperor Claudius II defeats the Germanic tribes of the Alamanni along the banks of Lake Garda.

====== Europe ======

Victorinus is declared emperor of the Gallic Empire by the legions at Augusta Treverorum (Trier), following the murders of his predecessors. He is recognized by the provinces of Gaul and Britain, but Hispania might have reunited with the Roman Empire.

==== By Topic ====

====== Religion ======

December 26 – Pope Dionysius dies at Rome after a 9-year reign and is succeeded by Pope Felix I.

=== 269 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Second Gothic invasion: The Goths and other German tribes attack Bosphorean towns on the coast of the Black Sea. Some 2,000 ships and 320,000 men from the Danube enter Roman territory. Emperor Claudius II defeats the invaders and receives the title Gothicus for his triumph. Many of the prisoners will serve in the Roman legions and settle in vacant lands in the Danubian provinces.

Claudius II travels to Sirmium and prepares a war against the Vandals, who raid Pannonia.

The Heruli capture Athens and raid the Aegean Islands as far as Crete and Rhodes.

Marcus Cassianius Latinius Postumus is killed by his own troops after not allowing them to sack the city of Mogontiacum.

====== Eastern Roman Empire and Egypt ======

Queen Zenobia conquers Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, parts of Mesopotamia and Anatolia and Egypt, giving her control of Rome's grain supply. The library at Alexandria is partly burned during a raid by Zabdas, general of Zenobia.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

January 5 – Pope Felix I succeeds Pope Dionysius as the 26th pope.

Paul of Samosata is deposed as Patriarch of Antioch (though he is not removed until 272).


Year 268 (CCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Paternus and Egnatius (or, less frequently, year 1021 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 268 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.


Year 269 (CCLXIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Claudius and Paternus (or, less frequently, year 1022 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 269 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Chapel of St Apolline, Guernsey

The Chapel of St Apolline, La Grande Rue, Saint Saviour, Guernsey is a protected building and historic monument. Constructed in the 14th century, it is still in regular use for worship. The Chapel has stood virtually unchanged for over 600 years.


The name Dionysius (; Greek: Διονύσιος Dionū́sios, "of Dionysus"; Latin: Dionȳsius) was common in classical and post-classical times. Etymologically it is a nominalized adjective formed with a -ios suffix from the stem Dionys- of the name of the Greek god, Dionysus, parallel to Apollon-ios from Apollon, with meanings of Dionysos' and Apollo's, etc. The exact beliefs attendant on the original assignment of such names remain unknown.

Regardless of the language of origin of Dionysos and Apollon, the -ios/-ius suffix is associated with a full range of endings of the first and second declension in the Greek and Latin languages. The names may thus appear in ancient writing in any of their cases. Dionysios itself refers only to males. The feminine version of the name is Dionysia, nominative case, in both Greek and Latin. The name of the plant and the festival, Dionysia, is the neuter plural nominative, which looks the same in English from both languages. Dionysiou is the masculine and neuter genitive case of the Greek second declension. Dionysias is not the -ios suffix.

Although in most cases transmuted, the name remains in many modern languages, such as English Dennis (Denys, Denis, Denise). The latter names have lost the suffix altogether, using Old French methods of marking the feminine, Denise. The modern Greek (closest to the original) is Dionysios or Dionysis. The Spanish is Dionisio. The Italian is Dionigi and last name, Dionisi. Like Caesar in secular contexts, Dionysius sometimes became a title in religious contexts; for example, Dionysius was the episcopal title of the primates of Malankara Church (founded by Apostle Thomas in India) from 1765 until the amalgamation of that title with Catholicos of the East in 1934.

List of Church Fathers

The following is a list of Christian Church Fathers. Roman Catholics generally regard the Patristic period to have closed with the death of John of Damascus, a Doctor of the Church, in 749. However, Orthodox Christians believe that the Patristic period is ongoing. Therefore, the list is split into two tables.

List of Greek popes

This is a list of Greek popes. Most were pope before or during the Byzantine Papacy (537–752). It does not include all the Sicilian and Syrian popes of Greek extraction from that period.

Of Alexandria

This article lists people, events and other subjects which are referred to as "of Alexandria".


The Parabalani (Late Latin parabalānī "persons who risk their lives as nurses", from Ancient Greek: παραβαλανεῖς) or Parabolani (from παραβολᾶνοι or παράβολοι) were the members of a brotherhood who in early Christianity voluntarily undertook the care of the sick and the burial of the dead knowing they could die.

Generally drawn from the lower strata of society, they also functioned as attendants to local bishops and were sometimes used by them as bodyguards and in violent clashes with their opponents.

