Pope Clement I

Pope Clement I (Latin: Clemens Romanus; Greek: Κλήμης Ῥώμης; died 99), also known as Saint Clement of Rome, is listed by Irenaeus and Tertullian as Bishop of Rome, holding office from 88 to his death in 99.[2] He is considered to be the first Apostolic Father of the Church, one of the three chief ones together with Polycarp and Ignatius of Antioch.[3]

Few details are known about Clement's life. Clement was said to have been consecrated by Saint Peter,[3] and he is known to have been a leading member of the church in Rome in the late 1st century. Early church lists place him as the second or third[2][4] bishop of Rome after Saint Peter. The Liber Pontificalis states that Clement died in Greece in the third year of Emperor Trajan's reign, or 101 AD.

Clement's only genuine extant writing is his letter to the church at Corinth (1 Clement) in response to a dispute in which certain presbyters of the Corinthian church had been deposed.[2] He asserted the authority of the presbyters as rulers of the church on the ground that the Apostles had appointed such.[2] His letter, which is one of the oldest extant Christian documents outside the New Testament, was read in church, along with other epistles, some of which later became part of the Christian canon. These works were the first to affirm the apostolic authority of the clergy.[2] A second epistle, 2 Clement, was attributed to Clement, although recent scholarship suggests it to be a homily by another author.[2] In the legendary Clementine Literature, Clement is the intermediary through whom the apostles teach the church.[2]

According to tradition, Clement was imprisoned under the Emperor Trajan; during this time he is recorded to have led a ministry among fellow prisoners. Thereafter he was executed by being tied to an anchor and thrown into the sea.[2] Clement is recognized as a saint in many Christian churches and is considered a patron saint of mariners. He is commemorated on 23 November in the Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, and the Lutheran Church.[5] In Eastern Orthodox Christianity his feast is kept on 24 or 25 November.

Pope Saint

Clement I
StClement1
Papacy began88 AD
Papacy ended99 AD
PredecessorAnacletus
SuccessorEvaristus
Orders
Consecrationby Saint Peter
Personal details
Bornca. 35 AD
Rome, Roman Empire
Died99 AD
Chersonesus,
Taurica, Bosporan Kingdom
(modern-day Crimea, Ukraine/Russia)
Sainthood
Feast day
Venerated in
Attributes
Patronage
ShrinesBasilica di San Clemente, Rome
Sr Clement's Church, Moscow
Other popes named Clement

Life

San clemente fresco
11th-century fresco in the Basilica of San Clemente, Rome: Saints Cyril and Methodius bring Saint Clement's relics to Rome

The Liber Pontificalis[6] presents a list that makes Pope Linus the second in the line of bishops of Rome, with Peter as first; but at the same time it states that Peter ordained two bishops, Linus and Pope Cletus, for the priestly service of the community, devoting himself instead to prayer and preaching, and that it was to Clement that he entrusted the Church as a whole, appointing him as his successor. Tertullian considered Clement to be the immediate successor of Peter.[7] In one of his works, Jerome listed Clement as "the fourth bishop of Rome after Peter", and added that "most of the Latins think that Clement was second after the apostle".[8] Clement is put after Linus and Cletus/Anacletus in the earliest (c. 180) account, that of Irenaeus,[9] who is followed by Eusebius of Caesarea.[10]

Early succession lists name Clement as the first,[11][12] second, or third[2][13] successor of Saint Peter. However, the meaning of his inclusion in these lists has been very controversial.[14] Some believe there were presbyter-bishops as early as the 1st century,[14] but that there is no evidence for a monarchical episcopacy in Rome at such an early date.[2] There is also, however, no evidence of a change occurring in ecclesiastical organization in the latter half of the 2nd century, which would indicate that a new or newly-monarchical episcopacy was establishing itself.[14] Also Dionysius of Corinth and Irenaeus of Lyon both viewed Clement as a monarchial bishop who intervened in the dispute in the church of Corinth.

