Pope Clement IV

Pope Clement IV (Latin: Clemens IV; 23 November 1190 – 29 November 1268), born Gui Foucois (Latin: Guido Falcodius; French: Guy de Foulques or Guy Foulques)[1] and also known as Guy le Gros (French for "Guy the Fat"; Italian: Guido il Grosso), was bishop of Le Puy (1257–1260), archbishop of Narbonne (1259–1261), cardinal of Sabina (1261–1265), and Pope from 5 February 1265 until his death. His election as pope occurred at a conclave held at Perugia that lasted four months while cardinals argued over whether to call in Charles of Anjou, the youngest brother of Louis IX of France, to carry on the papal war against the Hohenstaufens. Pope Clement was a patron of Thomas Aquinas and of Roger Bacon, encouraging Bacon in the writing of his Opus Majus, which included important treatises on optics and the scientific method.

Pope

Clement IV
Papst Clemens IV
Papacy began5 February 1265
Papacy ended29 November 1268
PredecessorUrban IV
SuccessorGregory X
Orders
Consecration1258
Created cardinal17 December 1261
by Urban IV
Personal details
Birth nameGui Foucois
Born23 November 1190
Saint-Gilles-du-Gard, Languedoc, Kingdom of France
Died29 November 1268 (aged 78)
Viterbo, Papal States
Previous post
Coat of armsClement IV's coat of arms
Other popes named Clement
Papal styles of
Pope Clement IV
C o a Clemente IV
Reference styleHis Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous styleNone

Biography

Early life

Clement was born in Saint-Gilles-du-Gard in the Languedoc region of France, the son of successful lawyer Pierre Foucois and his wife Marguerite Ruffi. At the age of nineteen, he enrolled as a soldier to fight the Moors in Spain. He then pursued the study of law in Toulouse, Bourges and Orleans, becoming a noted advocate in Paris. In the latter capacity he acted as secretary to King Louis IX, to whose influence he was chiefly indebted for his elevation to the cardinalate. He married the daughter of Simon de Malbois and had two daughters. Upon the death of his wife, he followed his father's example and gave up secular life for the Church.[2]

His rise was rapid. Ordained in the abbey of Saint-Magloire, Paris, he became pastor of Saint-Gilles in 1255. In 1257, he was appointed Bishop of Le Puy; in 1259, he was appointed Archbishop of Narbonne; and in December 1261, he became the first cardinal created by Pope Urban IV, for the See of Sabina. He was the papal legate in England between 1262 and 1264.[2] He was named grand penitentiary in 1263.[3]

Pontificate

In this period, the See of Rome was engaged in a conflict with Manfred, King of Sicily, the illegitimate son and designated heir of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen, but whom papal loyalists, the Guelfs, called "the usurper of Naples". Clement IV, who was in France at the time of his election, was compelled to enter Italy in disguise. He immediately took steps to ally himself with Charles of Anjou, his erstwhile patron's brother and the impecunious French claimant to the Neapolitan throne. Charles was willing to recognize the Pope as his feudal overlord (a bone of contention with the Hohenstaufens) and was crowned by cardinals in Rome, where Clement IV, permanently established at Viterbo, dared not venture, since the anti-papal Ghibelline party was so firmly in control there.[2]

Then, fortified with papal money and supplies, Charles marched into Naples. Having defeated and slain Manfred in the great Battle of Benevento, Charles established himself firmly in the kingdom of Sicily at the conclusive Battle of Tagliacozzo, in which Conradin, the last of the house of Hohenstaufen, was taken prisoner. Clement IV is said to have disapproved of the cruelties committed by his protégé, but the statement by Gregorovius that Clement IV became an accomplice by refusing to intercede for the unfortunate Conradin whom Charles had beheaded in the marketplace of Naples seems contentious. However, Gregorovius may be basing this conclusion on the position of Urban IV's predecessors, Innocent IV and Alexander IV, who were Conradin's official guardians.[4]

Death and Burial

Within months Clement IV was dead as well, and was buried at the Dominican convent, Santa Maria in Gradi, just outside Viterbo, where he resided throughout his pontificate.[5] In 1885, his remains were transferred to the church, San Francesco alla Rocca, in Viterbo.[6] Owing to irreconcilable divisions among the cardinals, the papal throne remained vacant for nearly three years.

