Pope Clement II

Pope Clement II (Latin: Clemens II; born Suidger von Morsleben; died 9 October 1047), was Pope from 25 December 1046 until his death in 1047. He was the first in a series of reform-minded popes from Germany.

Suidger was the Bishop of Bamberg. In 1046, he accompanied Henry, King of Germany, when at the request of laity and clergy of Rome, Henry went to Italy and summoned the Council of Sutri, which deposed Popes Benedict IX and Sylvester III, and accepted the resignation of Gregory VI. Henry suggested Suidger for Pope, and he was then elected, taking the name of Clement II. Clement then proceeded with the coronation of Henry as Holy Roman Emperor.

Clement's brief tenure as pope saw the enactment of more stringent prohibitions against simony.

Pope

Clement II
Pope Clement II
Papacy began25 December 1046
Papacy ended9 October 1047
PredecessorGregory VI
SuccessorBenedict IX
Personal details
Birth nameSuidger von Morsleben
BornHornburg, Lower Saxony, Holy Roman Empire
Died9 October 1047
Pesaro, Papal States
Other popes named Clement

Life

Born in Hornburg, Lower Saxony, Germany, he was the son of Count Konrad of Morsleben and Hornburg and his wife Amulrad. In 1040, he became Bishop of Bamberg.[1]

In the autumn of 1046, there were three rival claimants to the papacy, in St. Peter's, the Lateran, and St. Mary Major's. Two of them, Benedict IX and Sylvester III, represented rival factions of the nobility. The third, Pope Gregory VI, in order to free the city from the House of Tusculum, and Benedict's scandalous lifestyle, had paid Benedict money in exchange for his resignation. Regardless the motives, the transaction bore the appearance of simony. Questions regarding the legitimacy of any of them could undermine the validity of a coronation of Henry as Holy Roman Emperor. King Henry crossed the Alps at the head of a large army and accompanied by a brilliant retinue of the secular and ecclesiastical princes of the empire, for the twofold purpose of receiving the imperial crown and of restoring order.[1]

In 1046, Suidiger accompanied King Henry on his campaign to Italy and in December, participated in the Council of Sutri, which deposed former Popes Benedict IX and Sylvester III and persuaded Pope Gregory VI to resign. King Henry nominated Suidger for the papacy and the council elected him. Suidger insisted upon retaining the bishopric of his see, partly for needed financial support, and partly lest the turbulent Romans should before long send him back to Bamberg. Suidger took the name Clement II. Immediately after his election, King Henry and the new Pope travelled to Rome, where Clement was enthroned as pope. and then crowned Henry III as Holy Roman Emperor.[1]

Clement's election was later criticized by the reform party within the papal curia due to the royal involvement and the fact that the new Pope was already bishop of another diocese. Contrary to later practice, Clement kept his old see, governing both Rome and Bamberg simultaneously.

Pope clement II

Clement's first pontifical act was to crown Henry and the queen-consort, Agnes of Aquitaine. He bestowed on the Emperor the title and diadem of a Roman Patricius, a dignity which was commonly understood to give the bearer the right of indicating the person to be chosen pope.

Clement II's short pontificate, starting with the Roman synod of 1047, initiated an improvement in the state of affairs within the Roman Church, particularly by enacting decrees against simony. A dispute for precedence among the Sees of Ravenna, Milan, and Aquileia was settled in favour of Ravenna.[2]

Clement accompanied the Emperor in a triumphal progress through southern Italy and placed Benevento under an interdict for refusing to open its gates to them. Proceeding with Henry to Germany, he canonized Wiborada, a nun of St. Gall, martyred by the Hungarians in 925. On his way back to Rome, he died near Pesaro on 9 October 1047.[3] His corpse was transferred back to Bamberg, which he had loved dearly, and interred in the western choir of the Bamberg Cathedral. His is the only tomb of a Pope north of the Alps.[2]

A toxicologic examination of his remains in the mid-20th century confirmed centuries-old rumors that the Pope had been poisoned with lead sugar.[4] It is not clear, however, whether he was murdered or whether the lead sugar was used as medicine.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Loughlin, James. "Pope Clement II." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. 26 September 2017
  2. ^ a b Kollmorgen, Gregor. "Catholic Bamberg: The Vestments of Pope Clement II and Other Treasures from the Diocesan Museum", New Liturgical Movement, May 29, 2009
  3. ^ Miranda, Salvador. "Morsleben und Hornburg, Suidger von", Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, Florida International University, 2015
  4. ^ Specht W and Fischer K (1959). Vergiftungsnachweis an den Resten einer 900 Jahre alten Leiche. Arch. Kriminol., 124: 61–84. [Translation:Intoxication evidence in the remains of a 900-year-old corpse]

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope Clement II". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.

