Pope Clement III

Pope Clement III (Latin: Clemens III; 1130 – 20 March 1191), born Paulino (or Paolo) Scolari,[2] reigned from 19 December 1187 to his death.


Clement III
Papacy began19 December 1187
Papacy ended20 March 1191
PredecessorGregory VIII
SuccessorCelestine III
Created cardinalMarch 1179
by Alexander III
Personal details
Birth namePaulino or Paolo Scolari
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Died20 March 1191[1]
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Other popes named Clement


A Roman by birth, Pope Alexander III appointed him in succession Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian Basilica, Cardinal-deacon of Sergio e Bacco, and finally Cardinal bishop of Palestrina in December 1180. He appears as signatory of the papal bulls issued between 15 October 1179 and 11 December 1187.


Shortly after his accession at the conclusion of the papal election of December 1187, Clement succeeded in allaying the conflict which had existed for half a century between the popes and the citizens of Rome, with an agreement by which the citizens were allowed to elect their magistrates, while the nomination of the governor of the city remained in the hands of the pope. On 31 May 1188 he concluded a treaty with the Romans which removed long standing difficulties, thus returning the papacy to Rome.[3][4]

Clement also inherited a depleted college of cardinals, consisting of no more than twenty cardinals. He orchestrated three series of promotions (March 1188, May 1189 and October 1190) that resulted in over thirty new cardinals.[5]

He pushed King Henry II of England and King Philip II of France to undertake the Third Crusade.[6] In April 1189, Clement made peace with the Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa.

He settled a controversy with King William I of Scotland concerning the choice of the archbishop of St. Andrews, and on 13 March 1188 removed the Scottish church from the legatine jurisdiction of the Archbishop of York, thus making it independent of all save Rome.[3][7]

In spite of agreeing to crown Henry VI as Holy Roman Emperor, Clement III angered him by bestowing Sicily on Tancred, son of Roger III, Duke of Apulia.[8] The crisis was acute when the Pope died in the latter part of March 1191.[3]

See also


  1. ^ About the date of his death see Katrin Baaken: Zu Wahl, Weihe und Krönung Papst Cölestins III. Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters Volume 41 / 1985, pp. 203-211
  2. ^ Cheetham, Nicolas, Keepers of the Keys, (Charles Scribner's Sons, 1982), 325.
  3. ^ a b c Rockwell 1911.
  4. ^ Luscombe, David; Riley-Smith, Jonathan, eds. (2004). The New Cambridge Medieval History. 1. Cambridge University Press. p. 402.
  5. ^ Robinson, Ian Stuart, The papacy 1073–1198: continuity and innovation, (Cambridge University Press, 1990), 55.
  6. ^ Reston, James, Warriors of God: Richard the Lionheart and Saladin in the Third Crusade, (Random House Inc., 2001), 106.
  7. ^ Blair, D. Oswald Hunter, History of the Catholic Church of Scotland, (Willian Blackwood and Sons, 1887), 329.
  8. ^ Benson, Robert Louis and Robert Charles Figueira, Plenitude of power: the doctrines and exercise of authority in the Middle Ages, (Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2006), 40.


  • Benson, Robert Louis and Robert Charles Figueira, Plenitude of power: the doctrines and exercise of authority in the Middle Ages, Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2006.
  • Blair, D. Oswald Hunter, History of the Catholic Church of Scotland, Willian Blackwood and Sons, 1887.
  • Cheetham, Nicolas, Keepers of the Keys, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1982.
  • Reston, James, Warriors of God: Richard the Lionheart and Saladin in the Third Crusade, Random House Inc., 2001.
  • Robinson, Ian Stuart, The Papacy, 1073–1198: Continuity and Innovation, Cambridge University Press 1990.


Further reading

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Gregory VIII
Succeeded by
Celestine III

Year 1191 (MCXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

1191 papal election

The papal election of 1191 (held 21 March) took place after the death of Pope Clement III and chose the 85-year-old Cardinal Giacinto Bobone Orsini who took the name Celestine III.

1199 in Ireland

Events during the year 1199 in Ireland.

Adelardo Cattaneo

Adelardo Cattaneo (died before October 1214) was an Italian cardinal and bishop. His first name is also listed as Alardo.

