|Bishop of Rome|
|Papacy began||20 June 1667|
|Papacy ended||9 December 1669|
|Consecration||29 March 1644|
by Antonio Marcello Barberini
|Created cardinal||9 April 1657|
by Pope Alexander VII
|Birth name||Giulio Rospigliosi|
|Born||28 January 1600|
Pistoia, Grand Duchy of Tuscany
|Died||9 December 1669 (aged 69)|
Rome, Papal States
|Motto||Aliis non sibi Clemens ("Clement to others, not to himself")|
|Coat of arms|
|Other popes named Clement|
Giulio Rospigliosi was born in 1600 to the Rospigliosi family, a noble family of Pistoia in the Grand Duchy of Tuscany to Giacomo and Caterina Rospigliosi. He studied at the Seminario Romano and later at the University of Pisa as a pupil of the Jesuits. He would receive doctorates in theology, philosophy and both canon and civil law in 1623. After receiving his doctorates, he taught theology there as a professor from 1623 to 1625.
Later Rospigliosi worked closely with Pope Urban VIII (1623–1644) where he worked in the diplomatic corps as the Referendary of the Apostolic Signatura. He was appointed as the Titular Archbishop of Tarsus in 1644 and later received episcopal consecration in the Vatican. Rospigliosi also served as the Apostolic Nuncio to Spain from 1644 until 1653 when he decided to retire from that post. He lived in retirement throughout the pontificate of Pope Innocent X who disliked and distanced himself from those associated with his predecessor. He was also made vicar of Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome.
Rospigliosi was an accomplished man of letters who wrote poetry, dramas and libretti, as well as what may be the first comic opera, namely his 1637 libretto Chi soffre, speri. He was also a patron of Nicolas Poussin, commissioning A Dance to the Music of Time from him and dictating its iconography.
|Papal styles of|
Pope Clement IX
|Reference style||His Holiness|
|Spoken style||Your Holiness|
|Religious style||Holy Father|
Pope Alexander VII died in 1667 and a conclave to choose his successor was called. King Louis XIV of France instructed the French faction to turn their support to Rospigliosi and believed also that he would appease the Spanish faction of Charles II due to the fact that he had once been the Apostolic Nuncio to Spain. On 20 June 1667, he was elected as pontiff and took the pontifical name of "Clement IX".
Nothing remarkable occurred under Clement IX's short administration beyond the temporary adjustment of the disputes between the Holy See and those prelates of the Gallican Church who had refused to join in condemning the writings of Jansen. He was mediator during the 1668 peace of Aachen, in the wars of succession between France, Spain, England and the Netherlands.
He was popular with the people of Rome, not so much for his erudition and application to business, as for his extreme charity and his affability towards great and small. He increased the goodwill of his subjects by buying off the monopolist who had secured the "macinato", or privilege of selling grain, and as his predecessor had collected the money for the purpose, Clement IX had the decree published in the name of Alexander VII. Two days each week he occupied a confessional in St. Peter's church and heard any one who wished to confess to him. He frequently visited the hospitals, and was lavish in his alms to the poor. In an age of nepotism, he did little or nothing to advance or enrich his family. In his aversion to notoriety, he refused to permit his name to be placed on the buildings erected during his reign.
He elevated 12 new cardinals in three consistories; this included Emilio Bonaventura Altieri who would succeed him as Pope Clement X.
As pope, Clement IX continued his interest in the arts. He embellished the city of Rome with famous works commissioned to Gian Lorenzo Bernini, including the angels of Ponte Sant'Angelo and the colonnade of Saint Peter's Basilica. Somewhat unusually for Popes of the era, Clement IX did not have his name displayed on monuments he built. He also opened the first public opera house in Rome, and for the Carnival celebrations of 1668, commissioned Antonio Maria Abbatini of the Sistine Chapel Choir to set to music his free Italian translation of a Spanish religious drama La Baltasara. The production had sets designed by Bernini.