Patriarch of Alexandria

The Patriarch of Alexandria is the archbishop of Alexandria, Egypt. Historically, this office has included the designation "pope" (etymologically "Father", like "Abbot").The Alexandrian episcopate was revered as one of the three major episcopal sees (along with Rome and Antioch) before Constantinople or Jerusalem were granted similar status (in 381 and 451, respectively). Alexandria was elevated to de facto archiepiscopal status by the Councils of Alexandria, and this status was ratified by Canon Six of the First Council of Nicaea, which stipulated that all the Egyptian episcopal provinces were subject to the metropolitan see of Alexandria (already the prevailing custom). In the sixth century, these five archbishops were formally granted the title of "patriarch" and were subsequently known as the Pentarchy.Due to several schisms within Christianity, the title of the Patriarch of Alexandria is currently held by four persons belonging to different denominations: the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria, the Coptic Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria, the Melkite Patriarch of Antioch, Alexandria, Jerusalem, and all the East and the Coptic Catholic Patriarchate of Alexandria. It was also previously held by the Latin Patriarch of Alexandria. Each of those denominations consider their patriarch as the successor to the original early bishops of Alexandria.

Pope Dionysius of Alexandria

Saint Dionysius of Alexandria, named "the Great," 14th Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of St. Mark from 28 December 248 until his death on 22 March 264, after seventeen years as a bishop. Most known information about him comes from Dionysius' large surviving correspondence. Only one original letter survives to this day; the remaining letters are excerpted in the works of Eusebius.

Called "the Great" by Eusebius, St. Basil, and others, he was characterized by the Catholic Encyclopedia as "undoubtedly, after St. Cyprian, the most eminent bishop of the third century... like St. Cyprian, less a great theologian than a great administrator."

Pope Felix I

Pope Felix I (died 30 December 274) was the Bishop of Rome or Pope from 5 January 269 to his death in 274.

Ptolemais, Cyrenaica

Ptolemais (Greek: Πτολεμαΐς) was one of the five cities that formed the Pentapolis of Cyrenaica, the others being Cyrene, Euesperides (later Berenice, and now Benghazi), Tauchira/Teuchira (later Arsinoe, and now Tocra), and Apollonia (now Susa).Its ruins are at a small village in modern Libya called Tolmeita (Arabic طلميتة), after the ancient name.

Saint Dionysius (disambiguation)

Pope Dionysius (died 268) was a Greek pope.

Saint Dionysius may also refer to:

Saint Dionysius of Alexandria (died 265), Oriental Orthodox Patriarch

Saint Dionysius of Paris (died c. 250), Christian martyr

Saint Dionysius the Areopagite (1st century), judge of the Areopagus

Saint Dionysius of India (died 1934), Primate of Indian Orthodox Church

San Dionisio, Matagalpa

San Dionisio is a small municipality in the Matagalpa department of Nicaragua.

Originally named Espino Blanco, the town was renamed San Dionisio in honor of Dionisio de Herrera, former President of Nicaragua. This small town is 90 miles (140 km) away from Managua, the capital of Nicaragua, and 30 miles (48 km) away from Matagalpa city, the capital of the Matagalpa Department.


Saracen was a term widely used among Christian writers in Europe during the Middle Ages to refer to Arabs and Muslims. The term's meaning evolved during its history. In the early centuries of the Common Era, Greek and Latin writings used this term to refer to the people who lived in desert areas in and near the Roman province of Arabia Petraea, and in Arabia Deserta. In Europe during the Early Middle Ages, the term came to be associated with tribes of Arabia. The oldest source mentioning the term Saracen dates back to the 7th century. It was found in Doctrina Jacobi, a commentary that discussed the event of the Arab conquests on Palestine.By the 12th century, Saracen had become synonymous with Muslim in Medieval Latin literature. Such expansion in the meaning of the term had begun centuries earlier among the Byzantine Greeks, as evidenced in documents from the 8th century. In the Western languages before the 16th century, Saracen was commonly used to refer to Muslim Arabs, and the words Muslim and Islam were generally not used (with a few isolated exceptions). The term became gradually obsolete following the Age of Discovery.

Trinitarianism in the Church Fathers

Whether the earliest Church Fathers believed in the Trinity or not is a subject for debate. Some of the evidence used to support an early belief in the Trinity are triadic statements (referring to the Father, Son and Holy Spirit) from the New Testament and the Church Fathers. The view that the Son was 'of the essence of the Father, God of God...very God of very God' was formally ratified at the First Council of Nicaea in 325 AD. The Holy Spirit was included at the First Council of Constantinople (381 AD), where the relationship between the Father, Son and Holy Spirit as one substance (ousia) and three co-equal persons (hypostaseis) was formally ratified.

1st–4th centuries
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
5th–8th centuries
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
9th–12th centuries
Papal selection before 1059
Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
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Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
13th–16th centuries
Viterbo (1257–1281)
Orvieto (1262–1297)
Perugia (1228–1304)
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17th–20th centuries
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Roman Question (1870–1929)
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21st century
History of the papacy
Virgin Mary
See also

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