Starting in the 3rd and 4th century,[2] tradition has identified him as the Clement that Paul mentioned in Philippians 4:3, a fellow laborer in Christ.[15] While in the mid-19th century it was customary to identify him as a freedman of Titus Flavius Clemens, who was consul with his cousin, the Emperor Domitian, this identification, which no ancient sources suggest, afterwards lost support.[3] The 2nd-century Shepherd of Hermas mentions a Clement whose office it was to communicate with other churches; most likely, this is a reference to Clement I.[16]

A large congregation existed in Rome c. 58, when Paul wrote his Epistle to the Romans.[2] Paul arrived in Rome c. 60 (Acts).[2] His Captivity Epistles, as well as Mark, Luke, Acts, and 1 Peter were written here, according to many scholars. Paul and Peter were said to have been martyred there. Nero persecuted Roman Christians after Rome burned in 64, and the congregation may have suffered further persecution under Domitian (81–96). Clement was the first of early Rome's most notable bishops.[17]

The Liber Pontificalis, which documents the reigns of popes, states that Clement had known Saint Peter.

Clement is known for his epistle to the church in Corinth (c. 96), in which he asserts the apostolic authority of the bishops/presbyters as rulers of the church.[2] The epistle mentions episkopoi (overseers, bishops) or presbyteroi (elders, presbyters) as the upper class of minister, served by the deacons, but, since it does not mention himself, it gives no indication of the title or titles used for Clement in Rome.

Saintclementmartyr
Martyrdom of St Clement by Fungai

Death and legends of final days

According to apocryphal acta dating to the 4th century at earliest, Clement was banished from Rome to the Chersonesus during the reign of the Emperor Trajan[2][3] and was set to work in a stone quarry. Finding on his arrival that the prisoners were suffering from lack of water, he knelt down in prayer. Looking up, he saw a lamb on a hill, went to where the lamb had stood and struck the ground with his pickaxe, releasing a gushing stream of clear water. This miracle resulted in the conversion of large numbers of the local pagans and his fellow prisoners to Christianity. As punishment, Saint Clement was martyred by being tied to an anchor[18] and thrown from a boat into the Black Sea. The legend recounts that every year a miraculous ebbing of the sea revealed a divinely built shrine containing his bones. However, the oldest sources on Clement's life, Eusebius and Jerome, note nothing of his martyrdom.[19]

The Inkerman Cave Monastery marks the supposed place of Clement's burial in the Crimea. A year or two before his own death in 869, Saint Cyril brought to Rome what he believed to be the relics of Saint Clement, bones he found in the Crimea buried with an anchor on dry land. They are now enshrined in the Basilica di San Clemente.[3] Other relics of Saint Clement, including his head, are claimed by the Kiev Monastery of the Caves in Ukraine.

Writings

The Liber Pontificalis states that Clement wrote two letters (though the second letter, 2 Clement, is no longer ascribed to him).

Epistle of Clement

Clement's only existing, genuine text is a letter to the Christian congregation in Corinth, often called the First Epistle of Clement or 1 Clement. The history of 1 Clement clearly and continuously shows Clement as the author of this letter. It is considered the earliest authentic Christian document outside the New Testament.

Clement writes to the troubled congregation in Corinth, where certain "presbyters" or "bishops" have been deposed (the class of clergy above that of deacons is designated indifferently by the two terms).[2] Clement calls for repentance and reinstatement of those who have been deposed, in line with maintenance of order and obedience to church authority, since the apostles established the ministry of "bishops and deacons." [2] He mentions "offering the gifts" as one of the functions of the higher class of clergy.[2] The epistle offers valuable insight into Church ministry at that time and into the history of the Roman Church.[2] It was highly regarded, and was read in church at Corinth along with the Scriptures c. 170.[2]

We should be obedient unto God, rather than follow those who in arrogance and unruliness have set themselves up as leaders in abominable jealousy.... For Christ is with them that are lowly of mind, not with them that exalt themselves over the flock. 1Clem 14:1; 16:1

