Pope Clement IX

Pope Clement IX (Latin: Clemens IX; 28 January 1600 – 9 December 1669), born Giulio Rospigliosi, was Pope from 20 June 1667 to his death in 1669.

Pope

Clement IX
Bishop of Rome
Giovanni Battista Gaulli Papa Clemente IX
Papacy began20 June 1667
Papacy ended9 December 1669
PredecessorAlexander VII
SuccessorClement X
Orders
Consecration29 March 1644
by Antonio Marcello Barberini
Created cardinal9 April 1657
by Pope Alexander VII
Personal details
Birth nameGiulio Rospigliosi
Born28 January 1600
Pistoia, Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Died9 December 1669 (aged 69)
Rome, Papal States
Previous post
MottoAliis non sibi Clemens ("Clement to others, not to himself")
Coat of armsClement IX's coat of arms
Other popes named Clement

Biography

Early life and education

Giulio Rospigliosi was born in 1600 to the Rospigliosi family, a noble family of Pistoia in the Grand Duchy of Tuscany to Giacomo and Caterina Rospigliosi. He studied at the Seminario Romano and later at the University of Pisa as a pupil of the Jesuits. He would receive doctorates in theology, philosophy and both canon and civil law in 1623. After receiving his doctorates, he taught theology there as a professor from 1623 to 1625.

Episcopate and cardinalate

Later Rospigliosi worked closely with Pope Urban VIII (1623–1644) where he worked in the diplomatic corps as the Referendary of the Apostolic Signatura. He was appointed as the Titular Archbishop of Tarsus in 1644 and later received episcopal consecration in the Vatican. Rospigliosi also served as the Apostolic Nuncio to Spain from 1644 until 1653 when he decided to retire from that post. He lived in retirement throughout the pontificate of Pope Innocent X who disliked and distanced himself from those associated with his predecessor.[1] He was also made vicar of Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome.

Rospigliosi was an accomplished man of letters who wrote poetry, dramas and libretti, as well as what may be the first comic opera, namely his 1637 libretto Chi soffre, speri.[2][3] He was also a patron of Nicolas Poussin, commissioning A Dance to the Music of Time from him and dictating its iconography.

Pope Alexander VII appointed him to the cardinalate in 1657 as the Cardinal-Priest of San Sisto Vecchio and was also appointed as the Cardinal Secretary of State in 1655 which he held until 1667.[1]

Pontificate

Papal election

Papal styles of
Pope Clement IX
Coat of arms of Pope Clement IX
Reference styleHis Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous styleNone

Pope Alexander VII died in 1667 and a conclave to choose his successor was called. King Louis XIV of France instructed the French faction to turn their support to Rospigliosi and believed also that he would appease the Spanish faction of Charles II due to the fact that he had once been the Apostolic Nuncio to Spain. On 20 June 1667, he was elected as pontiff and took the pontifical name of "Clement IX".

The new pope was crowned on 26 June 1667 by the protodeacon, Cardinal Rinaldo d'Este. He later took possession of the Basilica of Saint John Lateran on 3 July 1667.

Actions

Nothing remarkable occurred under Clement IX's short administration beyond the temporary adjustment of the disputes between the Holy See and those prelates of the Gallican Church who had refused to join in condemning the writings of Jansen. He was mediator during the 1668 peace of Aachen, in the wars of succession between France, Spain, England and the Netherlands.

He was popular with the people of Rome, not so much for his erudition and application to business, as for his extreme charity and his affability towards great and small. He increased the goodwill of his subjects by buying off the monopolist who had secured the "macinato", or privilege of selling grain, and as his predecessor had collected the money for the purpose, Clement IX had the decree published in the name of Alexander VII. Two days each week he occupied a confessional in St. Peter's church and heard any one who wished to confess to him. He frequently visited the hospitals, and was lavish in his alms to the poor. In an age of nepotism, he did little or nothing to advance or enrich his family. In his aversion to notoriety, he refused to permit his name to be placed on the buildings erected during his reign.[1]

Angelo de' rossi, papa clemente IX
Statue of Clement IX

Other actions

Clement IX confirmed the cultus of Margaret of Savoy on 9 October 1669. He also beatified Rose of Lima on 15 April 1668. On 28 April 1668, he canonized Magdalena de Pazzi and Peter of Alcantara.

He elevated 12 new cardinals in three consistories; this included Emilio Bonaventura Altieri who would succeed him as Pope Clement X.

