Pope Damasus II

Pope Damasus II (/ˈdæməsəs/; died 9 August 1048), born Poppo de' Curagnoni,[1] was Pope from 17 July 1048 to his death on 9 August that same year. He was the second of the German pontiffs nominated by Emperor Henry III. A native of Bavaria, he was the third German to become Pope and had one of the shortest papal reigns.[2]

Upon the death of Clement II, envoys from Rome were sent to the Emperor to ascertain who should be named pope. Henry named the Bishop of Brixen, Poppo de' Curagnoni. While the envoys were away, former pope Benedict IX reasserted himself and with the assistance of the disaffected Margrave of Tuscany once again assumed the papacy. Henry ordered Margrave Boniface to escort Bishop Poppo to Rome, but Boniface declined, pointing out that the Romans had already enthroned Benedict. Enraged, the Emperor ordered the Margrave to depose Benedict or suffer the consequences. Poppo became Pope in mid-July but died of malaria less than a month later, in Palestrina, where he had gone to avoid the heat of the city.

Pope

Damasus II
B Damasus II1
Papacy began17 July 1048
Papacy ended9 August 1048
PredecessorBenedict IX
SuccessorLeo IX
Personal details
Birth namePoppo de' Curagnoni
BornPildenau, Duchy of Bavaria, Holy Roman Empire
Died9 August 1048
Palestrina, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Other popes named Damasus
Papal styles of
Pope Damasus II
Emblem of the Papacy SE
Reference styleHis Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous stylenone

Imperial nomination

Given the display of imperial power Henry III had inflicted on the Romans in intervening against Pope Gregory VI and installing Clement II, it is not surprising that on Christmas Day of 1047, an emissary was sent by the Roman people bringing news of Clement II's death to Henry III and asking him, in his position as Patricius of the Romans, to appoint a successor. Henry had been engaged in an indecisive campaign in Frisia, and was in his palace at Pöhlde in Saxony when the embassy found him. The envoys, according to their instructions, suggested as a suitable candidate the handsome Halinard, Archbishop of Lyon, who was a fluent speaker of Italian, and was well respected in Rome.[3]>

Henry was unwilling to rush matters, and so asked Wazo of Liège, the most independent bishop within the empire, who ought to be made pope. After careful consideration, Wazo declared that the most appropriate candidate for the vacant papal throne was the man the Emperor had removed – Gregory VI. Wazo's deliberations had taken time, and Henry soon lost patience. Henry instead appointed Poppo, Bishop of Brixen in Tyrol, a proud man of distinguished learning[4] who had taken part in the Synod of Sutri. This decision antagonized the Romans, who were still pushing for Halinard to become the new Pope. Nevertheless, Henry sent the Roman envoys back to Rome with presents to prepare for the arrival of their new Pope.

Arrival in Italy

During the envoys’ absence, imperial authority in Rome became virtually extinguished as the Tusculan faction reasserted its power. A former pope, Benedict IX, residing at Tusculum, had been watching the situation in Rome intently, and had decided that now was his opportunity to reclaim what was his. He approached the Margrave Boniface III of Tuscany for help, and Boniface, who did not like the emperor, was easily convinced to help anyone who would disrupt Henry's authority. After Benedict had used his extensive supply of gold to gain a large number of followers, the Margrave's influence enabled him to occupy the papal throne for over eight months, from 8 November 1047 until 17 July 1048.[3]

In the meantime, Henry was marching down towards Italy with Poppo, accompanying him at least as far as Ulm.[4] Here it came to light that the papal exchequer was close to bankrupt, and so Poppo was allowed to retain the revenues of his see. In addition, a deed was drawn up on 25 January 1048 that granted Poppo an important forest in the valley of Puster. Having done this, and unable to leave Germany in case there might be an uprising during his absence, Henry III directed Margrave Boniface to conduct the Pope-designate to Rome in person, and in the emperor's name to arrange for the enthroning of the new Pope.

Given his role in the usurpation by Benedict IX, and his attitude towards Henry III, it is unsurprising that Boniface at first refused, advising Poppo when he entered Tuscany, "I cannot go to Rome with you. The Romans have again installed Benedict, and he has won over the whole city to his cause. Besides, I am now an old man."[5] Having nowhere to turn, and unable to proceed, Poppo had no choice but to turn around and return to Germany, where he informed Henry of what had transpired.