Do we then think it to be a great and marvelous thing, if the Creator of the universe shall bring about the resurrection of them that have served Him with holiness in the assurance of a good faith, seeing that He showeth to us even by a bird the magnificence of His promise? 1Clem 26:1

In the epistle, Clement uses the terms bishop and presbyter interchangeably for the higher order of ministers above deacons.[2] In some congregations, particularly in Egypt, the distinction between bishops and presbyters seems to have become established only later.[20] But by the middle of the second century all the leading Christian centres had bishops.[20] Scholars such as Bart Ehrman treat as significant the fact that, of the seven letters written by Ignatius of Antioch to seven Christian churches shortly after the time of Clement, the only one that does not present the church as headed by a single bishop is that addressed to the church in Rome, although this letter did not refer to a collective priesthood either.[21]

The epistle has been cited as the first work to establish Roman primacy, but most scholars see the epistle as more fraternal than authoritative,[22] and Orthodox scholar John Meyendorff sees it as connected with the Roman church's awareness of its "priority" (rather than "primacy") among local churches.[23]

Writings formerly attributed to Clement

Giovanni Battista Tiepolo 094
Saint Clement, by Tiepolo

Second Epistle of Clement

The Second Epistle of Clement is a homily, or sermon, likely written in Corinth or Rome, but not by Clement.[2] Early Christian congregations often shared homilies to be read. The homily describes Christian character and repentance.[2] It is possible that the Church from which Clement sent his epistle had included a festal homily to share in one economical post, thus the homily became known as the Second Epistle of Clement.

While 2 Clement has been traditionally ascribed to Clement, most scholars believe that 2 Clement was written in the 2nd century based on the doctrinal themes of the text and a near match between words in 2 Clement and in the Greek Gospel of the Egyptians.[3][24]

Epistles on Virginity

Two "Epistles on Virginity" were traditionally attributed to Clement, but now there exists almost universal consensus that Clement was not the author of those two epistles.[25]

False Decretals

A 9th-century collection of church legislation known as the False Decretals, which was once attributed to Saint Isidore of Seville, is largely composed of forgeries. All of what it presents as letters of pre-Nicene popes, beginning with Clement, are forgeries, as are some of the documents that it attributes to councils;[26] and more than forty falsifications are found in the decretals that it gives as those of post-Nicene popes from Pope Sylvester I (314–335) to Pope Gregory II (715–731). The False Decretals were part of a series of falsifications of past legislation by a party in the Carolingian Empire whose principal aim was to free the church and the bishops from interference by the state and the metropolitan archbishops respectively.[27][28][29]

Clement is included among other early Christian popes as authors of the Pseudo-Isidoran (or False) Decretals, a 9th-century forgery. These decrees and letters portray even the early popes as claiming absolute and universal authority.[30] Clement is the earliest pope to whom a text is attributed.

Clementine literature

St. Clement is also the hero of an early Christian romance or novel that has survived in at least two different versions, known as the Clementine literature, where he is identified with Emperor Domitian's cousin Titus Flavius Clemens. Clementine literature portrays Clement as the Apostles' means of disseminating their teachings to the Church.[2]

Recognition as a saint

StClement Church Moscow 01-2016 img2
St. Clement is one of the few Roman Popes to have a Russian Orthodox church dedicated in his name.

St. Clement's name is in the Roman Canon of the Mass. He is commemorated on 23 November as a Pope and martyr in the Catholic Church as well as within the Anglican Communion and the Lutheran Church. The Syriac Orthodox Church, the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, the Macedonian Orthodox Church and the Greek Orthodox Church, as well as the Syriac Catholic Church, the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church and all Byzantine Rite Eastern Catholic Churches commemorate Saint Clement of Rome (called in Syriac "Mor Clemis") on 24 November; the Russian Orthodox Church commemorates St Clement on 25 November.