Clement IV's private character was praised by contemporaries for his asceticism, and he is especially commended for his indisposition to promote and enrich his own relatives. He also ordered the Franciscan scholar Roger Bacon to write the Opus Majus, which is addressed to him.

Acts

In 1264, Clement IV renewed the prohibition of the Talmud promulgated by Gregory IX, who had it publicly burnt in France and in Italy. Though Clement did not condemn to death at the stake those who harboured copies of it,[7] and, responding to a denunciation of the Talmud by Pablo Christiani,[8] he ordered that the Jews of Aragon submit their books to Dominican censors for expurgation.[9]

In February 1265 Clement summoned Thomas Aquinas to Rome to serve as papal theologian.[10] It was during this period that Aquinas also served as regent master for the Dominicans at Rome.[11] With the arrival of Aquinas the existing studium conventuale at Santa Sabina, which had been founded in 1222, was transformed into the Order's first studium provinciale featuring the study of philosophy (studia philosophiae) as prescribed by Aquinas and others at the chapter of Valenciennes in 1259, an intermediate school between the studium conventuale and the studium generale. This studium was the forerunner of the 16th century College of Saint Thomas at Santa Maria sopra Minerva and the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum. In 1266, after the Battle of Benevento, Pope Clement IV conceded for gratitude his coat of arms to the Guelph Party of Florence as official approval to their supremacy and therefore they could take power in many of the other northern Italian cities. In 1267–68 Clement engaged in correspondence with the Mongol Ilkhanate rule Abaqa. The latter proposed a Franco-Mongol alliance between his forces, those of the West, and the Byzantine emperor Michael VIII Palaeologos (Abaqa's father-in-law). Pope Clement welcomed Abaqa's proposal in a non-committal manner, but did inform him of an upcoming Crusade. In 1267, Pope Clement IV and King James I of Aragon sent an ambassador to the Mongol ruler Abaqa in the person of Jayme Alaric de Perpignan.[12] In his 1267 letter written from Viterbo, the Pope wrote:

The kings of France and Navarre, taking to heart the situation in the Holy Land, and decorated with the Holy Cross, are readying themselves to attack the enemies of the Cross. You wrote to us that you wished to join your father-in-law (the Greek emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos) to assist the Latins. We abundantly praise you for this, but we cannot tell you yet, before having asked to the rulers, what road they are planning to follow. We will transmit to them your advice, so as to enlighten their deliberations, and will inform your Magnificence, through a secure message, of what will have been decided.[13]

Although Clement's successors continued to engage in diplomatic contacts with the Mongols for the rest of the century, they were never able to coordinate an actual alliance.[14]

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ "Clemens ⟨Papa, IV.⟩", Personal Names of the Middle Ages, p. 129.
  2. ^ a b c Loughlin, James. "Pope Clement IV." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. 2 January 2016
  3. ^ Miranda, Salvador. "Foucois, Gui", Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church
  4. ^ P. Touron, "Alexandre IV contre Manfred," Le Moyen Âge 69 (1963), pp. 391–99.
  5. ^ Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes, (HarperCollins, 2000), 218.
  6. ^ Richard P. McBrien, 218.
  7. ^ As reported, for example in Arsene Damestetter, The Talmud, 1897:94..
  8. ^ Shlomo Simonsohn, The Apostolic See and the Jews (Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies) 1991:311.
  9. ^ Popper, William (1889). The Censorship of Hebrew Books. Knickerbocker Press. pp. 13–14..
  10. ^ A Biographical Study of the Angelic Doctor, by Placid Conway, O.P., Longmans, Green and Co., 1911, Part III: Evening, Chapter VI - His Writings: Second Period, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 1, 2013. Retrieved February 5, 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Accessed October 27, 2012
  11. ^ Acta Capitulorum Provincialium, Provinciae Romanae Ordinis Praedicatorum, 1265, n. 12, in Corpus Thomisticum, http://www.corpusthomisticum.org/a65.html Accessed 4-8-2011
  12. ^ Runciman, p. 330–331
  13. ^ Quoted in Grousset, p. 644
  14. ^ "Despite numerous envoys and the obvious logic of an alliance against mutual enemies, the papacy and the Crusaders never achieved the often-proposed alliance against Islam". Atwood, "Western Europe and the Mongol Empire" Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire, p. 583

Bibliography

  • Runciman, Steven (1958). The Sicilian Vespers. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-43774-5.
  • Grousset, René (2006). Histoire des croisades et du royaume franc de Jérusalem: 1131-1187, l'équilibre. Perrin.
  • Runciman, Steven (1951). A history of the Crusades (1st ed.). Cambridge [Eng.]: Cambridge University Press.
  • Jean Dunbabin, Charles I of Anjou: Power, Kingship and State-Making in Thirteenth-Century Europe (Addison Wesley Longman 1998; London-New York: Routledge 2014).

