Pope Cornelius

Pope Cornelius (died June 253) was the Bishop of Rome from 6 or 13 March 251 to his martyrdom in 253. He was Pope during and following a period of persecution of the church and a schism occurred over how repentant church members who had practiced pagan sacrifices to protect themselves could be readmitted to the church. Cornelius agreed with Cyprian of Carthage that those who had lapsed could be restored to communion after varying forms of penance. That position was in contrast to the Novationists, who held that those who failed to maintain their confession of faith under persecution would not be received again into communion with the church. That resulted in a schism in the Church of Rome that spread as each side sought to gather support. Cornelius held a synod that confirmed his election and excommunicated Novatian, but the controversy regarding lapsed members continued for years.

The persecutions resumed in 251 under Emperor Trebonianus Gallus. Cornelius was sent into exile and may have died from the rigours of his banishment, but later accounts say that he was beheaded.

Pope Saint

Cornelius
21-St.Cornelius
Papacy began6 or 13 March 251
Papacy endedJune 253
PredecessorFabian
SuccessorLucius I
Personal details
Birth nameCornelius
BornRome[1]
DiedJune 253
Civitavecchia, Roman Empire
Sainthood
Feast day16 September

Christian persecution

Emperor Decius, who ruled from 249 to 251 AD, persecuted Christians in the Roman Empire rather sporadically and locally, but starting in January of the year 250, he ordered all citizens to perform a religious sacrifice in the presence of commissioners, or else face death.[2] Many Christians refused and were martyred, (including Pope Fabian on 20 January 250), while others partook in the sacrifices in order to save their own lives.[3]

Two schools of thought arose after the persecution. One side, led by Novatian, a priest in the diocese of Rome, believed that those who had stopped practising Christianity during the persecution could not be accepted back into the church, even if they repented. He held that idolatry was an unpardonable sin, and that the Church had no authority to forgive apostates, but that their forgiveness must be left to God; it could not be pronounced in this world.[4] The opposing side, including Cornelius and Cyprian of Carthage, believed that the lapsi could be restored to communion through repentance, demonstrated by a period of penance.[5]

During the persecution it proved impossible to elect a successor, and the papal seat remaining vacant for a year. During this period the church was governed by several priests, including Novatian. However, when Decius left Rome to fight the invading Goths, the Roman clergy chose a new bishop.[3] In the fourteen months without a pope, the leading candidate, Moses, had died under the persecution. Novatian believed that he would be elected; however, the more moderate Cornelius was unwillingly elected the twenty-first Pope in March 251.[5]

Papacy

Those who supported a more rigorist position had Novatian consecrated bishop and refused to recognize Cornelius as Bishop of Rome. [6] Both sides sent out letters to other bishops seeking recognition and support. Cornelius had the support of St. Cyprian, St. Dionysius, and most African and Eastern bishops while Novatian had the support of a minority of clergy and laymen in Rome.[5] Cornelius's next action was to convene a synod of 60 bishops to acknowledge him as the rightful pope and the council excommunicated Novatian as well as all Novatianists. Also addressed in the synod was that Christians who stopped practising during Emperor Decius's persecution could be re-admitted into the Christian community only after doing penance.[5]

The verdict of the synod was sent to the Christian bishops, most notably the bishop of Antioch, a fierce Novatian supporter, in order to convince him to accept Cornelius as bishop of Rome. The letters that Cornelius sent to surrounding bishops provide information of the size of the church in Rome at that time. Cornelius mentions that the Roman Church had, "forty six priests, seven deacons, seven sub-deacons, forty two acolytes, fifty two ostiarii, and over one thousand five hundred widows and persons in distress."[7] His letters also inform that Cornelius had a staff of over 150 clergy members and the church fed over 1,500 people daily.[8][9] From these numbers, it has been estimated that there were at least 50,000 Christians in Rome during the papacy of Pope Cornelius.[5]