The St Clement's Church in Moscow is renowned for its glittering Baroque interior and iconostasis, as well as a set of gilded 18th-century railings. The parish was disbanded in 1934 and the original free-standing gate was demolished. The Lenin State Library stored its books in the building throughout the Soviet period. It was not until 2008 that the building reverted to the Russian Orthodox Church.

Saint Clement of Rome is commemorated in the Synaxarium of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria on the 29th of the month of Hatour [25 November (Julian) – equivalent to 8 December (Gregorian) due to the current 13-day Julian–Gregorian Calendar offset]. According to the Coptic Church Synaxarium, he suffered martyrdom in AD 100 during the reign of Emperor Trajan (98–117). He was martyred by tying his neck to an anchor and casting him into the sea. The record of the 29th of the Coptic month of Hatour states that this saint was born in Rome to an honorable father whose name was Fostinus and also states that he was a member of the Roman senate and that his father educated him and taught him Greek literature.

Relics

In the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife in Spain, it is the tap of San Clemente, gift of Mr. Sidotti (Patriarch of Antioch) to the Church of the Immaculate Conception. Historically this was a highly revered relic in the city.[31]

Symbolism

Mariner's Cross
Anchored or Mariner's or St Clement's cross

In works of art, Saint Clement can be recognized by having an anchor at his side or tied to his neck. He is most often depicted wearing papal vestments, including the pallium, and sometimes with a papal tiara but more often with a mitre. He is also sometimes shown with symbols of his office as Pope or Bishop of Rome such as the papal cross and the Keys of Heaven. In reference to his martyrdom, he often holds the palm of martyrdom.

Saint Clement can be seen depicted near a fountain or spring, relating to the incident from his hagiography, or lying in a temple in the sea. The Anchored Cross or Mariner's Cross is also referred to as St. Clement's Cross, in reference to the way he was martyred.[18]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Patron Saints and their feast days". Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x "Clement of Rome, St." Cross, F. L. (ed.), The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005).
  3. ^ a b c d e f Chapman, John. "Pope St. Clement I." in The Catholic Encyclopedia 1908
  4. ^ The Catholic Encyclopedia says that no critic now doubts that the names Cletus and Anacletus in lists that would make Clement the fourth successor of Saint Peter refer to the one person, not two.
  5. ^ See Calendar of Saints (Lutheran)
  6. ^ Liber Pontificalis 2
  7. ^ "CHURCH FATHERS: The Prescription Against Heretics (Tertullian)".
  8. ^ "CHURCH FATHERS: De Viris Illustribus (Jerome)".
  9. ^ Against Heresies3:3.3 "In the third place from the apostles, Clement was allotted the bishopric."
  10. ^ Church History 3.4.10 "Clement ... was appointed third bishop of the church at Rome"
  11. ^ "History of the Christian Church, Volume II: Ante-Nicene Christianity. A.D. 100-325".
  12. ^ Like Schaff, the Holy See's Annuario Pontificio (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2008 ISBN 978-88-209-8021-4), p. 7*, gives Clement as "supreme pontiff of Rome" in either 92–99 or 68–76, making him either the first or the third successor of Saint Peter, but not the second.
  13. ^ The Catholic Encyclopedia article says that only on the false assumption that "Cletus" and "Anacletus" were two distinct persons, instead of variations of the name of single individual, did some think that Clement was the fourth successor of Saint Peter.
  14. ^ a b c Van Hove, Alphonse. "Bishop." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 2. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 6 Dec. 2008
  15. ^ "Writers of the 3rd and 4th cents., like Origen, Eusebius, and Jerome, equate him (St. Clement I), perhaps, correctly, with the Clement whom St. Paul mentions (Phil. 4:3) as a fellow worker." — Kelly (1985). The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford University Press. p. 7.
  16. ^ "Vision II," 4. 3
  17. ^ "Rome (early Christian)." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  18. ^ a b Stracke, Richard (2015-10-20). "Saint Clement: The Iconography". Christian Iconography.
  19. ^ "But the oldest witnesses, down to Eusebius and Jerome, know nothing of his martyrdom." History of the Christian Church, Volume II: Ante-Nicene Christianity, AD 100–325 – "Clement of Rome"
  20. ^ a b "Bishop." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  21. ^ Bart D. Ehrman, Peter, Paul, and Mary Magdalene: The Followers of Jesus in History and Legend (Oxford University Press 2006 ISBN 978-0-19974113-7), p. 83
  22. ^ "Most scholars would now regard 1 Clement as an impressive example of fraternal correction rather than an authoritative intervention." Patrick Granfield and Peter C. Phan, The Gift of the Church: A Textbook On Ecclesiology In Honor Of Patrick Granfield, O.S.B, (Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 2000), p. 32.
  23. ^ John Meyendorff, The Primacy of Peter: Essays in Ecclesiology and the Early Church (St Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1992), p. 135–136
  24. ^ McBrien (2000). Lives of the Popes. HarperCollins. p. 35.
  25. ^ "Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol VIII: Two Epistles Concerning Virginity.: Introductory Notice".
  26. ^ The Encyclopædia Britannica places the Donation of Constantine in this section; the Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church places it in the section of the pre-Nicene Popes.
  27. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: False Decretals
  28. ^ OSV's Encyclopedia of Catholic History: False Decretals
  29. ^ Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (Oxford University Press 2005 ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3)] False Decretals
  30. ^ "These early documents were designed to show that by the oldest traditions and practice of the Church no bishop might be deposed, no Church councils might be convened, and no major issue might be decided, without the consent of the pope. Even the early pontiffs, by these evidences, had claimed absolute and universal authority as vicars of Christ on Earth." Durant, Will. The Age of Faith. New York: Simon and Schuster. 1972. p. 525
  31. ^ Fiestas y creencias en Canarias en la Edad Moderna