External links

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Urban IV
Pope
1265–68
Succeeded by
Gregory X
1264–65 papal election

The papal election of 1264–65 (12 October – 5 February) was convened after the death of Pope Urban IV and ended by electing his successor Pope Clement IV. It met in Perugia, where Urban IV had taken refuge after being driven out of Orvieto. He had never been in Rome as Pope, but spent his entire reign in exile. It was the second election in a row where a pope was elected in absentia; the phenomenon would be repeated in the Conclave of 1268–1271, and again in the Conclave of 1292–1294. In the last two cases, the person elected was not even a Cardinal.

Aimery IV of Narbonne

Aimery IV (or Aimeric IV) (Italian: Amerigo di Narbona) (c. 1230 – October 1298) was the Viscount of Narbonne, an Italian condottiero and captain. Aimery first entered Italy in the service of Charles I of Anjou, who had been granted the Sicilian crown by Pope Clement IV in 1265. Guiraut Riquier, last of the Occitan troubadours, was employed by Aimery.By 1289, Aimery had so distinguished himself that he was put in command of the Guelph troops massed to attack the Ghibellines of Arezzo. During that campaign, the two armies met at the Battle of Campaldino and Aimery won the victory on which his reputation rests. He conquered most of the Aretine countryside, taking many castles by storm, from Rondine to the gates of Arezzo itself. This, however, he failed to take by siege, as the Aretines made several valiant sorties which successfully destroyed his siege engines. The campaign was nevertheless a success and Aimery was received triumphantly upon his return to Florence, where he was the representative of Charles II of Naples.Aimery married Joanna, daughter of Jordan IV of L'Isle-Jourdain. The Italian form of his name became popular in Tuscany for centuries after his success at Campaldino and it was via a Tuscan named Amerigo Vespucci that two continents—the Americas—received their names. Giovanni Villani, the Florentine chronicler, calls him "Nerbona" throughout his account.

Audi filia et

Audi filia et and De sinu patris were two letters written by either Pope Urban IV (1165–1264) or Pope Clement IV (1200–1268). They are undated, but were probably written during the 1260s, separately chastising one noblewoman and one nobleman for inappropriate activities. According to historians such as Hans E. Mayer and Peter W. Edbury, the letters were written in 1261 or 1262, and were intended for the Cypriote queen Plaisance of Antioch (1235–1261) and her lover John of Jaffa (1215–1266), who left his wife Marie of Armenia to pursue the relationship. Other historians such as David Nicolle, Steven Runciman and Christopher Tyerman believe that the date is more likely 1268, that the noblewoman was another Cypriot queen, Isabella of Ibelin (1252–1282), and it was her affair with Julian of Sidon (born c. 1230, d. 1275) that prompted the papal letters.

Beatrice of Savoy, Lady of Villena

Beatrice of Savoy (1250-1292) was the daughter of Amadeus IV the Count of Savoy and his second wife, Cecile of Baux. She was a member of the House of Savoy by birth, by her second marriage she became known as Lady of Villena.

Beatrice was a full sister to Boniface, Count of Savoy, as well as two sisters Eleanor and Constance. She had two older half-sisters from her father's first marriage, an elder Beatrice and Margaret.

Upon the death of her father in 1253, Beatrice received an amount of money as an inheritance. Upon the death of her ten-year-old brother Count Boniface, he was succeeded by their uncle as Peter II, Count of Savoy. Upon Peter's death, Beatrice had to renounce her claim on Savoy along with the consent of her mother in favor of the succession of her other uncle as Philip I, Count of Savoy, in the article (dated 21 October 1268) she is referred to as Contesson possibly to distinguish her from her older half-sister of the same name. A charter dated 11 August 1266 by Pope Clement IV presumably tells of Count Philip donating property to his niece "B" most likely referring to Beatrice.Beatrice was firstly betrothed to James, second son of James I of Aragon however, the contract was broken on 11 August 1266. Ten years after the betrothal was broken, James became King of Majorca.