He was canon of the cathedral chapter of Verona. Pope Lucius III created him Cardinal-Priest of S. Marcello in the consistory of 6 March 1185 (or in December 1183, or in 1184). As such, he countersigned the papal bulls issued between 20 April 1185 and 28 October 1188. He participated in the papal elections of 1185 and October 1187, and possibly also in that of December 1187 and 1191. In the pontificate of Pope Clement III he served as papal legate in the Holy Land. Towards the end of 1188 he was elected bishop of Verona; he was confirmed by Clement III and took possession of the see in the following year (1189). At that time he resigned his titular church of S. Marcello, but retained his cardinalate and signed the documents as "Cardinal-Priest of the Holy Roman Church, humble bishop of Verona". He died after 17 July 1212, but before 13 October 1214, when his successor was elected.

Albert of Vercelli

Saint Albert of Jerusalem (Albertus Hierosolymitanus, also Blessed Albert, Albert of Vercelli or Alberto Avogadro; died 14 September 1214) was a canon lawyer.

He was Bishop of Bobbio and Bishop of Vercelli, and served as mediator and diplomat under Pope Clement III. Innocent III appointed him Patriarch of Jerusalem in 1204 or 1205. In Jerusalem, he contributed the Carmelite Rule of St. Albert to the newly-founded Carmelite Order.

He is honoured as a saint in the Roman Catholic Church and commemorated by the Carmelites on 17 September.

Antipope Clement III

Guibert or Wibert of Ravenna (c. 1029 – 8 September 1100) was an Italian prelate, archbishop of Ravenna, who was elected pope in 1080 in opposition to Pope Gregory VII and took the name Clement III. Gregory was the leader of the movement in the church which opposed the traditional claim of European monarchs to control ecclesiastical appointments, and this was opposed by supporters of monarchical rights led by the Holy Roman Emperor. This led to the conflict known as the Investiture Controversy. Gregory was felt by many to have gone too far when he excommunicated the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV and supported a rival claimant as emperor, and in 1080 the pro-imperial Synod of Brixen pronounced that Gregory was deposed and replaced as pope by Guibert.

Consecrated as Pope Clement III in Rome in March 1084, he commanded a significant following in Rome and elsewhere, especially during the first half of his pontificate, and reigned in opposition to four successive popes in the anti-imperial line: Gregory VII, Victor III, Urban II, and Paschal II. After his death and burial at Civita Castellana in 1100 he was celebrated locally as a miracle-working saint, but Paschal II and the anti-imperial party soon subjected him to a thorough deletio and damnatio memoriae, which included the exhuming and dumping of his remains in the Tiber. He is considered an anti-pope by the Roman Catholic Church.

Cardinals created by Clement III

Pope Clement III (r. 1187-91) created 30 cardinals in three consistories held during his pontificate; this included the elevation of his future successor Pope Innocent III in 1190.

Flag of Gascony

The flag appeared in the time of pope Clément III to gather the Gascons during the Third crusade (12th century). It contains the St Andrew's cross, the patron saint of Bordeaux and the red color of English kingdom, who reigned over Gascony from 12th to mid-15th century.

After the end of the Hundred Years' War, the flag went out of use and was never replaced.

A modern blazon (blue and red with sheaf of wheat and lion) was created in Versailles by the judge of weapons'cabinet (chief of protocol) of French king Louis XIV in 1697-1709 to add symbolically the province to the French royal coat of arms.The contemporary return of the historic flag of Gascony is ought to convey identity and values which make of this province a land of "douceur de vivre" (sweetness of life): soft climate, authenticity of relationship, conviviality, good wines and art of dining.

John Scotus (bishop of Dunkeld)

John Scotus (Latin: Johannes cognomine Scotus, also referred to as John the Scot or l'Escot) was a 12th-century Bishop of St. Andrews and Dunkeld.