Bibliography

  • Dechant, Alfons; Göller, Luitgar (1997). Clemens II., der Papst aus Bamberg: 24 Dezember 1046 – 9 Oktober 1047 (in German). Bamberg: St.-Otto-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-87693-078-7.
  • Dolley, M. (1969). "Some Neglected Evidence from Irish Chronicles Concerning the Alleged Poisoning of Pope Clement II," Frühmittelalterliche Studien 3, 1969, pp. 343–346.
  • Gresser, Georg (2007). Clemens II.: der erste deutsche Reformpapst (in German). Paderborn: Schöningh. ISBN 978-3-506-76329-7.
  • Mann, Horace K. (1902). The lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages Volume V (London, K. Paul, Trench, Trübner, & co.), pp. 270–285.
  • Migne, J.-P., ed. (1880). Patrologiae cursus completus, Series Latina (in Latin). Tomus CXLII (142). Paris: apud Garnier fratres, apud J.-P. Migne. pp. 577–590.
  • Timmel, R. (1982). "Bischof Suidger von Bamberg – Papst Clemens II., † 1047," Fränkische Lebensbilder 10, 1982, pp. 1–19.
  • Zimmermann, G. (1980). "Bischof Suidger von Bamberg – Papst Clemens II.," in: Sorge um den Menschen. Festschrift zum 25jährigen Bischofsjubiläum von Alterzbischof Joseph Schneider, (ed. H.G. Röhrig) Bamberg 1980, pp. 125–135.

External links

  • Laqua, Hans Peter (2000). "Clemente II" Enciclopedia dei papi (Treccani 2000).
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Gregory VI
Pope
1046–1047
Succeeded by
Benedict IX
1040s

The 1040s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1040, and ended on December 31, 1049.

1046

Year 1046 (MXLVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

1047

Year 1047 (MXLVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Bamberg

Bamberg (, also US: , German: [ˈbambɛɐ̯k] (listen)) is a town in Upper Franconia, Germany, on the river Regnitz close to its confluence with the river Main. A large part of the town has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1993.

Bamberg Cathedral

Bamberg Cathedral (German: Bamberger Dom, official name Bamberger Dom St. Peter und St. Georg) is a church in Bamberg, Germany, completed in the 13th century. The cathedral is under the administration of the Roman Catholic Church and is the seat of the Archbishop of Bamberg. Since 1993, the cathedral has been part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site "Town of Bamberg".

It was founded in 1002 by King (and later Emperor) Heinrich II (Henry II) and consecrated in 1012. After the first two cathedrals burned down in the 11th and 12th centuries, the current structure, a late Romanesque building with four large towers, was built in the 13th century.

The cathedral is about 94 m long, 28 m broad, 26 m high, and the four towers are each about 81 m high. It contains many works of art, including the marble tomb of the founder and his wife, the Empress Kunigunde, considered a masterpiece of the sculptor Tilman Riemenschneider, and carved between 1499 and 1513.

Another well-known treasure of the cathedral is an equestrian statue known as the Bamberg Horseman (German: Der Bamberger Reiter). This statue, possibly depicting the Hungarian king Stephen I, most likely dates to the period from 1225 to 1237.

Bamberg Horseman

The Bamberg Horseman (German: Der Bamberger Reiter) is a stone equestrian statue by an anonymous medieval sculptor in the cathedral of Bamberg, Germany.

Duarte de Puy

Duarte de Puy (c.1125-11?) was a Portuguese nobleman, ambassador of Pope Clement II in Rome. He served the King Sancho I in the war against the Moors.Duarte was born in Coimbra, Kingdom of Portugal, son of Godofredo de Puy, a knight from Normandy, France. His wife was Genebra de Sousa, daughter of Álvaro de Sousa, Lord of Moncorvo .

Fécamp Abbey

Fécamp Abbey (French: Abbaye de la Trinité de Fécamp) is a Benedictine abbey in Fécamp, Seine-Maritime, Upper Normandy, France.

The abbey was the first producer of Bénédictine, a herbal liqueur, based on brandy.

Gunthertuch

The so-called Gunthertuch (lit. ‘Gunther's shroud’) is a Byzantine silk tapestry which represents the triumphal return of a Byzantine Emperor from a victorious campaign. The piece was purchased, or possibly received as a gift, by Gunther von Bamberg, Bishop of Bamberg, during his 1064–65 pilgrimage to the Holy Land. Gunther died on his return journey, and was buried with it in the Bamberg Cathedral. The fabric was rediscovered in 1830, and is now exhibited in the Bamberg Diocesan Museum.

Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor

Henry III (28 October 1017 – 5 October 1056), called the Black or the Pious, was Holy Roman Emperor from 1046 until his death in 1056. A member of the Salian Dynasty, he was the eldest son of Emperor Conrad II of Germany and Gisela of Swabia.

His father made him Duke of Bavaria in 1026 after the death of Duke Henry V at the age of 9. At the age of 11 in 1028, on Easter Day after his father had been crowned Holy Roman Emperor, Henry was elected King of Germany in the cathedral of Aachen, and crowned by Archbishop Pilgrim of Colonge. To secure his ultimate transition to the throne, upon the death of Duke Herman IV in 1038, Conrad II named him Duke of Swabia as well as the King of Burgundy, which Conrad II had inherited in 1033. Upon the death of his father on in 1039, Henry became the sole ruler of the kingdom, succeeding his father as Duke of Carinthia and King of Italy. He was crowned Emperor by Pope Clement II in Rome in 1046.

History of the papacy (1048–1257)

The history of the papacy from 1048 to 1257 was marked by conflict between popes and the Holy Roman Emperor, most prominently the Investiture Controversy, a dispute over who— pope or emperor— could appoint bishops within the Empire. Henry IV's Walk to Canossa in 1077 to meet Pope Gregory VII (1073–85), although not dispositive within the context of the larger dispute, has become legendary. Although the emperor renounced any right to lay investiture in the Concordat of Worms (1122), the issue would flare up again.

The Imperial crown once held by the Carolingian emperors was disputed between their fractured heirs and local overlords; none emerged victorious until Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor invaded Italy. Italy became a constituent kingdom of the Holy Roman Empire in 962, from which point emperors were Germanic. As emperors consolidated their position, northern Italian city-states would become divided by Guelphs and Ghibellines.

Long-standing divisions between East and West also came to a head in the East-West Schism and the Crusades. The first seven Ecumenical Councils had been attended by both Western and Eastern prelates, but growing doctrinal, theological, linguistic, political, and geographic differences finally resulted in mutually denunciations and excommunications. Pope Urban II (1088–99) speech at the Council of Clermont in 1095 became the rallying cry of the First Crusade.

Unlike the previous millennium, the process for papal selection became somewhat fixed during this period. Pope Nicholas II promulgated In Nomine Domini in 1059, which limited suffrage in papal elections to the College of Cardinals. The rules and procedures of papal elections evolved during this period, laying the groundwork for the modern papal conclave. The driving force behind these reforms was Cardinal Hildebrand, who later became Gregory VII.

Hornburg

Hornburg is a town and a former municipality in the Wolfenbüttel district, in the German state of Lower Saxony. Since 1 November 2013, it is part of the municipality Schladen-Werla. It is situated at the Ilse river, a tributary of the Oker. Hornburg is part of the Samtgemeinde ("collective municipality") Schladen and home to numerous historically valuable half-timber buildings (Fachwerkhäuser). It is located on the German Timber-Frame Road.

Hornburg Castle was first mentioned in a 994 deed as a property of the Bishopric of Halberstadt. In 1005 it was the birthplace of Pope Clement II. The fortress located on a limestone plateau served to control the northern border of the bishopric and the trade routes from Halberstadt to Braunschweig and Hildesheim. It was devastated by Henry the Lion in 1179 during his conflict with the bishop, an ally of Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, who had the castle rebuilt.

In 1528 the attached settlement was denoted as a town by the Halberstadt bishops, it received market rights in 1552. At the same time Hornburg, thriving from the cultivation of humulus (hop) for beer brewing, was surrounded by a town wall including five gates. The ensemble of about 400 Renaissance timber framed houses arose after a blaze in 1512 had devastated nearly all of Hornburg's buildings. The reconstruction of the town with elaborately carved Fachwerk houses was modeled after the townscape of Halberstadt. With the bishopric Hornburg turned Protestant in 1540. The parish church Beatae Mariae Virginis is considered one of the first Lutheran hall churches in the region. During the Thirty Years' War Hornburg was occupied by the Imperial field marshal Johann Tserclaes von Tilly in 1626, but conquered by Swedish troops in 1630. In 1645 the Swedish military Hans Christoff von Königsmarck finally had the castle slighted. The nowadays building is a reconstruction on a private initiative in the 1920s.

With the secularization of the Halberstadt bishopric in 1648, Hornburg fell to the electors of Brandenburg and after the 1815 Congress of Vienna it became part of the Prussian province of Saxony. Hornburg stayed a Prussian town until 1941, when it was attached to the Free State of Brunswick in the course of the establishment of the City of Salzgitter. Therefore, at the end of World War II Hornburg found itself in British occupation zone and later became a West German town.