Beatrice firstly married on 21 October 1268 to Peter of Chalon, Seigneur de Châtelbelin, son of Jean l'Antique. Peter granted property to his wife in 1269. The couple were married for no more than six years when Peter died, they had no children.

A second marriage took place in 1274 to Manuel of Castile; this was a second marriage for both parties, Manuel's first wife Constance (sister to Beatrice's one-time fiancee James) had died leaving him with two children. Manuel and Beatrice had one son Juan Manuel who was born in Escalona on May 5, 1282. Manuel died a year after the birth of their son therefore he was succeeded by their son as Manuel's other son by Constance had died young. Beatrice cared for her son until her own death nine years later, after which time Juan Manuel was left in the care of his uncle, Sancho IV of Castile.

Bull of the Crusade

A Bull of the Crusade (Spanish: Bula de la santa Cruzada) was a Papal bull that granted indulgences to those who took part in the crusades against Muslims, pagans or sometimes heretics. These indulgences were similar to those that, as far back as the 11th century, had been granted to the faithful of the Spanish Mark who took part in building churches and monasteries, or who gave alms to be devoted to this purpose.

The first of these Crusade Bulls that concerned Spain was that of Pope Urban II, to the Catalan counts Ramon Berenguer III of Barcelona and Ermengol IV of Urgell in 1089 at the time of the reconquest of Tarragona, and that of Gelasius II to Alfonso I of Aragon, when he undertook to reconquer Zaragoza in 1118. Clement IV in 1265 issued a general Bull for the whole of Spain, when the Kings of Aragon and Castile joined in the expedition against Murcia. In the course of time these pontifical concessions became more and more frequent; in the reign of the Catholic Monarchs alone they were granted in 1478, 1479, 1481, 1482, 1485, 1494, 1503 and 1505, and were continued during the following reigns, that granted by Gregory XIII in 1573 being renewed by his successors.

The alms given by the faithful in response to this bull, which were at first used exclusively for carrying on the war against the 'infidel' Moors, were afterwards used for the construction and repair of churches and other pious works; sometimes they were also used to defray expenses of the State. The Cortes (estates assembly) of Valladolid of 1523 and that of Madrid of 1592 petitioned that this money should not be used for any other purpose than that for which it had originally been intended by the donors, but, notwithstanding the provisions made by Philip III of Spain in compliance with this request, the abuse already mentioned continued. After 1847 the funds derived from this source were devoted to the endowment of churches and the clergy, this disposition being ratified by a law in 1849 and in the Concordat of 1851.

In virtue of the concessions granted by this bull, the faithful of the Spanish dominions who had fulfilled the necessary conditions could gain the plenary indulgence, granted to those who fought for the reconquest of the Holy Land and to those who went to Rome in the year of Jubilee, provided they went to confession and received Holy Communion. They were also absolved twice of sins and censures reserved to the Holy See and the ordinary, except open heresy—and others concerning ecclesiastics, to have vows that could not be fulfilled without difficulty commuted by their confessor—unless failure to fulfill them would be to the disadvantage of another; also simple vows of perpetual chastity, of religious profession and of pilgrimage to the Holy Land. Those who visited five churches or altars, or the same altar five times, and prayed for the intentions of the Crusade, could gain the indulgences granted to those who visited the stations in Rome. The Bull also permitted the faithful of the Spanish dominions to eat meat on all the days of Lent and other days of fast and abstinence, except Ash Wednesday, the Fridays of Lent, the last four days of Holy Week and the vigils of the feasts of the Nativity, Pentecost, the Assumption and Saints Peter and Paul.

Chinea

The Chinèa was the name attached to a tribute paid by the Kings of Naples as vassals to the Popes. The tribute was apparently first recognized by the Norman King of Naples in 1059. The Chinea reached its greatest magnitude from about 1550 to 1776, with grand temporary structures being erected during the celebration all over Rome in honor of the Pope. The Chinea ceremony itself was instituted under Charles I of Naples and Pope Clement IV, and lasted in ceremonial form till 1776, and as a monetary obligation until 1855.