Papal coronation

Upon receiving the news, Henry was furious. Poppo was quickly sent back to Boniface, carrying with him a letter from the Emperor which ordered him to arrange the expulsion of Benedict and the enthroning of his successor. Henry was simple and direct. "Learn, you who have restored a Pope who was canonically deposed, and who have been led by love of money to despise my commands, learn that, if you do not amend your ways, I will soon come and make you."[6] These threats soon reduced Boniface to obedience. He sent a body of troops into Rome and forcibly expelled Benedict from the city.

After Benedict IX's removal, the Bishop of Brixen (Poppo) entered the city in triumph, as the Romans, with every demonstration of joy, welcomed the bishop who would be Pope. He was enthroned at the Lateran as Pope Damasus II on 17 July 1048. His pontificate, however, was of short duration. Overcome, in all likelihood, by the heat of Rome, he retired to Palestrina, but it was too late. After a brief reign of twenty-three days, he died on 9 August and was buried in San Lorenzo fuori le Mura. According to Panvinio, Damasus’ sarcophagus was large and "adorned with reliefs representing a vineyard, with cupids as the wine gatherers."[7]

The shortness of Damasus II's reign led to rumors that he had been poisoned by a man named Gerhard Brazutus, a friend of Benedict IX and a follower of Hildebrand. However, the source for this information is extremely suspect,[8] and a more likely scenario is that he died of malaria.[9]

See also

References

  1. ^ Coulombe, Charles A., Vicars of Christ: A History of the Popes, (Citadel Press, 2003), 204.
  2. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Damasus" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 786.
  3. ^ a b Oestereich, Thomas. "Pope Damasus II." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. 26 September 2017
  4. ^ a b Mann, p. 288
  5. ^ Mann, pg 289
  6. ^ Mann, pp. 289–290
  7. ^ Mann, p. 290
  8. ^ Mann, p. 291
  9. ^ The Reform of the Church, J.P. Whitney, The Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. V, ed. J.R. Tanner, C.W. Previte-Orton, Z.N. Brooke, (Cambridge University Press, 1968), 23.
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope Damasus II". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.

External links

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Benedict IX
Pope
1048
Succeeded by
Leo IX
1040s

The 1040s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1040, and ended on December 31, 1049.

1048

Year 1048 (MXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

August 9

August 9 is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 144 days remain until the end of the year.

Bavaria

Bavaria (; German and Bavarian: Bayern [ˈbaɪɐn]), officially the Free State of Bavaria (German and Bavarian: Freistaat Bayern [ˈfʁaɪʃtaːt ˈbaɪɐn]), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner. With an area of 70,550.19 square kilometres (27,200 sq mi), Bavaria is the largest German state by land area comprising roughly a fifth of the total land area of Germany. With 13 million inhabitants, it is Germany's second-most-populous state after North Rhine-Westphalia. Bavaria's main cities are Munich (its capital and largest city and also the third largest city in Germany) and Nuremberg.

The history of Bavaria includes its earliest settlement by Iron Age Celtic tribes, followed by the conquests of the Roman Empire in the 1st century BC, when the territory was incorporated into the provinces of Raetia and Noricum. It became a stem duchy in the 6th century AD following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. It was later incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire, became an independent kingdom, joined the Prussian-led German Empire while retaining its title of kingdom, and finally became a state of the Federal Republic of Germany.The Duchy of Bavaria dates back to the year 555. In the 17th century AD, the Duke of Bavaria became a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire. The Kingdom of Bavaria existed from 1806 to 1918, when Bavaria became a republic. In 1946, the Free State of Bavaria re-organised itself on democratic lines after the Second World War.

Bavaria has a unique culture, largely because of the state's Catholic majority and conservative traditions. Bavarians have traditionally been proud of their culture, which includes a language, cuisine, architecture, festivals such as Oktoberfest and elements of Alpine symbolism. The state also has the second largest economy among the German states by GDP figures, giving it a status as a rather wealthy German region.Modern Bavaria also includes parts of the historical regions of Franconia and Swabia.

Damase

Damase is a personal name, the French-language counterpart of Damasus.