Death and letters

In June 251, Decius was killed in battle with the Goths; and persecutions resumed under his successor, Trebonianus Gallus. Cornelius was exiled to Centumcellae, Italy, where he died in June 253. The Liberian catalogue lists his death as being from the hardships of banishment; however, later sources claim he was beheaded. Cornelius is not buried in the chapel of the popes, but in a nearby catacomb, and the inscription on his tomb is in Latin, instead of the Greek of his predecessor Pope Fabian and successor Lucius I. It reads, "Cornelius Martyr." The letters Cornelius sent while in exile are all written in the colloquial Latin of the period instead of the classical style used by the educated such as Cyprian, a theologian as well as a bishop, and Novatian, who was also a philosopher.[10] This suggests that Cornelius did not come from an extremely wealthy family and thus was not given a sophisticated education as a child. A letter from Cornelius while in exile mentions an office of "exorcist" in the church for the first time.[11] Canon law has since then required each diocese to have an exorcist.

Veneration

Saint Cornelius
Heiliger Cornelius
Pope and Martyr
DiedJune 253
Civitavecchia, Roman Empire
Venerated inCatholic Church
Feast16 September

Some of his relics were taken to Germany during the Middle Ages; his head was claimed by Kornelimünster Abbey near Aachen.[12] In the Rhineland, he was also a patron saint of lovers. A legend associated with Cornelius tells of a young artist who was commissioned to decorate the Corneliuskapelle in the Selikum quarter of Neuss. The daughter of a local townsman fell in love with the artist, but her father forbade the marriage, remarking that he would only consent if the pope did as well. Miraculously, the statue of Cornelius leaned forward from the altar and blessed the pair, and the two lovers were thus married.[12]

Cornelius, along with Quirinus of Neuss, Hubertus and Anthony the Great, was venerated as one of the Four Holy Marshals in the Rhineland during the late Middle Ages.[13][14][15][16]

A legend told at Carnac states that its stones were once pagan soldiers who had been turned into stone by Cornelius, who was fleeing from them.[17][18]

The Catholic Church commemorated Cornelius by venerating him, with his Saint's Day on 16 September, which he shares with his friend St. Cyprian.[19] His Saint's Day was originally on 14 September, the date on which both St. Cyprian and St. Cornelius were martyred, according to St. Jerome.[10] St. Cornelius's saintly name means "battle horn", and he is represented in icons by a pope either holding some form of cow's horn or with a cow nearby.[12] He is the patron against earache, epilepsy, fever, twitching, and also of cattle, domestic animals, earache sufferers, epileptics, and the town of Kornelimünster, Germany, where his head is enshrined.[20]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. "Saint Cornelius". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 14 August 2016.
  2. ^ "Decius", Encyclopædia Britannica (Online School ed.), 7 December 2008.
  3. ^ a b Saints and Feast Days. New York: Loyola P, 1991.
  4. ^ Chapman, John. "Novatian and Novatianism." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 11. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 6 August 2018
  5. ^ a b c d e McBrien, Richard P (September 24, 2004), National Catholic Reporter (40.41), General OneFile. Gale. Sacred Heart Preparatory (BAISL), p. 19(1), retrieved 5 December 2008, Pope Cornelius, a reconciler, had a hard road.
  6. ^ Papandrea, James L., Novatian of Rome and the Culmination of Pre-Nicene Orthodoxy, Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2011 ISBN 9781606087800]
  7. ^ Chapman, John (1908). "Pope Cornelius" in The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  8. ^ Moody Smith, D. "Review: The Rise of Christianity: A Review." Journal of the American Academy of Religion 54 (1986): 337–42.
  9. ^ Schrembs, Joseph. "The Catholic Philosophy of History." The Catholic Historical Review 20 (1934): 1–22.
  10. ^ a b Wikisource-logo.svg Chapman, John (1913). "Pope Cornelius" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  11. ^ Allen, John L Jr (September 1, 2000), "A bit of exorcist history", National Catholic Reporter
  12. ^ a b c Cornelius – Ökumenisches Heiligenlexikon
  13. ^ Quirinus von Rom (von Neuss) – Ökumenisches Heiligenlexikon
  14. ^ marschaelle
  15. ^ Die Kapelle
  16. ^ Heimatbund St.Tönis 1952 e.V
  17. ^ TheRecord.com – Travel – Marvelling at Carnac's stones
  18. ^ France Holidays, Brittany
  19. ^ "Saint Cornelius." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 24 November 2008
  20. ^ "Pope Saint Cornelius." Archived 2008-10-23 at the Wayback Machine Patron Saints Index. 7 December 2008.