The ceremony included the gift of a white horse, elegantly attired and carrying by the late 1700s the equivalent of 7,000 ducats in silver. The presentation took place annually on June 29, the Feast of Saints Peter and Paul, and was followed by elaborate festivities in Rome. The horse itself was paraded in Saint Peter's Basilica. The presentation was always made by a Neapolitan nobleman, including over the years, members of the Colonna, Sanseverino, or Carafa families. The term chinea is thought to derive from the French word for a Hackney horse: (haquennée).

In 1776, on the pretext of mob rowdiness during the ceremony, King Ferdinand IV of Naples and his foreign minister, Bernardo Tanucci, as well as the philosopher Domenico Caracciolo, attempted to eliminate the tribute, but in the end while the ceremony and accompanying sanction of royal rule were eliminated, a simple monetary tribute continued. In 1855, during the papacy of Pius IX, in the hope of abolishing the tradition altogether, Ferdinand VII of Naples paid 10,000 scudi for the Column of the Immaculate Conception in Piazza di Spagna, Rome.

Frederick III, Duke of Lorraine

Frederick III (French: Ferry) (1240 – 31 December 1302) was the Duke of Lorraine from 1251 to his death. He was the only son and successor of Matthias II and Catherine of Limburg.

He was not yet thirteen years of age when his father died, so his mother assumed the regency for a few years. In 1255, he married Margaret, the daughter of King Theobald I of Navarre and Margaret of Bourbon. Frederick's father-in-law was the Count of Champagne as well, and the marriage of Margaret with Frederick signified the Gallicization of Lorraine and the beginnings of tension between French and German influences which characterises its later history. When Joan I of Navarre, Margaret's niece, (the daughter of her brother, Henry I of Navarre), married Philip the Fair, the future king of France, in 1284, the ties to France grew. The long-held loyalty of the dukes of Lorraine to the Holy Roman Emperor had waned in the first half of the thirteenth century and French influence was pervasive, leading to its permanent attachment to France in 1766.

During Frederick's reign, he fought the bishops of Metz until Pope Clement IV excommunicated him and put his duchy under an interdict.

In 1257, after the elections following the death of King William of Holland resulted in the contested election of both Richard, Earl of Cornwall and Alfonso X of Castile, Frederick of Lorraine sided with Alfonso, who through his mother Beatrix was the grandson of the Hohenstaufen Philip of Swabia. The rivalry between the two kings led to little actual combat and after Richard's death the 1273 election of Rudolf of Habsburg and the subsequent withdrawal of Alfonso reestablished unity.

Hedwig of Silesia

Saint Hedwig of Silesia (Polish: Święta Jadwiga Śląska), also Saint Hedwig of Andechs (German: Heilige Hedwig von Andechs, Latin: Hedvigis; 1174 – 15 October 1243), a member of the Bavarian comital House of Andechs, was Duchess of Silesia from 1201 and of Greater Poland from 1231 as well as High Duchess consort of Poland from 1232 until 1238. She was reported in the two-volume historical atlas of Herman Kinder and another author to have been great in war and defended from the Teutonic Knights. She was canonized by the Catholic Church in 1267 by Pope Clement IV.

Jayme

Jayme is a unisex given name and a surname which may refer to:

Given name:

Jayme Alaric de Perpignan, ambassador form Pope Clement IV and James I of Aragon to the Mongol ruler Abaqa Khan in 1267

Jayme de Almeida (born 1953), Brazilian football assistant coach and former player and manager

Jayme Lynn Blaschke (born 1969), American journalist and author

Jayme Caetano Braun (1924–1999), Brazilian folk musician, poet and composer

Jayme Cramer (born 1983), American swimmer

Jayme Garfinkel (born 1945), Brazilian billionaire, Chairman of the Board and CEO of Porto Seguro Seguros, a large insurance company

Jayme Mitchell (born 1984), American former football player

Jayme Richardson (born 1989), Australian Paralympic cyclist

Jayme Stone (fl. 2007-present}, Canadian banjoist, composer and producer

Jayme Luiz Szwarcfiter (born 1942), Brazilian computer scientist

Jayme Tiomno (1920–2011), Brazilian physicistSurname:

Antonio Ledesma Jayme (1854-1937), Filipino lawyer, revolutionary, Governor of Negros Occidental and assemblyman

Carlos Jayme (born 1980), Brazilian retired swimmer

Erik Jayme (born 1934), Canadian-born German law professor

Luis Jayme (1740-1775), Spanish Roman Catholic priest, missionary in America and martyr