Further reading

  • Clarke, W. K. Lowther, ed. (1937). The First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians. London: Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge.
  • Grant, Robert M., ed. (1964). The Apostolic Fathers. New York: Nelson.
  • Loomis, Louise Ropes (1916). The Book of Popes (Liber Pontificalis). Merchantville, NJ: Evolution Publishing. ISBN 1-889758-86-8.
  • Lightfoot, J.B. (1890). The Apostolic Fathers. London: Macmillan.
  • Meeks, Wayne A. (1993). The origins of Christian morality : the first two centuries. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0-300-05640-2.
  • Richardson, Cyril Charles (1943). Early Christian Fathers. The Library of Christian Classics. Philadelphia: Westminster Press.
  • Staniforth, Maxwell (1968). Early Christian writings. Baltimore: Penguin.

External links

Titles of the Great Christian Church
Preceded by
Anacletus
Bishop of Rome
Pope

88–99
Succeeded by
Evaristus
Clementine Hall

The Clementine Hall, called the Sala Clementina (The Clementine Salon) is a hall of the Apostolic Palace near St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City. It was established in the 16th century by Pope Clement VIII in honor of Pope Clement I, the third successor of St. Peter. The Clementine Hall is covered in Renaissance frescoes and valuable works of art. It is used by the pope as a reception room and in some cases, site of various ceremonies and rituals. The Clementine Hall is the chamber in which the body of the pope lies for private visitation by officials of the Vatican upon death, like that most recently of the funeral of Pope John Paul II. The pope's body is then traditionally moved from the Clementine Hall and ceremonially carried across St. Peter's Square to St. Peter's Basilica or the Basilica of San Giovanni in Laterano.