References

External links

Titles of the Great Christian Church
Preceded by
Fabian
Bishop of Rome
Pope

251–253
Succeeded by
Lucius I
21st General Assembly of Prince Edward Island

The 21st General Assembly of Prince Edward Island represented the colony of Prince Edward Island between April 12, 1859, and 1863. An elected assembly had been dissolved by the governor earlier in 1859 because it could not choose a speaker.

The Assembly sat at the pleasure of the Governor of Prince Edward Island, Dominick Daly. Donald Montgomery was elected speaker.

Edward Palmer was Premier.

22nd General Assembly of Prince Edward Island

The 22nd General Assembly of Prince Edward Island represented the colony of Prince Edward Island between March 3, 1863, and 1867.

The Assembly sat at the pleasure of the Governor of Prince Edward Island, George Dundas. Thomas Heath Haviland was elected speaker.

John Hamilton Gray was Premier.

250s

The 250s decade ran from January 1, 250, to December 31, 259.

== Events ==

=== 250 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

A group of Franks penetrate as far as Tarragona in Spain (approximate date).

The Goths under king Cniva invade Moesia. They cross the Danube and lay siege to Novae and Marcianopolis.

Battle of Augusta Traiana. The Romans lose the battle against the Goths

Cniva lays siege to Philippopolis (modern Plovdiv). After a long resistance, Cniva conquers the city and slays its one hundred thousand inhabitants.

The Alamanni drive the Romans from the modern area of Donau-Ries.

An epidemic begins in Ethiopia, moves into Egypt and the Roman colonies in North Africa, and spreads through the Roman Empire. Named the Plague of Cyprian after St. Cyprian, bishop of Carthage.

====== Africa ======

The Kingdom of Aksum (Axum) takes control of commerce on the Red Sea.

====== Asia ======

The earliest Chinese references to a device known as "emperor's south-pointing carriage" date to this period.

====== America ======

Teotihuacán is rebuilt as a four-quartered cosmogram by Zapotec architects brought from Monte Albán in Oaxaca.

Classic period of Mesoamerican civilization begins.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Diophantus writes Arithmetica, the first systematic treatise on algebra.

Family Group, traditionally called the Family of Vunnerius Keramus, is made. It was later placed in Brescia Cross. It is now kept at Museo Civico dell'Etá Cristiana, Brescia (approximate date).

Battle between the Romans and the Barbarians, detail of the Ludovisi Battle sarcophagus, found near Rome, is made. It is now kept at Museo Nazionale Romano (approximate date).

Igel Column is erected (approximate date).

====== Religion ======

Emperor Decius institutes the persecution of Christians in an attempt to restore the religion of Rome. Pope Fabian is one of the first martyrs.

Saint Denis, who is a patron saint of France, is beheaded around this time.

=== 251 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

July 1 – In the Battle of Abritus, the Goths defeat emperor Decius and his son Herennius Etruscus on swampy ground in the Dobruja (Moesia).

In Rome, Hostilian, son of Decius, succeeds his father, while Trebonianus Gallus is proclaimed Emperor by the troops. Gallus accepts him as co-emperor, but an outbreak of plague strikes the city and kills the young Hostilian.

The prosperity of Roman Britain declines during this period as the Germanic tribes of the Franks and Saxons, whose homelands are in Friesland and the Low Countries, make raids around the southeast coast.

Gallus makes peace with the Goths, he permits them to keep their plunder, and offers them a bribe not to return.

A fifteen-year plague begins in the Roman Empire.

====== Persia ======

The Sassanid king, Shapur I, orders an invasion of the Roman East with the intent of finally capturing the jewel of Syria, Antioch (251–254).

====== China ======

Wang Ling's rebellion against the Wei regent Sima Yi is quelled.

Sima Yi passes away in Luoyang.