John had studied at the University of Oxford and the University of Paris before beginning his ecclesiastical career at St. Andrews, entering the service of Bishop Richard. The latter made him Archdeacon of the see. His nickname would usually be taken to indicate that he was either a Gaelic-speaker or from Scotland-north-of-the-Forth (Scotia), but according to John of Fordun, he was from the villa of Podoth in Cheshire. He certainly had Scottish connections in his family. For instance, he was the nephew of both Robert of Scone, a previous bishop of Cell Rígmonaid, and Matthew, Bishop of Aberdeen.After the death of his patron Richard, he was elected by the cathedral chapter in either 1177 or 1178 in the presence of Cardinal Viviano of S. Stefano in Monte Celio, the Papal legate. His election, however, was not approved of by the king, William I of Scotland, who wanted his chaplain Hugh to succeed to the bishopric. John travelled to appeal to Pope Alexander III, who quashed the case of Hugh and sent to Scotland a man name Alexius as legate. Alexius obtained entrance to William's kingdom, and consecrated John at Holyrood Abbey in the presence of four other Scottish bishops, in the year 1180. Nevertheless, the struggle continued, and in 1183, both John and Hugh resigned their rights.John demanded another Scottish bishopric in compensation, as well as continued use of the revenues he had previous had access to. John was subsequently elected by the clergy of Dunkeld as bishop. The new Pope, Pope Lucius III, granted the see of St Andrew to Hugh, and John, having previously been elected to the Bishopric of Dunkeld, had this see confirmed. It did not, however, end the struggle, as King William still objected, and in 1186 both John and Hugh were summoned to Rome once more. Hugh refused to go, and was suspended and excommunicated by the Pope. In February 1188 John returned with a Letter of Confirmation of his position from Pope Clement III, and King William finally conceded that John could hold the see "of Dunkeld and the revenues which he had before his consecration", on the condition that John should quit-claim forever the episcopate of St. Andrews.John subsequently reorganized the see of Dunkeld. His most notable act was dividing the see into two parts, and his actions thereby led to the creation of the Bishoric of Argyll.John died in 1203 at Newbattle. He was buried in the choir on the north of the altar.

National Archival Services of Norway

The National Archival Services of Norway (Norwegian: Arkivverket) is a Norwegian government agency that is responsible for keeping state archives, conducts control of public archiving and works to preserve private archives. It is subordinate to the Ministry of Culture and Church Affairs and consists of the National Archive (Riksarkivet), eight regional state archives (statsarkiv) and The Sámi Archives (Samisk arkiv). The organization has 190 employees and about 120 kilometers (75 mi) of materials. The oldest complete document is from 1189. It is a letter (a so-called diploma) issued on 28 January 1189 by Pope Clement III (1187-1191) to all clergymen in Norway.The National Archive is located at Sognsvann in Oslo and preserves all central government papers from when they become 25 years old, as well as some archives from private individuals, companies and organizations. The National Archive is also responsible for control. The state archives are responsible for local and regional government and state agencies, as well as archives from private people, companies, institutions and organizations. The local archives are located in Bergen, Hamar, Kongsberg, Kristiansand, Oslo, Stavanger, Tromsø and Trondheim.The Digital Archive is a web site that publishes selected works. This includes census data from 1801, 1865, 1875, 1900 and 1910, a database of emigrants and scanned church, probate and court records. The agency publishes three magazines: Arkivmagasinet, Nytt fra Statsarkivet i Oslo and Bergensposten. The agency is regulated by the Archive Act of 1992. The archives are open to anyone, but there are restrictions on certain types of documents that may contain sensitive or personal information, or could pose a threat to national security. These documents are released to the public between 60 and 100 years after the date of publishing.

Niccolò Scolari

Niccolo Scolari (died 1200) was an Italian cardinal.

He was cardinal-nephew of Pope Clement III, his uncle, who elevated him in September 1190. In older historiography he is erroneously listed as Niccolo Boboni and nephew of Pope Celestine III. He subscribed papal bulls as S.R.E. diaconus cardinalis between October 23 and December 19, 1190, as cardinal-deacon of Santa Lucia in Orthea on February 17, 1191, and finally as cardinal-deacon of Santa Maria in Cosmedin between May 15, 1191 and August 4, 1200. He died before December 23, 1200.

Pandolfo da Lucca

Pandolfo da Lucca (1140/45–1210/11), erroneously Pandolfo Masca, was an Italian cardinal of the late 12th century. His name is sometimes given in the anglicised form Pandulf or Pandulph.

Pandolfo was born in Lucca in the early 1140s. He was the son of a certain Pietro di Roberto. In the 16th century, the Spanish historian Alfonso Chacón mistakenly assigned him to the noble Masca family from the Pisan commune, an error finally caught in 1844 by Domenico Barsocchini, who found a document from 1208 naming Pandolfo's father.Pandolfo commissioned several paintings from Tuscany on the orders of Callixtus II, for which he was made sub-deacon of the apostolic seat. He was created a cardinal by Pope Lucius III in December 1182 with the title (titulus) of Santi XII Apostoli. He held this title at the time of the five papal elections at which he was present - Pope Urban III on November 25, 1185; Pope Gregory VIII on October 21, 1187; Pope Clement III on December 17–19, 1187; Pope Celestine III on March 25 (?) - 30, 1191; and Pope Innocent III on January 8, 1198. He subscribed the papal bulls between January 4, 1183 and November 11, 1200.