Jayme Alaric de Perpignan

Jayme Alaric de Perpignan was an ambassador sent by Pope Clement IV and James I of Aragon to the Mongol ruler Abaqa Khan in 1267.The Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos had sent his illegitimate daughter Maria Palaiologina to be the bride of Hulagu Khan, Abaqa's predecessor. Hulagu died before she arrived, and she was thus wed instead to Abaqa. She became a popular religious figure to the Mongols, who had previously looked to Doquz Khatun, Hulagu's wife, as a religious leader. After the death of Doquz, this sentiment turned to Maria, who was called "Despina Khatun".Clement and James had been encouraged by this, towards the possibility that the Mongols might join the Europeans in a Franco-Mongol alliance against the Muslims. From Viterbo in 1267, they sent a letter, carried by Jayme Alaric de Perpignan. It was responding positively to previous messages from the Mongols, and informed Abaqa of the upcoming Crusade (the Eighth Crusade).

The kings of France and Navarre, taking to heart the situation in the Holy Land, and decorated with the Holy Cross, are readying themselves to attack the enemies of the Cross. You wrote to us that you wished to join your father-in-law (the Greek emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos) to assist the Latins. We abundantly praise you for this, but we cannot tell you yet, before having asked to the rulers, what road they are planning to follow. We will transmit to them your advice, so as to enlighten their deliberations, and will inform your Magnificence, through a secure message, of what will have been decided.

However, Abaqa was distracted by wars with other sections of the Mongol Empire, and would only make vague promises of assistance.Jayme Alaric would return to Europe in 1269, accompanied by a Mongol embassy.

Jordan IV of L'Isle-Jourdain

Jordan IV (died 1288) was the Lord of L'Isle-Jourdain and a vassal of Alfonso of Poitou. He was a crusader during the Italian crusades of Guelph against Ghibelline. His son-in-law was Aimery IV of Narbonne, who led the armies of Florence and Anjou in the Battle of Campaldino in 1289 and his brother was the provost of Toulouse.

Sometime before his activities in Italy Jordan (Jourdan in contemporary Occitan) participated in a torneyamen, a poetical tournament, with Guiraut Riquier, Raimon Izarn, and Paulet de Marseilla.

In 1266, after drawing up a will, he brought a contingent of knights and crossbowmen to Italy with him in support of Charles of Anjou. He was praised by Pope Clement IV and enfeoffed in the Principate and Calabria by Charles, but he soon returned to Gascony. Charles warned him to return or suffer his fiefs to be confiscated and titles revoked, but he lingered until October 1282, when he returned with a new band of soldiers.

In 1285, he joined Philip III of France on the Aragonese Crusade. He died in 1288.

His first wife was Faydide, heiress of Odo, Lord of Casaubon. His second wife was Vacquerie, daughter of Adhémar, Lord of Monteil. From his first marriage he had:

Jordan V, his successor

Indie, married Bertrand, Lord of Caumont

Margaret, married Guy of CommingesFrom his second marriage he had:

Bertrand, Lord of Mauvesin, Montagnac, Corbonne, Saint-Paul, Pibrac, Ausun, and Lombières

Joan, married the aforementioned Aimery

Thiburge, Lady of Pribac, married Gauthier du Fossé, Lord of Bramenac, and then Bernard IV of Astarac

Gaucerande, married Stephen Colonna

List of French popes

Seventeen popes have had French ancestry, all in the second half of the medieval era. The seven popes of the Avignon Papacy were French and are bolded. Since the end of the Avignon Papacy, no French person has been elected pope.

French is the most common non-Italian papal ancestry.