Clement IX worked to strengthen Venetian defences against the Turks on the island of Crete. However, he was unable to get wider support for this cause. At the end of October 1669, Clement IX fell ill after receiving news that the Venetian fortress of Candia in Crete had surrendered to the Turks.
| Cardinal Secretary of State
|Catholic Church titles|
20 June 1667 – 9 December 1669
Angel with the Crown of Thorns is a statue by Italian artist Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Originally commissioned by Pope Clement IX for the Ponte Sant'Angelo project, the statue was replaced with a copy and the original was moved to Sant'Andrea delle Fratte in Rome, Italy. The statue was started in 1667 and completed in 1669. A terracotta modello for the sculpture is held by the musée du Louvre in Paris.Angel with the Superscription
Angel with the Superscription is a statue by Italian artist Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Originally commissioned by Pope Clement IX for the Ponte Sant'Angelo project, the statue was replaced with a copy and the original was moved to Sant'Andrea delle Fratte in Rome, Italy. The statue was started in 1667 and completed in 1669.Antonio del Buffalo
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and Bishop of Chiusi (1648–1657).Domenico Gianuzzi
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Girolamo Borghese, O.S.B. (11 January 1616 – 15 January 1698) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Pienza (1668–1698)
and Bishop of Sovana (1652–1668).Giulio Caracciolo (archbishop of Iconium)
Giulio Caracciolo, C.R. (born 1627) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Titular Archbishop of Iconium (1671–?)
and Bishop of Melfi e Rapolla (1666–1671).Giuseppe Eusanio
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Il Palazzo Incantato (The Enchanted Palace) or Il Palagio d’Atlante, overo La Guerriera Amante (The Palace of Atlantes, or The Warrior Woman in Love) is an opera in a prologue and three acts by the Italian composer Luigi Rossi. The libretto, by Giulio Rospigliosi, the future Pope Clement IX, is based on Ariosto's Orlando furioso. It was first performed in Rome in a lavish production at the Teatro delle Quattro Fontane (Palazzo Barberini) on 22 February 1642. Rossi was criticised for giving too much music to his friend, the castrato Marc'Antonio Pasqualini, who played Bradamante, at the expense of the other roles. Some of the highly complicated stage machinery failed to work during the performance too.Juan Lozano (bishop)
Juan Lozano, O.E.S.A. (April, 1610 – 3 July, 1679) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Archbishop (Personal Title) of Plasencia (1677–1679),Archbishop of Palermo (1669–1677),Bishop of Mazara del Vallo (1656–1669), and Bishop of Tropea (1646–1656).Lucas Fernández de Piedrahita
Lucas Fernández de Piedrahita (1624, Bogotá – March 29, 1688) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as the Bishop of Panamá (1676–1688)
and the Bishop of Santa Marta (1668–1676).Melchor Liñán y Cisneros
Melchor Liñán y Cisneros (sometimes Melchor de Liñán y Cisneros) (December 19, 1629, Madrid – June 28, 1708, Lima, Peru) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Archbishop of Lima (1677–1708), Archbishop of La Plata o Charcas (1672–1675), Bishop of Popayán (1667–1672), and Bishop of Santa Marta (1664–1668). He also served as Viceroy of Peru from July 7, 1678 to November 20, 1681.Pietro Leoni (bishop)
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Sebastiano Pisani (16 October 1630 – 5 August 1690) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Verona (1668–1690).Sebastiano Pisani (seniore)
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Tommaso Brancaccio (1621 – 29 April 1677) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Nardò (1669–1677) and Bishop of Avellino e Frigento (1656–1669).
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
Papal selection before 1059
Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
Western Schism (1378–1417)
Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)
Reformation Papacy (1534–1585)
Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)
Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848)
Roman Question (1870–1929)
Vatican City (1929–present)
|History of the papacy|
of the faithful
|Early Middle Ages|
|High Middle Ages|
|Late Middle Ages|