Pope Celestine III, wanting peace between Genoa and Pisa, sent Masca to Tuscany but, as for Lerici, at 1196 peace negotiations it proved impossible to arrive at an understanding. Anti-imperialist sentiment was also growing in Tuscany and, following the example of the Lombard League, a new league was formed, the League of San Genesio or the Tuscan League. The Church favoured such moves, seeing the need to return power to the Communes. On arrival in Tuscany, Masca succeeded in uniting the towns under the flag of the anti-feudality and of keeping themselves distinct from imperial authority. However, on the succession of Innocent III, the new pope did not wish to become part of the anti-imperialist league but instead to take possession of the Tuscan towns himself. Innocent wrote immediately to Masca and another cardinal who accepted the League's agreements (Bernardo, canon of S. Frediano of Lucca), affirming that the alliance had his disapproval since signoria (overlordship) over the March of Tuscany formally belonged to the Church, and as such the Pope could not negotiate with those who were in fact his subjects. Though this weakened the League, the Tuscan towns opposed the Pope in this, forcing him soon to give up the idea of a temporal dominion over Tuscany and limit himself to obstructing the League.Owing to confusion with an earlier cardinal, Pandulf of Pisa, Pandolfo was thought to have been born in 1101 and thus died over the age of one hundred in or after 1201. In reality, Pandolfo seems to have gone into an informal retirement to his native Lucca after 1201. He never appears at the papal court after that date, but he was active in Lucca as late as 1210. He probably died late that year or early the next. He was certainly dead by 1213.

Pietro Gallocia

Pietro Gallocia or Galluzzi (ca. 1120/30, in Rome - 14 March 1211, in Rome) was an Italian cardinal.

He was apostolic subdeacon and governor of Campagna in the pontificate of Pope Alexander III (1159-1181). Pope Clement III created him Cardinal-Deacon in 1188 and named him Cardinal-Bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina in 1190. He participated in the papal election, 1191 and papal election, 1198. Papal legate in Constantinople 1191-92.

In 1204 he consecrated King Peter II of Aragon, who was solemnly crowned by the Pope Innocent III. He became Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals in April 1206. He died at Rome at very advanced age.

Pope Clement

There have been fourteen popes named Clement.

Pope Clement I saint, (88–98)

Pope Clement II (1046–1047)

Pope Clement III (1187–1191)

Pope Clement IV (1265–1268)

Pope Clement V (1305–1314) — known for suppressing the Knights Templar; and moving papacy to Avignon

Pope Clement VI (1342–1352) — known for reigning during the Black Death

Pope Clement VII (1523–1534) — known for enduring the violent Sack of Rome, during which he was imprisoned in Castel Sant’Angelo; and for refusing to annul the marriage of Henry VIII of England, prompting the English Reformation

Pope Clement VIII (1592–1605)

Pope Clement IX (1667–1669)

Pope Clement X (1670–1676)

Pope Clement XI (1700–1721)

Pope Clement XII (1730–1740)

Pope Clement XIII (1758–1769)

Pope Clement XIV (1769–1774)There have also been three antipopes named Clement.

Antipope Clement III (1080–1085)

Antipope Clement VII (1378–1394) First Avignon Pope

Antipope Clement VIII (1423–1429)


Radogost or Radigost (latinized as Rhadagastus) was a Catholic clergyman who served as Bishop of Bosnia in the late 12th century. As his vernacular name suggests, he was a local cleric and was chosen by Bosnians themselves. Radogost was consecrated by Bernard, Archbishop of Ragusa, in 1189. On that occasion, Radogost brought presents for Pope Clement III from Ban Kulin, ruler of Bosnia. The historian John Van Antwerp Fine, Jr. dismisses the chronicler Mavro Orbini's date of 1171 because there is no evidence that Kulin was already Ban of Bosnia at that time.At a time when the Papacy insisted on using Latin as the liturgical language, Radogost was noted for not knowing Latin at all, nor any other language. Thus, Radogost "swore the oath of faith and obedience to his metropolitan in ... the Slavic language". He justified his celebration of mass in Church Slavonic to his metropolitan, claiming that this was a privilege granted to his predecessors by Pope John VIII in 880.Bishop Radogost likely died in 1203; on 10 June, the papal legate John de Casamaris reported the death of the Bishop of Bosnia to Pope Innocent III. It is unknown whether he died before or after the Abjuration of Bilino Polje, whereby Kulin and his closest associates agreed on the future management of the Catholic Church in Bosnia. If he died after 8 April, when the abjuration took place, he was curiously absent from the meeting.