Sima Shi, Sima Yi's eldest son, inherits his father's authority.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

March – Pope Cornelius succeeds Pope Fabian as the 21st pope.

=== 252 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Battle of Barbalissos: King Shapur I defeats a Roman field army at Barbalissos in Syria (probable date, could have been in 253). The size of the Roman field army is claimed by Persian sources to have been 70,000 men strong, yet this is unlikely.

====== Persia ======

Shapur I, king of Persia, puts the revolt in Khorasan (Iran and Turkmenistan) down and rejoins with his army.

He invades Armenia and appoints Artavazd VI as the new Armenian king.

Georgia submits peacefully to Shapur I, and is made a special province in the Persian Empire.

====== Asia ======

Sun Liang succeeds his father Sun Quan as emperor of the Chinese state of Eastern Wu.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Pope Cornelius is exiled to Centumcellae by emperor Trebonianus Gallus.

=== 253 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

The legions who have campaigned against the Goths on the Danube elect Marcus Aemilius Aemilianus as new emperor. He advances on Rome along the Flaminian Way, to meet his opponent emperor Trebonianus Gallus and his son Volusianus. For the most part, generals in the border regions are proclaimed emperor by their armies to halt the invasion of Germanic tribes.

Aemilianus is proclaimed "enemy of the State" by the Roman Senate. Trebonianus Gallus is defeated at Interamna Nahars (Umbria); he flees with Volusianus to the north, but at Foligno they are killed by their own troops.

Aemilianus rules for 3 months the Roman Empire; he promises to fight in Thrace and goes to war against Persia. The Senate gives him the rank of Pontifex Maximus.

Aemilianus is murdered at Spoletium and Publius Valerianus, age 60, is recognised as new emperor by the Rhine legions. He gives his son Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus the title Augustus. Valerianus I dispatches him to the Danube where the Goths have violated the treaty signed with Rome and invaded Moesia.

Valerianus I splits the Roman Empire in two; Gallienus taking control of the West and his father ruling the East, where he faces the Persian threat.

Battle of Barbalissos: King Shapur I, defeats a Roman field army at Barbalissos in Syria 2).

Valerian reforms Legio III Augusta to fight the "five peoples", a dangerous coalition of Berber tribes in Africa.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Pope Cornelius is sent into exile.

June 25 – Pope Lucius I succeeds Pope Cornelius as the 22nd pope.

Lucius is arrested almost immediately following his election and also exiled.

=== 254 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Publius Licinius Valerianus Augustus and Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus become Roman Consuls.

The Roman Empire is threatened by several peoples on their borders: the Germanic confederations, such as the Franks on the Middle Rhine, the Alemanni on the upper Rhine and Danube, and the Marcomanni facing the provinces at Noricum and Raetia. On land the confederation of Goths threaten the lower Danube provinces and on the sea they threaten the shores of Thracia, Bithynia et Pontus, and Cappadocia. In the eastern provinces, the Sassanid Persians had the previous year defeated a Roman field army at Barballisos and afterwards plundered the defenseless provinces. This was the period of time which today is called the crisis of the third century.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

May 12 – Pope Stephen I succeeds Pope Lucius I as the 23rd pope.

=== 255 ===

==== By place ====

====== China ======

Sima Shi quells Guanqiu Jian and Wen Qin's rebellion.

Sima Shi passes away.

Sima Zhao, Sima Shi's younger brother, inherits his brother's authority.

==== By topic ====

====== Science ======

Ma Jun, a Chinese mechanical engineer from Cao Wei, invents the south-pointing chariot, a path-finding directional compass vehicle that uses a differential gear, not magnetics.

=== 256 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Goths invade Asia Minor. Dacia is lost for the Roman Empire and the Goths appear at the walls of Thessalonica.

The Franks cross the Rhine; the Alemanni reach Mediolanum (Milan). (disputed date)

In Africa, the Berbers massacre Roman colonists.

King Shapur I of the Sasanian Empire invades Mesopotamia and Syria. He conquers and plunders Antioch, destroys Dura-Europos and sacks the Anatolian city of Zeugma on the Euphrates. A devastating fire and an earthquake soon follow, causing Zeugma to be abandoned.