Pope Silvester II, 999–1003: Gerbert of Aurillac

St. Pope Leo IX, 1049–1054: Bruno, Count of Dagsbourg

Pope Stephen IX, 1057–1058: Frederick of Lorraine

Pope Nicholas II, 1058–1061: Gerard of Burgundy

Bl. Pope Urban II, 1088–1099: Otho of Lagery (or Otto or Odo)

Pope Callistus II, 1119–1124: Guido of Vienne

Pope Urban IV, 1261–1264: Jacques Pantaléon

Pope Clement IV, 1265–1268: Guy Foulques

Bl. Pope Innocent V, 1276: Pierre de Tarentaise

Pope Martin IV, 1281–1285: Simon de Brie

Pope Clement V, 1305–1314: Bertrand de Got

Pope John XXII, 1316–1334: Jacques d'Euse

Pope Benedict XII, 1334–1342: Jacques Fournier

Pope Clement VI, 1342–1352: Pierre Roger

Pope Innocent VI, 1352–1362: Stephen Aubert

Bl. Pope Urban V, 1362–1370: Guillaume de Grimoard

Pope Gregory XI, 1370–1378: Pierre Roger de Beaufort

Mastino I della Scala

Mastino I della Scala (died 26 October 1277), born Leonardo or Leonardino, was an Italian condottiero, who founded the Scaliger house of Lords of Verona.

The son of Jacopino della Scala, he was podestà of Cerea in 1259, and then podestà of Verona. Ezzelino III da Romano, the chief Ghibelline leader of northern Italy, died that year, and Mastino inherited his role. In 1260 he obtained the position of capitano del popolo ("people's captain") of Verona, managing to establish a hereditary seigniory, with a generally Ghibelline stance, from 1263. In the following year he led the Veronese army to the conquest of Lonigo and Montebello, menacing Vicenza. He was also able to shortly annex the lands of the bishop of Trent. Mastino also obtained an agreement with the Republic of Venice which granted to the Veronese free access to trades on the Adige River and signed a treaty of peace with the Guelph city of Mantua.

In 1267, when Conradin, last of the Hohenstaufen, descended into Italy to reconquer the Kingdom of Sicily, Mastino allied with him. Pope Clement IV, ally of the current King of Naples Charles I of Anjou, excommunicated Conradin and all his Ghibelline supporters, including Mastino and Verona itself. The excommunication was raised only when, a few years later, 166 Cathars captured in Sirmione were publicly burnt alive in the Arena.

During the lord's absence, a civil war broke out, spurred by the counts of San Bonifacio, who managed to capture most of Scaliger's garrisons. Mastino's brother Bocca died during the fighting. Mastino's reaction was however stiff, and he soon defeated the rebels. He also managed to impose his brother Alberto as podestà of Mantua, which had been the traditional supporter of the Veronese anti-Scaliger exiles.

Mastino was assassinated in Verona in 1277 by a member of the local aristocracy who was averse to the rule of the Scaliger; the alleged involvement of Alberto in the conspiracy is unproven. Alberto himself was able to maintain the seigniory.

Opus Majus

The Opus Majus (Latin for "Great Work") is the most important work of Roger Bacon. It was written in Medieval Latin, at the request of Pope Clement IV, to explain the work that Bacon had undertaken. The 840-page treatise ranges over all aspects of natural science, from grammar and logic to mathematics, physics, and philosophy. Bacon sent his work to the Pope in 1267, accompanied by a letter of dedication which was found by F. A. Gasquet in the Vatican Library and published in 1897. It was followed later the same year by a smaller second work, his Opus Minus, which was intended as an abstract or summary of the longer work, followed shortly by a third work, Opus Tertium, as a preliminary introduction to the other two.

Orlando Bonsignori

Orlando Bonsignori (died 1273) was an Italian banker from Siena.

He was the son of Bonsignore di Bernardo, a minor merchant, but Orlando, together with his brother Bonifazio, expanded the family fortunes until in the 1230 he was among the largest Sienese taxpayers. Friendship with Pope Innocent IV led to the Bonsignori acting as his agents and bankers.

In 1255, after Bonifazio's death, Orlando formed a consortium called the Gran Tavola ("Great Table"), which soon became the most powerful bank in Europe. It became the exclusive banker for the deposits of the income of the Papal States and, under Pope Clement IV, the ecclesiastical tithes for the Holy Land. The Gran Tavola supported Charles of Anjou in his conquest of the Kingdom of Sicily, and benefited greatly from his victory over the Hohenstaufen.

Orlando Bonsignori died in 1273. After his death the Gran Tavola soon declined and eventually went bankrupt in the early 14th century.

Perugia Papacy

Perugia was a long-time papal residence during the 13th century. Five popes were elected here: Pope Honorius III (1216–1227), Pope Clement IV (1265–1268), Pope Honorius IV (1285–1287), Pope Celestine V (1294), and Pope Clement V (1305–1314). These elections took place in the Palazzo delle Canoniche adjoining the Perugia Cathedral.