Clément of Metz

Saint Clement of Metz (Latin: Clemens de Metiae; French: Clément de Metz) is venerated as the first Bishop of Metz. According to tradition, he was sent by Saint Peter to Metz during the 1st century, with two disciples: Celestius (Céleste de Metz) and Felix (Felix de Metz), who are listed as his successors in that see. However, this legend may have been constructed much later to lend more antiquity to the episcopal see, and to make the diocese of Metz appear to be more ancient than it actually was. As Hippolyte Delehaye writes, "To have lived amongst the Saviour's immediate following was...honorable...and accordingly old patrons of churches were identified with certain persons in the gospels or who were supposed to have had some part of Christ's life on earth." Elaboration of this legend states that Clement was the uncle of Pope Clement I.Clement may have actually arrived at Metz at the end of the 3rd century, though the first fully authenticated bishop, however, is Sperus or Hesperus, who was bishop in 535.

Doppelkirche Schwarzrheindorf

The Doppelkirche Schwarzrheindorf (German: Doppelkirche St. Maria und Clemens) is a Romanesque church in Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The church was once part of a Benedictine nunnery located at Schwarzrheindorf, now part of Bonn. The "double church" has an upper church dedicated to the Virgin Mary and a lower church dedicated to Pope Clement I. The church is famous for its fine 12th-century frescos.

Feradach Finnfechtnach

Feradach Finnfechtnach (modern spelling: Fearadhach Fionnfeachtnach - "fair-blessed"), son of Crimthann Nia Náir, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. There is some disagreement in the sources over his position in the traditional sequence of High Kings.

The Lebor Gabála Érenn and the Annals of the Four Masters agree that he came to power after the death of Cairbre Cinnchait. The Annals say that when Cairbre overthrew his father, his mother, Baine, daughter of the king of Alba, was pregnant with him, but this would make him less than five years old when he came to the throne: it is likely this is a doublet of a similar story told of the later High King Tuathal Techtmar. The Annals also add that Ireland was fertile during his reign, contrasting it with the barren reign of the usurper Cairbre. Geoffrey Keating has Feradach succeed his father Crimthann, placing Cairbre's reign later. Keating relates that the judge Morann mac Máin (who in the Lebor Gabála and the Annals is the son of Cairbre and his wife Mani) lived in Feradach's time. Morann owned the id Morainn (Morann's collar or torc) which would contract around the neck of a judge who made an unjust judgement until he made a just one, or of a witness who made a false testimony until he told the truth.

Feradach ruled for twenty years according to the Lebor Gabála and Keating, twenty-two according to the Annals, before dying a natural death at Liathdroim, an ancient name for the Hill of Tara. In all sources he was succeeded by Fíatach Finn. The Lebor Gabála synchronises his reign with that of the Roman emperor Domitian (AD 81–96) and the death of Pope Clement I (AD 99). The chronology of Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to AD 5–25, that of the Annals of the Four Masters to AD 14–36.

First Martyrs of the Church of Rome

The First Martyrs of the Church of Rome were Christians martyred in the city of Rome during Nero's persecution in 64. The event is recorded by both Tacitus and Pope Clement I, among others. They are celebrated in the Roman Catholic Church as an optional memorial on 30 June.

Ibieca

Ibieca is a village in Aragon, Spain.

Ignatius of Antioch

Ignatius of Antioch (; Greek: Ἰγνάτιος Ἀντιοχείας, Ignátios Antiokheías; c. 35 – c. 107), also known as Ignatius Theophorus (Ιγνάτιος ὁ Θεοφόρος, Ignátios ho Theophóros, lit. "the God-bearing") or Ignatius Nurono (lit. "The fire-bearer"), was an early Christian writer and bishop of Antioch. En route to Rome, where he met his martyrdom, Ignatius wrote a series of letters. This correspondence now forms a central part of the later collection known as the Apostolic Fathers, of which he is considered one of the three chief ones together with Pope Clement I and Polycarp. His letters also serve as an example of early Christian theology. Important topics they address include ecclesiology, the sacraments, and the role of bishops.