Cities in the Roman Empire begin to build walls as the defense of the frontiers begins to crumble; future emperor Aurelian inspectses along the Rhine.

February 28: Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 3035, a warrant for the arrest of a Christian, is written.

====== China ======

Peace and unity are finally restored in China with the victories of the Wei Kingdom in the north. The ruling dynasty is worn out by war, and the kingdom is ruled by ministers on their behalf.

==== By topic ====

====== Medicine ======

The great pandemic of the Roman world strikes violently in Pontus on the Black Sea and causes enormous loss of life in Alexandria, encouraging thousands to embrace Christianity.

====== Religion ======

Emperor Valerian persecutes Christians.

Pope Stephen I threatens to excommunicate Cyprian, bishop of Carthage, and other bishops in Africa and Asia Minor unless they stop rebaptizing heretics. Cyprian attacks the Pope in a treatise that gains support from the Council of Carthage. He sends envoys to Rome, raising the specter of a schism between the Roman and Carthaginian Churches.

A Synod of Carthage is held.

=== 257 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Gallienus enters into a joint consulship with his father Valerianus I, having brought some order to the Danube area.

Future emperor Aurelian defeats the Goths and brings many prisoners back to Rome.

In Bavaria the Limes Germanicus (Upper Raetian Limes) along the river Iller is abandoned by the Romans.

Valerian, under guardianship of Ingenuus, is established at Sirmium (Pannonia) to represent the Roman government in the troubled Illyrian provinces.

Emperor Valerian recovers Antioch in Syria from the Persian king Shapur I.

The Goths build a fleet on the Black Sea.

The Goths separate into the Ostrogoths and the Visigoths.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

August 30 – Pope Sixtus II succeeds Pope Stephen I as the 24th pope.

Valerian's persecution of Christians begins: his edict orders bishops and priests to sacrifice according to the pagan rituals, and prohibits Christians, under penalty of death, from meeting at the tombs of their deceased.

=== 258 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

The Goths ravage Asia Minor and Trapezus.

The amount of silver in the Roman currency of the denarius falls below 10%. The crisis ruins craftsmen, tradesmen, and small farmers. They are forced to bartering; landowners grow larger by buying up cheap land.

Valerian II, eldest son of Gallienus, dies, possibly murdered by Pannonia's governor Ingenuus; Emperor Valerian bestows on another one of Gallienus's sons, Saloninus, the title of Caesar.

A second Imperial edict prohibits Christianity in the Roman Empire. This edict divides Christians into four categories: priests, who are to be put to death; senators and equestrians, who are to be stripped of their positions and their property confiscated; nuns, who are to be exiled; and imperial civil servants, who are condemned to forced labour.

====== Asia ======

Sima Zhao quells Zhuge Dan's rebellion, thereby also ending what are known as the Three Rebellions in Shouchun.

Sun Xiu succeeds his brother Sun Liang as emperor of the Chinese state of Eastern Wu.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Cyprian, the bishop of Carthage, is martyred (decapitation).

Pope Sixtus II is martyred.

====== Education ======

Nanjing University is founded in Nanjing, China.

=== 259 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Valerian leads an army (70,000 men) to relieve Edessa, besieged by the forces of king Shapur I. An outbreak of a plague kills many legionaries, weakening the Roman position in Syria.

Battle of Mediolanum: A Germanic confederation, the Alamanni (300,000 warriors), who crossed the Alps are defeated by Roman legions under Gallienus near Mediolanum (modern Milan).

Postumus revolts against Gallienus in Gaul. The western provinces of Britain and Spain join his independent realm—which is called in modern times the Gallic Empire.

Postumus, governor of Gaul, declares himself Emperor and continues to rule the Gallic Empire until 269 when he was killed by his soldiers.

The Roman fort of Wiesbaden (Germany) is captured by the Alamanni (possibly 260).

The Franks, who invaded the Roman Empire near Cologne in 257, reach Tarraco in Hispania.

====== Persia ======

Mesopotamia: Odaenathus, the ruler of the kingdom of Palmyra, sacks the city of Nehardea, destroying its great yeshiva.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Pope Dionysius is elected as the 25th pope.