Art reforms

As pope, Clement IX continued his interest in the arts. He embellished the city of Rome with famous works commissioned to Gian Lorenzo Bernini, including the angels of Ponte Sant'Angelo and the colonnade of Saint Peter's Basilica. Somewhat unusually for Popes of the era, Clement IX did not have his name displayed on monuments he built. He also opened the first public opera house in Rome, and for the Carnival celebrations of 1668, commissioned Antonio Maria Abbatini of the Sistine Chapel Choir to set to music his free Italian translation of a Spanish religious drama La Baltasara. The production had sets designed by Bernini.

Carlo rainaldi, monum. a clemente IX (1671), con papa di domenico guidi, fede di cosimo fancelli e carità ercole ferrata 2
The tomb of Clement IX

Defence against the Turks

Clement IX worked to strengthen Venetian defences against the Turks on the island of Crete. However, he was unable to get wider support for this cause. At the end of October 1669, Clement IX fell ill after receiving news that the Venetian fortress of Candia in Crete had surrendered to the Turks.

Death and burial

Clement IX died in Rome, allegedly of a broken heart, on 9 December 1669. His successor, Pope Clement X (r. 1670–1676), built him an ornate tomb in the basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore.

Artistic works

Libretti

  • for Giovanni Girolamo Kapsperger: I Pastori di Betlemme (1630)
  • for Stefano Landi: Il Sant'Alessio (1631/2, 1634)
  • for Michele Angelo Rossi: Erminia sul Giordano (1633)
  • for (composer unknown): I Santi Didimo e Teodora (1635, 1636)
  • for Marco Marazzoli and Virgilio Mazzocchi: Chi Soffre, Speri (1637, 1639)
  • for Aurelio Aureli: La Sincerità Trionfante (1638, 1639)
  • for Virgilio Mazzocchi: Il San Bonifazio (1638, 1639)
  • for Virgilio Mazzocchi: La Genoinda (1641)
  • for Luigi Rossi: Il Palazzo Incantato (1642)
  • for Virgilio Mazzocchi: Il Sant'Eustachio (1643)
  • for Antonio Maria Abbatini and Marco Marazzoli: Dal Male Il Bene (1654, 1656)
  • for Marco Marazzoli: Le Armi e Gli Amori (1656)
  • for Antonio Maria Abbatini: La Comica del Cielo (1668)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Loughlin, James. "Pope Clement IX". The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. 9 Sept. 2014
  2. ^ Roger Parker (ed.): The Oxford illustrated history of opera. Oxford University Press, Oxford 1994, p. 18 f.
  3. ^ Wolfgang Witzenmann: Article “Mazzocchi, Virgilio.” In: Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press, accessed July 6, 2016.

References

  • Rendina, Claudio (1993). I papi. Storia e segreti. Rome: Newton & Compton.
  • Murata, Margaret (1981). Operas for the Papal Court, 1631–1668. UMI Research Press.

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Fabio Chigi
Cardinal Secretary of State
1655–1667
Succeeded by
Decio Azzolini
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Alexander VII
Pope
20 June 1667 – 9 December 1669
Succeeded by
Clement X
Angel with the Crown of Thorns

Angel with the Crown of Thorns is a statue by Italian artist Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Originally commissioned by Pope Clement IX for the Ponte Sant'Angelo project, the statue was replaced with a copy and the original was moved to Sant'Andrea delle Fratte in Rome, Italy. The statue was started in 1667 and completed in 1669. A terracotta modello for the sculpture is held by the musée du Louvre in Paris.

Angel with the Superscription

Angel with the Superscription is a statue by Italian artist Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Originally commissioned by Pope Clement IX for the Ponte Sant'Angelo project, the statue was replaced with a copy and the original was moved to Sant'Andrea delle Fratte in Rome, Italy. The statue was started in 1667 and completed in 1669.

Antonio del Buffalo

Antonio del Buffalo, O.F.M. or Antonio Geremia de Bufalo (1619–1677) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Gallipoli (1668–1677), Auxiliary Bishop of Sigüenza (1666–1668), and Auxiliary Bishop of Toledo (1661–1666).

Bernardo de Izaguirre de los Reyes

Bernardo de Izaguirre de los Reyes (died November 16, 1668) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Archbishop of La Plata o Charcas (1669–1670), Bishop of Cuzco (1662–1669), and Bishop of Panamá (1654–1659).

Carlo de' Vecchi

Carlo de' Vecchi (1611 – 13 March 1673) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Titular Archbishop of Athenae (1667–1673)

and Bishop of Chiusi (1648–1657).