Saint Meinhard

Saint Meinhard (b. 1134 or 1136 - died August 14 or October 11, 1196) was a German canon regular and the first Bishop of Livonia. His life was described in the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia. His body rests in the now-Lutheran Riga Cathedral.

As a canon at the Segeberg Abbey, Meinhard was possibly inspired by Vicelinus missionary work among the Slavs. Meinhard traveled with merchants to Livonia on a Catholic mission to convert pagan Semigallians, Latgalians, and Livonians into Christianity. He settled on the Daugava River at Ikšķile (German: Üxküll) southeast of Riga. In 1185–1186 he built a stone church, dedicated to Our Lady. Following an attack by the Lithuanians, Meinhard brought stonemasons from Gotland to build a fortress to defend against future attacks. These were the first known stone buildings among the Baltic tribes. Remains of the church survive to this day. Another stone castle was built in Salaspils (German: Holm) as a gift to newly converted pagans. But the inhabitants rebelled and attacked Meinhard attempting to drive him out of Livonia.When he briefly returned to Germany in 1186, Meinhard was consecrated as Bishop of Üxküll by Hartwig of Uthlede, Archbishop of Bremen. The new bishopric was confirmed by Pope Clement III in September 1188. In 1190, Clement III allowed any monk to join Meinhard's mission. New Pope Celestine III showed more enthusiastic support for the mission in his letter in April 1193, authorizing active missionary recruitment, making exceptions to rules governing monks' food and clothing, and granting indulgences to those who joined the mission. Among the recruits was Theodorich from Loccum Abbey, who started a mission in Turaida (German: Treyden). Meinhard initially converted the pagans by peaceful means, but faced with resistance and apostasy, he turned to the idea of a crusade.Meinhard was succeeded by Berthold of Hanover and Albert of Riga, who began the Livonian Crusade and established the Livonian Brothers of the Sword, a crusading military order, in Riga.

Saint Sicarius

Saint Sicarius (in French, Sicaire) can refer to a number of figures in Christian tradition:

Sicarius of Autun (Sicaire d’Autun or Siacre), 600 AD. Archbishop of Autun. Feast day: August 27.

Sicarius of Bassens (Sicaire de Bassens). His tomb can be found in the church of Saint-Pierre de Bassens; he is venerated locally in Gironde but never seems to have been formally canonized, indicating a very early cult.

Sicarius of Brantôme or Sicarius of Bethlehem (Sicaire de Brantôme, Sicaire de Bethléem), child saint whom tradition makes one of the victims of the Massacre of the Innocents. Charlemagne had his relics brought to the abbey of Saint-Pierre de Brantôme. Pope Clement III canonized Sicarius. A spring bears his name. Feast day: May 1 or May 2

Sicarius of Lyons (Sicard, Sicarius, Sacario), d. ca. 433 or 435 AD. He was an archbishop of Lyons. Feast day: March 26. However, his existence has been in dispute since the 18th century. Bearing his name is Sansicario Torinese.

Sicarius of Nice (Siacre, in Latin Siacrius or Sicarius) 777–781 AD. Feast day: May 23.


Scolari is an Italian surname, and may refer to:

Fred Scolari, American basketball player

Luiz Felipe Scolari, Brazilian football coach

Peter Scolari, American actor

Pope Clement III, born as Paulino Scolari

Pipo of Ozora, also known as Filippo Scolari or Lo Scolari

Giuseppe Scolari, Venetian artist of the 16th century, notably in woodcut

Theobald of Ostia

Theobald of Ostia (French: Thibaut de Vermandois or Thibaut de Nanteuil, Italian: Teodobaldo di Vermandois; died 4 November 1188) was a French cardinal.

He entered the Order of Benedictines of the Congregation of Cluny in his youth. He was prior of the monastery of Saint-Arnoult-de-Crepy by 1169 and then abbot of Cluny from 1180 until 1183. In 1184 pope Lucius III named him Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia e Velletri; as such, he signed the papal bulls between 21 May 1184 and 29 October 1188. He served as papal legate in southern Germany in 1187. He participated in the papal election of 1185, of October 1187 and of December 1187; in the last one, he was elected to the papacy but declined in favour of Paolo Scolari, who was elected Pope Clement III. Shortly before his death pope appointed him legate in England but he was unable to fulfill this mission. He was buried in the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls, Rome.

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