Pope Celestine IV (Latin: Caelestinus IV; died 10 November 1241), born Goffredo da Castiglione, was Pope from 25 October 1241 to his death on 10 November of the same year after a short reign of sixteen days.
|Papacy began||25 October 1241|
|Papacy ended||10 November 1241|
|Created cardinal||18 September 1227|
by Gregory IX
|Birth name||Goffredo da Castiglione|
Milan, Holy Roman Empire
|Died||10 November 1241|
Rome, Papal State, Holy Roman Empire
|Coat of arms|
|Other popes named Celestine|
|Papal styles of|
Pope Celestine IV
|Reference style||His Holiness|
|Spoken style||Your Holiness|
|Religious style||Holy Father|
Born in Milan, Goffredo or Godfrey is often referred to as son of a sister of Pope Urban III, but this claim is without foundation. Nothing is known of his early life until he became chancellor of the church of Milan (perhaps as early as 1219, certainly in 1223–27). Pope Gregory IX made him a cardinal on 18 September 1227 with the diocese and benefice of San Marco, and in 1228–29 sent him as legate in Lombardy and Tuscany, where the cities and communes had generally remained true to the Hohenstaufen emperor, Frederick II. He was dispatched in an attempt to bring these territories around to the papal side, but without success. In 1238 he was made cardinal bishop of Sabina.
The papal election of 1241 that elevated Celestine to the papal chair was held under stringent conditions that hastened his death. The papal curia was disunited over the violent struggle to bring the Emperor and King of Sicily Frederick II to heel. One group of cardinals favored the ambitious schemes of the Gregorian Reform and aimed to humble Frederick as a papal vassal. Frederick, however, controlled as his unwilling guests in Tivoli two cardinals whom he had captured at sea, and in Rome Cardinal Giovanni Colonna was his ally, largely because the curia was in the hands of the Colonna archenemy, the senator Matteo Rosso Orsini. The latter held the consistory immured under his guards in the ramshackle palace of the Septizodium, where rains leaked through the roof of their chamber, mingled with the urine of Orsini's guards on the rooftiles. One of the cardinals fell ill and died.
One group of cardinals, which included Sinibaldo de' Fieschi (soon to be Pope Innocent IV) backed a candidate from the inner circle of Pope Gregory IX expected to pursue the hard line with Frederick II. Another group advocated a moderated middle course, not allies of the Hohenstaufen, but keen to reach an end to the Italian war. Overtures to Frederick II, however, were met with the impossible demand that if they wished the cardinals in his hands to return to Rome, they must elect as Pope Otto of St. Nicholas, an amenable compromise figure. Matteo Orsini's candidate, Romano da Porto, who had persecuted scholars at the University of Paris, was considered unacceptable.
The cardinal bishop of Sabina was finally elected Pope Celestine IV by the required two-thirds majority, seven cardinals out of ten, only on 25 October 1241. He occupied the throne for only seventeen days, his only notable papal act being the timely excommunication of Matteo Rosso Orsini. He died of wear and age on 10 November 1241 before coronation and was buried in St Peter's.
|Catholic Church titles|
The 1240s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1240, and ended on December 31, 1249.
== Events ==
=== 1240 ===
==== By area ====
====== Asia ======
December 6 – Batu Khan and the Golden Horde sack the Ruthenian city of Kiev.
Tuan Mash'ika, an Arab, travels and introduces Islam to Sulu.
====== Europe ======
July 15 – Battle of the Neva: Russian prince Alexander Nevsky defeats the Swedes, saving the Novgorod Republic from a full-scale enemy invasion from the North.
The civil war era in Norway ends.
The Flemish village Kaprijke is recognized as a city.
Sancho II of Portugal conquers the cities of Ayamonte and Cacella from the Muslims, as part of the Reconquista.
==== By topic ====
====== Religion ======
June 12 – The Disputation of Paris begins at the court of Louis IX of France, where four rabbis defend the Talmud against Nicholas Donin's accusations of blasphemy.
Saint Maurice starts to be portrayed as a Moor.
=== 1241 ===
March 18 – Battle of Chmielnik (Mongol invasion of Poland): The Mongols overwhelm the feudal Polish armies of Sandomierz and Kraków provinces, and plunder the abandoned city of Kraków.
April 9 – Battle of Legnica: The Mongols, under the command of Baidar, Kadan and Orda Khan, defeat the feudal Polish nobility, including the Knights Templar.
April 11 – Battle of Mohi: Batu Khan and Subutai defeat Béla IV of Hungary. The battle is the last major event in the Mongol Invasion of Europe.
April 27 – Battle of Sajo: The Mongols defeat Bela IV of Hungary.
May – Battle of Giglio: an Imperial fleet defeats a Genoan fleet in the Tyrrhenian Sea.
May 10 – Battle of Cameirge in Ulster: The Milesian Irish septs of the Ó Dónaills from Donegal, the Ó Néills from Armagh and the Ó Dochartaighs of Connacht defeat the last Tuatha Dé Danann sept, the Meic Lochlainn of Tír Eoghain and Inishowen under Domhnall mac Muirchertaigh Mac Lochlainn. From now on the Kings of Tír Eoghain will all be of the Ó Néill dynasty, Brian Ua Néill becoming sole ruler.