The Cathedral contained the tombs of Pope Innocent III (1198–1216), Pope Urban IV (1261–1264), and Pope Martin IV (1281–1285). These were destroyed by Gérard du Puy, the cardinal-nephew of Pope Gregory XI (1370–1378).During du Puy's tenure as papal governor during the War of the Eight Saints he pillaged the Duomo construction site for materials for his private fortress. According to Heywood, due to du Puy's construction, "so certain did it appear that the Papal Curia was about to be transferred to Perugia that foreign merchants began to negotiate for the hire of shops and warehouses in the city." The tomb of Pope Benedict XI (1303–1304) is still extant in S. Domenico.

Sant'Agrippino a Forcella

Sant'Agrippino a Forcella is a church located on Via Forcella in Naples, Italy.

A church at the site may have been present since the fifth century, but we have documentation of a consecration during the papacy of pope Clement IV in 1265-1268.

The church retains some Gothic architecture details in the apse, but the remainder of the church demonstrates the Baroque reconstructions (1758) by Nicola Tagliacozzi Canale. The exterior 14th century portal was designed by the Pisan Antonio di Chelino, pupil of Donatello.

Templecombe Preceptory

Templecombe Preceptory (or Combe Templariorum) was established in 1185 in Templecombe, Somerset, England.

One of the manors within the parish was held by Earl Leofwine. It was awarded to Bishop Odo of Bayeux after the Norman Conquest. It was his descendant Serlo FitzOdo who granted it to the Knights Templar who established a preceptory in the village in 1185.The preceptory served as an administrative centre for the lands held by the Templars in the south west of England and Cornwall. It may also have been used to train men and horses for the Crusades.After the Knights Templar were suppressed following the 1307 order by Pope Clement IV, it was granted to the Knights of St John who held it until the dissolution of the monasteries.An attempt to discover 'the village of the templars' was made by archaeological television programme Time Team.

William IV, Count of Jülich

William IV, Count of Jülich (c. 1210 – 16 March 1278) was the son and heir of William III of Jülich and Mathilde of Limburg, daughter of Waleran III, Duke of Limburg.William's father joined the Crusades in 1217 and died in the Siege of Damietta in 1218. William succeeded his father as Count of Jülich under the guardianship of his uncle, Eberhard of Hengenbach. In the 1220s and early 1230s William greatly expanded his territory. In 1234 he fought in the battle of Altenesch against the Stedingers and was made imperial administrator of Konzen and Aachen, guardian of Kornelimünster and over the possessions of Essen Abbey on the left bank of the Rhine river. He also won the imperial fiefdoms of Sinzig, Hengenbach-Heimbach, Merzenich, Thürnich, Düren and Bardenberg, thus doubling the possessions of the Counts of Jülich.

By 1240 William's territorial expansion created conflict on the eastern side of his territory with the Archbishop of Cologne. William was a loyal supporter of the House of Hohenstaufen which made him a rugged opponent of Cologne Archbishop Konrad von Hochstaden, under whose rule more disputes with William broke out. As a result of the Hochstander inheritance, William gained parts of Münstereifel, which moved him even closer to his opponent. In 1242 in the battle of Lövenich, William captured Konrad and forced him to renew all of William's Cologne fiefs. In 1262 William and Engelbert I, Count of the Mark, came to the assistance of the Teutonic Knights during the Siege of Königsberg. In the battle of Zülpich in 1267, William captured Engelbert II of Falkenburg, Archbishop of Cologne, and held him captive in the castle of Nideggen until 1270/71, again forcing the Archbishop to recognize all of William's Cologne fiefs. As a result of this action, William was excommunicated by Pope Clement IV from 1268 to 1270.

William supported Richard of Cornwall as King of the Romans and Richard confirmed all of William's imperial fiefs. William also supported the Kingdom of France against King Alfonso X of Castile in 1267/77. He stood against Guelders, Cleves and Heinsberg because of their similar interests.

On the night of 16 March 1278, which has become known as Gertrudisnacht (Night of St. Gertrude), William, along with his sons William and Roland (and according to some sources, a third son), entered the town of Aachen to collect taxes for King Rudolph I of Germany. There was a riot and William and his sons were killed. The city of Aachen was later ordered to pay a high compensation to William's widow Richardis on account of his murder.

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