Damasus

Damasus can refer to:

Pope Damasus I (330–384) or St. Damasus

Pope Damasus II (died 1048)

Damasus Scombrus, Greek orator from Tralles

Damasus (beetle), a genus of leaf beetle in the subfamily Eumolpinae

Damasus (canonist) (12th–13th centuries); see Bartholomew of Brescia

Damasus (mythology), a soldier on the Trojan side in the Trojan War

History of the papacy (1048–1257)

The history of the papacy from 1048 to 1257 was marked by conflict between popes and the Holy Roman Emperor, most prominently the Investiture Controversy, a dispute over who— pope or emperor— could appoint bishops within the Empire. Henry IV's Walk to Canossa in 1077 to meet Pope Gregory VII (1073–85), although not dispositive within the context of the larger dispute, has become legendary. Although the emperor renounced any right to lay investiture in the Concordat of Worms (1122), the issue would flare up again.

The Imperial crown once held by the Carolingian emperors was disputed between their fractured heirs and local overlords; none emerged victorious until Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor invaded Italy. Italy became a constituent kingdom of the Holy Roman Empire in 962, from which point emperors were Germanic. As emperors consolidated their position, northern Italian city-states would become divided by Guelphs and Ghibellines.

Long-standing divisions between East and West also came to a head in the East-West Schism and the Crusades. The first seven Ecumenical Councils had been attended by both Western and Eastern prelates, but growing doctrinal, theological, linguistic, political, and geographic differences finally resulted in mutually denunciations and excommunications. Pope Urban II (1088–99) speech at the Council of Clermont in 1095 became the rallying cry of the First Crusade.

Unlike the previous millennium, the process for papal selection became somewhat fixed during this period. Pope Nicholas II promulgated In Nomine Domini in 1059, which limited suffrage in papal elections to the College of Cardinals. The rules and procedures of papal elections evolved during this period, laying the groundwork for the modern papal conclave. The driving force behind these reforms was Cardinal Hildebrand, who later became Gregory VII.

List of Germans

This is a list of notable Germans or German-speaking or -writing persons. Persons of mixed heritage have their respective ancestries credited.

List of popes by country

This page is a list of popes by country of origin. They are listed in chronological order within each section.

As the office of pope has existed for almost two millennia, many of the countries of origin of popes no longer exist, and so they are grouped under their modern equivalents. Popes from Italy are in a separate section, given the very large number of popes from that peninsula.

List of shortest-reigning monarchs

A monarch is the person who heads a monarchy, usually reigning for life, or until abdication or deposition. The reign of some monarchs has been notably short. Many of these monarchs acceded to the throne as a result of being first in an order of succession, while other monarchs claimed the throne as a result of some conflict.

The authenticity of some monarchs has been disputed, especially those who reigned during conflict. One factor in such debates is whether the monarch held the throne in a symbolic or nominal capacity. Two examples are

King Louis XIX of France, who succeeded upon the abdication of Charles X only to abdicate in favour of Henry V instead of assuming the throne, and

Emperor Michael II of Russia, who succeeded on the abdication of Nicholas II only to abdicate himself in favor of nobody.

Papal appointment

Papal appointment was a medieval method of selecting a pope. Popes have always been selected by a council of Church fathers, however, Papal selection before 1059 was often characterized by confirmation or "nomination" by secular European rulers or by their predecessors. The later procedures of the papal conclave are in large part designed to constrain the interference of secular rulers which characterized the first millennium of the Roman Catholic Church, and persisted in practices such as the creation of crown-cardinals and the jus exclusivae. Appointment might have taken several forms, with a variety of roles for the laity and civic leaders, Byzantine and Germanic emperors, and noble Roman families. The role of the election vis-a-vis the general population and the clergy was prone to vary considerably, with a nomination carrying weight that ranged from near total to a mere suggestion or ratification of a prior election.

The institution has its origins in late antiquity, where on more than one occasion the emperor stepped in to resolve disputes over the legitimacy of papal contenders. An important precedent from this period is an edict of Emperor Honorius, issued after a synod he convoked to depose Antipope Eulalius. The power passed to (and grew with) the King of the Ostrogoths, then the Byzantine Emperor (or his delegate, the Exarch of Ravenna). After an interregnum, the Kings of the Franks and the Holy Roman Emperor (whose selection the pope also sometimes had a hand in), generally assumed the role of confirming the results of papal elections. For a period (today known as the "saeculum obscurum"), the power passed from the Emperor to powerful Roman nobles—the Crescentii and then the Counts of Tusculum.