Latuinus

Saint Latuinus (Latrium, Lain, Latuin) is venerated as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church. He is considered to have been the first bishop of Sées, during the 5th century, from 400 to 440 AD. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, "Louis Duchesne believed that for the period anterior to 900 no reliance can be placed on the episcopal catalogue of Séez, which we know by certain compilations of the sixth century."A later tradition makes him a 1st-century bishop and missionary sent to Sées by Pope Clement I. This had the intent of making the diocese of Sées have an older tradition than it actually had. According to another Christian tradition, he was sent to the region by Boniface I. Another local tradition states that Latuinus built an oratory on the site of the current Chapelle Saint-Latuin, in the diocese of Sées, towards the end of the 4th century.

List of non-extant papal tombs

This is a list of non-extant papal tombs, which includes tombs not included on the list of extant papal tombs. Information about these tombs is generally incomplete and uncertain.

Chronologically, the main locations of destroyed or unknown papal tombs have been: the obscure tombs of the first two centuries of popes near Saint Peter, the repeated waves of translations from the Catacombs of Rome, the demolition of the papal tombs in Old St. Peter's Basilica, and the 1306 and 1361 fires in the Basilica of St. John Lateran.

Papal tombs have also been destroyed by other instances of fire, remodeling, and war (most recently, World War II). Others are unknown due to creative or geographically remote methods of martyrdom, or—in the case of Pope Clement I—both. Burial in churches outside the Aurelian Walls of Rome (Italian: fuori le Mura)—in the basilicas of Paul or Lorenzo—have not generally survived.

Phoenix (mythology)

In Greek mythology, a phoenix (; Ancient Greek: φοῖνιξ, phoînix) is a long-lived bird that cyclically regenerates or is otherwise born again.

Associated with the Sun, a phoenix obtains new life by arising from the ashes of its predecessor. According to some sources, the phoenix dies in a show of flames and combustion, although there are other sources that claim that the legendary bird dies and simply decomposes before being born again. There are different traditions concerning the lifespan of the phoenix, but by most accounts the phoenix lived for 500 years before rebirth. Herodotus, Lucan, Pliny the Elder, Pope Clement I, Lactantius, Ovid, and Isidore of Seville are among those who have contributed to the retelling and transmission of the phoenix motif.

In ancient Greece and Rome, the phoenix was associated with Phoenicia, (modern Lebanon), a civilization famous for its production of purple dye from conch shells.

In the historical record, the phoenix "could symbolize renewal in general as well as the sun, time, the Empire, metempsychosis, consecration, resurrection, life in the heavenly Paradise, Christ, Mary, virginity, the exceptional man, and certain aspects of Christian life".

Religion in Crimea

The majority of Crimean population adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, with the Crimean Tatars forming a Sunni Muslim minority, besides smaller Roman Catholic, Ukrainian Greek Catholic, Armenian Apostolic and Jewish minorities.

The Crimean peninsula was Christianised at an early time, via Gothic Christianity, in the 4th century.

According to a 9th-century tradition, Pope Clement I (ruled 88–98) was exiled to Chersonesos (near what is now Sevastopol) in 102, as was Pope Martin I in 655. A representative from the Black Sea area, the "head of the Scythian bishopric", was present at the First Council of Nicaea in 325, as well as the First Council of Constantinople in 381; it has been surmised that this representative would have to have been Bishop Cadmus of the Bosporan Kingdom. Ostrogoths, who remained on present-day Ukrainian lands after the invasion of the Huns, established a metropolinate under the Bishop of Constantinople at Dorus in northern Crimea around the year 400.

The Goths initially adhered to Arianism, but by the 9th century, with the establishment of the Byzantine Cherson theme, the Goths in Crimea turned to the Greek Orthodox Church, under the Metropolitanate of Gothia.

A bishop's seat had also existed since 868 across the Strait of Kerch, in the city of Tmutarakan. In the mid-10th century, the eastern area of Crimea was conquered by Prince Sviatoslav I of Kiev and became part of the Kievan Rus' principality of Tmutarakan. In 988, Prince Vladimir I of Kiev also captured Chersonesos where he later converted to Christianity.