251

Year 251 (CCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Traianus and Etruscus (or, less frequently, year 1004 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 251 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

253

Year 253 (CCLIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Volusianus and Claudius (or, less frequently, year 1006 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 253 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Brand (Aachen)

Brand is a district of Aachen, Germany, with about 18,000 residents. The district lies in the southern part of Aachen and borders Kornelimünster/Walheim, Forst, Oberforstbach und Eilendorf, as well as the city of Stolberg.

Brand was a self-administered community in the district of Aachen until 1972, when administrative reforms of the communities in the area caused Brand to be absorbed into Aachen. The current district of Brand is made up of the towns Brand, Freund, Krauthausen, Niederforstbach, Brander Feld and Rollef.

At 270.9 meters, the highest point of the district is a noise barrier along the Bundesautobahn 44, which runs through Brand Forest.

Carnac

Carnac (Breton: Karnag) is a commune beside the Gulf of Morbihan on the south coast of Brittany in the Morbihan department in north-western France.

Its inhabitants are called Carnacois in French. Carnac is renowned for the Carnac stones – one of the most extensive Neolithic menhir collections in the world – as well as its beaches, which are popular with tourists.

Located on a narrow peninsula halfway between the medieval town Vannes and the seaside resort Quiberon, Carnac is split into two centres - Carnac-Ville and Carnac-Plage (the beachfront). In total there are five beaches, including la Grande Plage, and further to the east, Plage Men Dû and Beaumer.

Carnac stones

The Carnac stones (Breton: Steudadoù Karnag) are an exceptionally dense collection of megalithic sites around the village of Carnac in Brittany, consisting of alignments, dolmens, tumuli and single menhirs. More than 3,000 prehistoric standing stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany, and form the largest such collection in the world. Most of the stones are within the Breton village of Carnac, but some to the east are within La Trinité-sur-Mer. The stones were erected at some stage during the Neolithic period, probably around 3300 BCE, but some may date to as early as 4500 BCE.Although the stones date from 4500 BCE, modern myths were formed which resulted from 1st century AD Roman and later Christian occupations. A Christian myth associated with the stones held that they were pagan soldiers in pursuit of Pope Cornelius when he turned them to stone. Brittany has its own local versions of the Arthurian cycle. Local tradition claims that the reason they stand in such perfectly straight lines is that they are a Roman legion turned to stone by Merlin.In recent centuries, many of the sites have been neglected, with reports of dolmens being used as sheep shelters, chicken sheds or even ovens. Even more commonly, stones have been removed to make way for roads, or as building materials. The continuing management of the sites remains a controversial topic.

Catacomb of Callixtus

The Catacomb(s) of Callixtus (also known as the Cemetery of Callixtus) is one of the Catacombs of Rome on the Appian Way, most notable for containing the Crypt of the Popes (Italian: Cappella dei Papi), which once contained the tombs of several popes from the 2nd to 4th centuries.

James the Greater Church

The James the Greater Church (Dutch: Jacobus de Meerderekerk) is a Roman Catholic church, located on the Pastoor Neujeanstraat 6 in Bocholtz, Netherlands. First mentioned in the 14th century, the current church was built in 1869 by Pierre Cuypers. It was extended by Harry Koene in 1953, creating a larger choir, and adding an apse and sacristy. The building has been in continues use as a parish church for the Bocholtz saint James the Greater parish since 1873. The church holds a relic of pope Cornelius, which was subject of a yearly pilgrimage during the early and mid 20th century, and was listed as a national monument in 1967.

Kornelimünster

Kornelimünster is a town in the rural Münsterländchen area of Kornelimünster/Walheim, a district of Aachen, Germany.

Kornelimünster Abbey

Kornelimünster Abbey (German: Benediktinerabtei Kornelimünster), also known as Abbey of the Abbot Saint Benedict of Aniane and Pope Cornelius, is a Benedictine monastery that has been integrated since 1972. The abbey is located in Aachen (in the district of Kornelimünster/Walheim) in North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany.