In many cases, the papal coronation was delayed until the election had been confirmed. Some antipopes were similarly appointed. The practice ended with the conclusion of the Investiture Controversy (c.f. confirmation of bishops) due largely to the efforts of Cardinal Hildebrand (future Pope Gregory VII), who was a guiding force in the selection of his four predecessors, and the 1059 papal bull In Nomine Domini of Pope Nicholas II; some writers consider this practice to be an extreme form of "investiture" in and of itself.Although the practice was forbidden by the Council of Antioch (341) and the Council of Rome (465), the bishops of Rome, as with other bishops, often exercised a great deal of control over their successor, even after the sixth century. In addition, most popes from the fourth to twelfth century were appointed or confirmed by a secular power.

Pope Benedict IX

Pope Benedict IX (Latin: Benedictus IX; c. 1012 – c. 1056), born Theophylactus of Tusculum in Rome, was Pope on three occasions between October 1032 and July 1048. Aged approximately 20 at his first election, he is one of the youngest popes in history. He is the only man to have been Pope on more than one occasion and the only man ever to have sold the papacy.

Benedict was the nephew of his immediate predecessor, Pope John XIX. In October 1032, his father obtained his election through bribery. However, his reputed dissolute activities provoked a revolt on the part of the Romans. Benedict was driven out of Rome and Pope Sylvester III elected to succeed him. Some months later, Benedict and his supporters managed to expel Sylvester. Benedict then decided to abdicate in favor of his godfather, the Archpriest of St. John by the Latin Gate, provided he was reimbursed for his expenses. Gratian then became Pope Gregory VI. Benedict subsequently had second thoughts and returned, and attempted to depose Gregory. A number of prominent clergy appealed to Henry, King of the Germans to restore order. Henry and his forces crossed the Brenner Pass into Italy, where he summoned the Council of Sutri to decide the matter. Benedict, Sylvester, and Gregory were all deposed. Henry then nominated the bishop of Bamberg, Suidger von Morsleben, who was consecrated and became Pope Clement II in December 1046, thus clearing the way for Henry to be immediately crowned Holy Roman Emperor by a Pope recognized as legitimate.

While Benedict IX has an execrable reputation as pope, R.L. Poole suggests that some of the calumnies directed against him be understood in the context that they were perpetrated by virulent political enemies.

Pope Leo IX

Pope Leo IX (21 June 1002 – 19 April 1054), born Bruno of Egisheim-Dagsburg, was pope from 12 February 1049 to his death in 1054. He was a German aristocrat and a powerful ruler of central Italy while holding the papacy. He is regarded as a saint by the Catholic Church, his feast day celebrated on 19 April.Leo IX is widely considered the most historically significant German pope of the Middle Ages; he was instrumental in the precipitation of the Great Schism of 1054, considered the turning point in which the Catholic and Orthodox Churches formally separated.

Poppo

Poppo can mean:

Bubo, Duke of the Frisians, also spelled Poppo (674–734), a king of Friesland

Poppo of Grapfeld (died 839/41), an early ninth-century ancestor of the Babenbergs

Poppo, Duke of Thuringia (died after 906), a margrave

Poppo I, Bishop of Würzburg (941–961)

Poppo II, Bishop of Würzburg (961–983)

Poppo (bishop of Kraków) (died 1008?)

Poppo of Treffen, Patriarch of Aquileia from 1019 to 1045

Poppo (archbishop of Trier) (986–1047)

Pope Damasus II (died 1048), whose birthname was Poppo

Poppo of Stavelot (Saint Poppo of Deinze, 977–1048), an abbot

Poppo von Paderborn (died 1083), Bishop of Paderborn from 1076

Poppo II, Margrave of Carniola and Istria (died 1098)

Poppo I of Blankenburg (ca. 1095–1161 or 1164), Count of Blankenburg

Poppo von Osterna (died 1257), a Grandmaster of the Teutonic Knights

Poppo III von Trimberg, Bishop of Würzburg (1267–1271)

Ernst Friedrich Poppo (1794–1866), a German scholar

Ronald Edward Poppo (born 1947), American victim of the 2012 Miami cannibal attack

Roman Catholic Diocese of Fano-Fossombrone-Cagli-Pergola

The Diocese of Fano-Fossombrone-Cagli-Pergola (Latin: Dioecesis Fanensis-Forosemproniensis-Calliensis-Pergulana) is a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical territory in Italy, created in 1986, when the historical Diocese of Fano was united to the Diocese of Cagli e Pergola and the Diocese of Fossombrone. It is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Pesaro.

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