Meanwhile, the Khazars, who occupied the northern parts of the peninsula, converted to Judaism. Both the date of the conversion, and the extent of its influence beyond the elite, are disputed; the conversion must have taken place at some point between AD 740 and 920.

Islam in Crimea begins with the presence of Islamized Turco-Mongol populations following the Mongol invasion of Rus' in the 1230s. Islam becomes the state religion of the Golden Horde in 1313 with the conversion of Öz Beg Khan (Crimea's first mosque was built in Qırım in 1314).With the annexation by Russia in 1779, Crimea was again Christianised, this time under the Russian Orthodox Church, but most Crimean Tatars remain Muslim to the current day.

In 2013 Orthodox Christians made up 73% of the crimean population, followed by Muslims (15%) and Believers in God without religion (5%).

Rodel

Rodel (Scottish Gaelic: Roghadal) is a village on the south-eastern coast of Harris, an island in the Scottish Outer Hebrides. Rodel is situated in the parish of Harris. It was formerly the historic capital of Harris, and the main port, before Tarbert took the title.

St Clement's Church (Eaglais Chliamhain) is a 16th-century church which was founded by the 8th Chief of MacLeod and is dedicated to Pope Clement I. The church was built using local Lewisian gneiss rock. It overlooks Loch Rodel. This well-preserved church is currently under the responsibility of Historic Scotland.

Located near the harbour is Rodel Hotel. This was built in 1781 and was originally home to Captain Alexander MacLeod of Berneray who had bought the Isle of Harris in 1779. It was restored in 2001.

Saint Ovidius

Ovidius (Portuguese: Santo Ovídio), also Saint Auditus, is a Portuguese saint. According to hagiographies of the 16th century, Ovidius was a Roman citizen of Sicilian origin. Tradition states that he was sent to Braga by Pope Clement I, where he served as the city's third bishop around 95. He is said to have baptized Saint Marina and her sisters after they were abandoned by their mother.

He was martyred for his Christian faith in 135.

San Clemente, Padua

The Church of St. Clement overlooks the Piazza dei Signori in Padua, Italy. It is currently a dependent of the Cathedral Basilica of Santa Maria Assunta.

San Clemente, Venice

The Church of San Clemente (Chiesa di San Clemente) is a church built in 1131 and located on San Clemente Island, in the Venetian Lagoon. The name is dedicated to Pope Clement I, who died as a martyr according to legend and who is patron of seamen.

San Clemente al Laterano

The Basilica of Saint Clement (Italian: Basilica di San Clemente al Laterano) is a Roman Catholic minor basilica dedicated to Pope Clement I located in Rome, Italy. Archaeologically speaking, the structure is a three-tiered complex of buildings: (1) the present basilica built just before the year 1100 during the height of the Middle Ages; (2) beneath the present basilica is a 4th-century basilica that had been converted out of the home of a Roman nobleman, part of which had in the 1st century briefly served as an early church, and the basement of which had in the 2nd century briefly served as a mithraeum; (3) the home of the Roman nobleman had been built on the foundations of republican era villa and warehouse that had been destroyed in the Great Fire of 64 AD.

St. Clement's Day

Saint Clement's Day was traditionally, and in some places still is, celebrated on the 23 November, a welcome festival between Halloween and Christmas. Pope Clement I is the patron saint of metalworkers and blacksmiths, and so these workers traditionally enjoyed a holiday on his feast day.

St Clement's Church, Rodel

St Clement's Church (Scottish Gaelic: Tùr Chliamhainn, meaning Clement's Tower) is a late fifteenth-century or early sixteenth-century church in Rodel, Harris, Scotland, built for the Chiefs of the MacLeods of Harris. It is dedicated to Pope Clement I. It is sometimes known as Eaglais Roghadail or Rodal Church.

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