Landulf VI of Benevento

Landulf VI (died 27 November 1077) was the last prince of Benevento. Unlike his predecessors, he never had a chance to rule alone and independent. The principality lost its independence in 1051, at which point Landulf was only co-ruling with his father, Pandulf III.

Landulf was the eldest son of Pandulf and he was first made co-prince in August or September 1038. In 1041, it was probably his brother Atenulf who led the rebellion because he was not made co-ruler as well. The revolt failed and Atenulf fled to the Normans, where he was elected their leader as princeps.

In 1047, the Emperor Henry III came down to secure his authority in the Mezzogiorno. The Empress Agnes visited Monte Gargano as a pilgrim and returned via Benevento, where she was accepted, but her husband denied. The spurned imperator immediately laid siege to the city and Pope Clement II excommunicated Landulf and Pandulf and the citizenry. The siege was eventually lifted, however, the disrespect shown the imperial family and the church coupled with the principality's decline caused Landulf's uncle, Daufer, to flee the city and take refuge with Guaimar IV of Salerno, who housed the religious youth in La Cava. Landulf personally travelled to Salerno to meet with Guaimar and negotiate the return of Daufer. Daufer was returned with the promise that his choice of a monastic vocation would be respected.

Beneventan matters came to a head in 1050, when Pope Leo IX went on a pilgrimage to Monte Gargano and reaffirmed the excommunication of the princes. The citizens turned on them and threw them out. The citizens sent an embassy to the pope in Rome offered to put their city under him. In April 1051, Cardinal Humbert of Silva Candida and Domenic, Patriarch of Grado, entered Benevento to receive the city on the pope's behalf. On 5 July, the pope entered his new city on behalf of himself and the emperor.

In the aftermath of the Battle of Civitate, in which the pope was imprisoned in Benevento, the city invited Pandulf and Landulf back (sometime between June 1053 and March 1054). They returned by 1055 and ruled as vassals of the pope. In 1056, Landulf associated his son Pandulf IV. Probably in 1059, the elder Pandulf abdicated to the monastery of S. Sofia, leaving Landulf and Pandulf IV sole princes.

Landulf only appears scarcely in sources thereafter. In 1065, he was admonished by Pope Alexander II "that the conversion of Jews is not to be obtained by force." He was present on 1 October 1071 at the consecration of the Abbey of Monte Cassino. In August 1073, he swore fealty to Pope Gregory VII, his overlord, and promised to respect the rights of the citizens of Benevento. Gregory even began residing from time to time in Landulf's palace at Benevento, which Amatus calls lo plus grand palaiz ("the largest palace"). Landulf does not appear again in the chronicles and, his son dying in battle in 1074, died sole prince under the pope on 27 November 1077. With his death, the ancient principality of Benevento came to an end.

Pandulf III of Benevento

Pandulf III (died 1060) was the prince of Benevento in the Mezzogiorno in medieval Italy, first as co-ruler with his father, Landulf V, and grandfather, Pandulf II, from 1012 or thereabouts to 1014, when the elder Pandulf died. He co-ruled with his father until his death in 1033. Thereafter he was the primary ruler until his abdication in 1059 (except for a brief period).

Immediately after the death of Pandulf II, the citizens of Benevento led a revolt against the two princes, father and son. The rebellion failed to dislodge the princes from power. However, the citizens did force concessions of authority to themselves and the city's aristocracy. The Annales say facta est communitas prima: "the first commune is made."

Benevento was forced to make submission to the Byzantine Empire, whose Italian catepan Boiannes had built the fortified city of Troia nearby. In 1022, the Emperor Henry II joined his army with two other armies under Poppo of Aquileia and Pilgrim of Cologne at Benevento, which submitted after a quick siege. From there they marched on Troia, but failed to take it. After making submission to the Western Emperor, Landulf is not heard of again in the pages of history until his death and his son takes his place.

In August or September 1038, Pandulf associated his own son, Landulf VI, in the principality. Such co-regency was a tradition dating back to the will of Atenulf I of Capua in 910. In 1041, it was his brother Atenulf who incited a rebellion because he was not included in the regency. To the author of the meagre Annales Beneventani, this fuit [...] coniuratio secundo, the second conspiracy to remove the princes. Like the first of 1014, it failed.

In 1047, the Emperor Henry III came down to secure his authority in the Mezzogiorno. The Empress Agnes visited Monte Gargano as a pilgrim and returned via Benevento, where she was accepted, but her husband denied. The spurned imperator immediately laid siege to the city and Pope Clement II excommunicated Landulf and Pandulf and the citizenry. The siege was eventually lifted, however, the disrespect shown the imperial family and the church coupled with the principality's decline caused Pandulf's brother, Daufer (later Pope Victor III), to flee the city and take refuge with Guaimar IV of Salerno.