Domenico Gianuzzi

Domenico Gianuzzi (1596–1680) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as titular bishop of Dioclea in Phrygia (1669–1680).

Filippo Alferio Ossorio

Filippo Alferio Ossorio (1634 – 24 February 1693) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Fondi (1669–1693).

Francisco Antonio Sarmiento de Luna y Enríquez

Francisco Antonio Sarmiento de Luna y Enríquez, O.S.A. (1615 – 21 July 1683) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Coria (1675–1683), Bishop of Almería (1673–1675), and Bishop of Michoacán (1668–1673).

Girolamo Borghese

Girolamo Borghese, O.S.B. (11 January 1616 – 15 January 1698) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Pienza (1668–1698)

and Bishop of Sovana (1652–1668).

Giulio Caracciolo (archbishop of Iconium)

Giulio Caracciolo, C.R. (born 1627) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Titular Archbishop of Iconium (1671–?)

and Bishop of Melfi e Rapolla (1666–1671).

Giuseppe Eusanio

Giuseppe Eusanio (1619 – 23 April 1692) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Titular Bishop of Porphyreon (1672–1692) and Titular Bishop of Helenopolis in Bithynia (1669–1670).

Il palazzo incantato

Il Palazzo Incantato (The Enchanted Palace) or Il Palagio d’Atlante, overo La Guerriera Amante (The Palace of Atlantes, or The Warrior Woman in Love) is an opera in a prologue and three acts by the Italian composer Luigi Rossi. The libretto, by Giulio Rospigliosi, the future Pope Clement IX, is based on Ariosto's Orlando furioso. It was first performed in Rome in a lavish production at the Teatro delle Quattro Fontane (Palazzo Barberini) on 22 February 1642. Rossi was criticised for giving too much music to his friend, the castrato Marc'Antonio Pasqualini, who played Bradamante, at the expense of the other roles. Some of the highly complicated stage machinery failed to work during the performance too.

Juan Lozano (bishop)

Juan Lozano, O.E.S.A. (April, 1610 – 3 July, 1679) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Archbishop (Personal Title) of Plasencia (1677–1679),Archbishop of Palermo (1669–1677),Bishop of Mazara del Vallo (1656–1669), and Bishop of Tropea (1646–1656).

Lucas Fernández de Piedrahita

Lucas Fernández de Piedrahita (1624, Bogotá – March 29, 1688) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as the Bishop of Panamá (1676–1688)

and the Bishop of Santa Marta (1668–1676).

Melchor Liñán y Cisneros

Melchor Liñán y Cisneros (sometimes Melchor de Liñán y Cisneros) (December 19, 1629, Madrid – June 28, 1708, Lima, Peru) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Archbishop of Lima (1677–1708), Archbishop of La Plata o Charcas (1672–1675), Bishop of Popayán (1667–1672), and Bishop of Santa Marta (1664–1668). He also served as Viceroy of Peru from July 7, 1678 to November 20, 1681.[1]

Pietro Leoni (bishop)

Pietro Leoni (2 April 1637 – 17 December 1697) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Verona (1691–1697) and Bishop of Ceneda (1667–1691).

Sebastiano Pisani (iuniore)

Sebastiano Pisani (16 October 1630 – 5 August 1690) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Verona (1668–1690).

Sebastiano Pisani (seniore)

Sebastiano Pisani (1606–1670) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Titular Archbishop of Thessalonica (1669–1670), Bishop of Verona (1653–1668) and Bishop of Ceneda (1639–1653).

Tommaso Brancaccio

Tommaso Brancaccio (1621 – 29 April 1677) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Nardò (1669–1677) and Bishop of Avellino e Frigento (1656–1669).

1st–4th centuries
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
5th–8th centuries
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
9th–12th centuries
Papal selection before 1059
Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
13th–16th centuries
Viterbo (1257–1281)
Orvieto (1262–1297)
Perugia (1228–1304)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
Western Schism (1378–1417)
Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)
Reformation Papacy (1534–1585)
Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)
17th–20th centuries
Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848)
Roman Question (1870–1929)
Vatican City (1929–present)
21st century
History of the papacy
History
Timeline
Ecclesiastical
Legal
Theology
Bible and
Tradition;
Catechism
Philosophy
Saints
Organisation
Hierarchy
Laity
Precedence
By country
Culture
Media
Institutes,
orders,
societies
Associations
of the faithful
Charities
General
Early Church
Late antiquity
Early Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
19th century
20th century
21st century

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.