Last Judgement (Lochner)

Last Judgement (German: Weltgericht) is a c. 1435 tempera on oak polyptych by the German artist Stefan Lochner, probably commissioned for the council chamber of City Hall of Cologne, but now broken apart. Today the outer wings, which formed a sixfold partition when extended, have been sawed off into twelve individual pictures, most of which are still extant but held in separate collections, mostly in Cologne, Munich and Frankfurt. The interior wings included the Martyrdom of the Apostles, the exterior panels comprised in part of the Saint Anthony Abbot, Mary Magdalene and a Donor, Saints Catherine, Hubert, Quirinus of Neuss, and a Donor, and Pope Cornelius. Its depiction of the Last Judgment follows many of the conventions of contemporary doom paintings, but Lochner introduces important innovations, especially in his rendering of the angel's black and flowing clothes.

The panel is first recorded in 1764, in an inventory of the Parish Church of St Lawrence, Cologne, and is now in the Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, Cologne, since it was bequeathed in 1824.

Novatian

Novatian (c. 200–258) was a scholar, priest, theologian and antipope between 251 and 258. Some Greek authors give his name as Novatus, who was an African presbyter.

He was a noted theologian and writer, the first Roman theologian who used the Latin language, at a time when there was much debate about how to deal with Christians who had lapsed and wished to return, and the issue of penance. Consecrated as pope by three bishops in 251, he adopted a more rigorous position than the established Pope Cornelius. Novatian was shortly afterwards excommunicated: the schismatic church which he established persisted for several centuries (see Novatianism). Novatian fled during a period of persecutions, and may have been a martyr.

Novatianism

Novatianism was an Early Christian sect devoted to the theologian Novatian (c. 200–258) that held a strict view that refused readmission to communion of Lapsi (those baptized Christians who had denied their faith or performed the formalities of a ritual sacrifice to the pagan gods under the pressures of the persecution sanctioned by Emperor Decius in AD 250). The Church of Rome declared the Novatianists heretical following the letters of Saint Cyprian of Carthage.

Papal supremacy

Papal supremacy is the doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church that the Pope, by reason of his office as Vicar of Christ and as the visible foundation and source of unity, and as pastor of the entire Christian Church, has full, supreme, and universal power over the whole Church, a power which he can always exercise unhindered: that, in brief, "the Pope enjoys, by divine institution, supreme, full, immediate, and universal power in the care of souls."The doctrine had the most significance in the relationship between the church and the temporal state, in matters such as ecclesiastic privileges, the actions of monarchs and even successions.

St. Cornelius

Saint Cornelius is the name of the following saints and persons in the previous stages of liturgical veneration:

Pope Cornelius (in office: 251-253)

Cornelius of Armagh (died 1175)May 19 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)

Venerable Cornelius of Komel (Vologda), abbot (1537)

Saint Cornelius of Paleostrov, abbot (15th century)July 22 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)

Saint Cornelius of Pereyaslavl, monk (1693)September 13 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)

Hieromartyr Cornelius the Centurion (1st century)

Saint Cornelius of Padan-Olonets and with him Saints Dionysius and MisailList of Patriarchs of Antioch

St. Ignatius the Illuminator (68–107)

Saint Cornelius (127–154)

Dhanya Kumarasiri (1990-2012)

Trebonianus Gallus

Trebonianus Gallus (Latin: Gaius Vibius Afinius Trebonianus Gallus Augustus; 206 – August 253), also known as Gallus, was Roman Emperor from June 251 to August 253, in a joint rule with his son Volusianus.

1st–4th centuries
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
5th–8th centuries
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
9th–12th centuries
Papal selection before 1059
Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
13th–16th centuries
Viterbo (1257–1281)
Orvieto (1262–1297)
Perugia (1228–1304)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
Western Schism (1378–1417)
Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)
Reformation Papacy (1534–1585)
Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)
17th–20th centuries
Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848)
Roman Question (1870–1929)
Vatican City (1929–present)
21st century
History of the papacy
Virgin Mary
Apostles
Archangels
Confessors
Disciples
Doctors
Evangelists
Church
Fathers
Martyrs
Patriarchs
Popes
Prophets
Virgins
See also

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