Beneventan matters came to a head in 1050, when Pope Leo IX went on a pilgrimage to Monte Gargano and reaffirmed the excommunication of the princes. The citizens turned on them and threw them out cum sculdays suis, "with their squire." The citizens turned the city over to the pope in April 1051 and on 5 July the pope accepted and entered his new city.

In the aftermath of the Battle of Civitate, in which the pope was imprisoned in Benevento, the city invited Pandulf and Landulf back (sometime between June 1053 and March 1054). Pandulf returned and ruled as a vassal of the pope. In 1056, he oversaw the association of his grandson Pandulf IV. In 1059, he abdicated to the monastery of S. Sofia, the familial foundation and mausoleum of the Beneventan ruling house. He died there the next year.

Pope Benedict IX

Pope Benedict IX (Latin: Benedictus IX; c. 1012 – c. 1056), born Theophylactus of Tusculum in Rome, was Pope on three occasions between October 1032 and July 1048. Aged approximately 20 at his first election, he is one of the youngest popes in history. He is the only man to have been Pope on more than one occasion and the only man ever to have sold the papacy.

Benedict was the nephew of his immediate predecessor, Pope John XIX. In October 1032, his father obtained his election through bribery. However, his reputed dissolute activities provoked a revolt on the part of the Romans. Benedict was driven out of Rome and Pope Sylvester III elected to succeed him. Some months later, Benedict and his supporters managed to expel Sylvester. Benedict then decided to abdicate in favor of his godfather, the Archpriest of St. John by the Latin Gate, provided he was reimbursed for his expenses. Gratian then became Pope Gregory VI. Benedict subsequently had second thoughts and returned, and attempted to depose Gregory. A number of prominent clergy appealed to Henry, King of the Germans to restore order. Henry and his forces crossed the Brenner Pass into Italy, where he summoned the Council of Sutri to decide the matter. Benedict, Sylvester, and Gregory were all deposed. Henry then nominated the bishop of Bamberg, Suidger von Morsleben, who was consecrated and became Pope Clement II in December 1046, thus clearing the way for Henry to be immediately crowned Holy Roman Emperor by a Pope recognized as legitimate.

While Benedict IX has an execrable reputation as pope, R.L. Poole suggests that some of the calumnies directed against him be understood in the context that they were perpetrated by virulent political enemies.

Pope Clement

There have been fourteen popes named Clement.

Pope Clement I saint, (88–98)

Pope Clement II (1046–1047)

Pope Clement III (1187–1191)

Pope Clement IV (1265–1268)

Pope Clement V (1305–1314) — known for suppressing the Knights Templar; and moving papacy to Avignon

Pope Clement VI (1342–1352) — known for reigning during the Black Death

Pope Clement VII (1523–1534) — known for enduring the violent Sack of Rome, during which he was imprisoned in Castel Sant’Angelo; and for refusing to annul the marriage of Henry VIII of England, prompting the English Reformation

Pope Clement VIII (1592–1605)

Pope Clement IX (1667–1669)

Pope Clement X (1670–1676)

Pope Clement XI (1700–1721)

Pope Clement XII (1730–1740)

Pope Clement XIII (1758–1769)

Pope Clement XIV (1769–1774)There have also been three antipopes named Clement.

Antipope Clement III (1080–1085)

Antipope Clement VII (1378–1394) First Avignon Pope

Antipope Clement VIII (1423–1429)

Pope Gregory VI

Pope Gregory VI (Latin: Gregorius VI; died 1048), born John Gratian in Rome (Latin: Johannes Gratianus), was Pope from 1 May 1045 until his abdication at the Council of Sutri on 20 December 1046.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Pesaro

The Archdiocese of Pesaro (Latin: Archidioecesis Pisaurensis) is a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical territory in central Italy. Its see at Pesaro was elevated in status to archiepiscopal see in 2000. Its suffragans are the Diocese of Fano-Fossombrone-Cagli-Pergola and the Archdiocese of Urbino-Urbania-Sant'Angelo in Vado.

Wiborada

Saint Wiborada of St. Gall (also Guiborat, Weibrath or Viborata) (died 926) was a member of the Swabian nobility in what is present-day Switzerland. She was an anchoress, Benedictine nun, and martyr, as well as the first woman formally canonized by the Catholic Church. Her biography was written ca. 1075 by Herimannus, a monk of the Abbey of Saint Gall.

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