Early northern summer – A succession crisis or other priorities results in the Mongols withdrawing behind their river barrier into the Ukraine and the Russias, leaving Central Asian and far Eastern Europe peoples tributary to the Khanates, but leaving Poland and Hungary to begin recovery and reorganization.
August 29 – After Henry III of England's invasion of Wales, the Treaty of Gwerneigron is signed by him and Dafydd ap Llywelyn, curbing the latter's authority and denying him royal title.
September 23 – Snorri Sturluson, Icelandic saga writer, is murdered by Gissur Þorvaldsson, an emissary of King Haakon IV of Norway.
October 25 – Pope Celestine IV succeeds Pope Gregory IX, as the 179th pope.
Emperor Lizong of Song China accepts the Neo-Confucian teachings of the late Zhu Xi, including his commentary on the Four Books. This will have an impact upon the philosophical schools of surrounding countries as well, including Korea, Japan, and Vietnam.
Livonian Crusade: The Estonian rebellion of 1237 is suppressed on Saaremaa Island, by the Livonian Order.
=== 1242 ===
==== By area ====
====== Africa ======
In Maghrib, after a string of successes against the fast declining Almohads, Abu Zakariya, the first Hafsid ruler of Ifriqiya, conquers the Kingdom of Tlemcen.
====== Asia ======
Emperor Go-Saga ascends to the throne of Japan.
Batu Khan establishes the Golden Horde at Sarai.
The Mongols invade the Seljuk Sultanate.
====== Europe ======
April 5 – During a battle on the ice of Lake Peipus, Russian forces, led by Alexander Nevsky, rebuff an invasion attempt by the Teutonic Knights.
Cleves, Germany is chartered as a city.
Kiel, Germany is chartered as a town.
The Archbishop of Mainz conquers the city of Wiesbaden, from the House of Nassau.
King Sancho II of Portugal conquers the cities of Tavira, Alvor and Paderne, in his continuing effort against the Muslims, known as Reconquista.
German colonists arrive in Bratislava, after the Mongols fail to conquer the city.
The Mongols of the Golden Horde devastate Volga Bulgaria, and force the nation to pay tribute.
A French goldsmith working in Budapest, named Guillaume Boucher, is captured by the Mongols and taken to Karakorum.
The Golden Bull is issued by King Béla IV to inhabitants of Gradec (today's Zagreb) and Samobor in Croatia, during the Mongol invasion of Europe. By this golden bull King Bela IV proclaim a free royal city.
Battle of Grobnicko Polje: Croats stop the Mongolian invasion.
==== By topic ====
====== Science ======
Timeline of medicine and medical technology: Ibn Nafis suggests that the right and left ventricles of the heart are separate, and describes the lesser circulation of blood.
====== Religion ======
The diocese of Warmia, Poland is created.
=== 1243 ===
March – Treaty of Alcaraz: Ferdinand III of Castile turns the independent Muslim Taifa of Murcia into a protectorate, and initiates the process of the colonization and Christianization of the region.
May 1 – The Castillan troops are garrisoned in Murcia, to support the Huddite Dynasty.
June 25 – Pope Innocent IV succeeds Pope Celestine IV, as the 180th pope.
June 26 – Battle of Köse Dağ: The Mongols defeat the Seljuk Turks of the Sultanate of Rum.
The city of Brno is founded, in what will become the Czech Republic.
=== 1244 ===
March 16 – Following their successful nine-month siege of Montségur, French royal forces burn about 210 Cathar Perfecti and unrepentant credentes.
The Christian Reconquista in Iberia enjoys a string of successes:
March 26 – By the Treaty of Almizra, the king of Aragon and prince of Castile come to an agreement, on the distribution of Muslim lands yet to be conquered.
May 22 – James I of Aragon takes the Muslim-held city of Janita, after several months of siege. This success is followed by the capture of Biar later that year.
James I of Aragon reconquers Altea, Spain.
The heir prince of Castile conducts a series of military operations, to support the Muslim Huddite rulers of Murcia against rebel strongholds.
The Siege and Fall of Jerusalem leads to the Seventh Crusade.
Sultan Malik al-Muattam razes the city walls of Jerusalem.
August 23 – The city's citadel, the Tower of David, surrenders to Khwarezmian Empire.
October 17 – Battle of La Forbie: The army of the Kingdom of Jerusalem is defeated by the Ayyubids and Khwarezmians.
Dogen Zenji establishes the Eiheiji temple in Japan, thus founding the Sōtō sect of Zen Buddhism.
=== 1245 ===
February 21 – Thomas (bishop of Finland) is granted resignation by Pope Innocent IV, after having confessed to torture and forgery.
April 16 – Pope Innocent IV sends Giovanni da Pian del Carpine to the Mongol court, suggesting (amongst other things) that the Mongols convert to Christianity, and join the Crusades.
June 28 – The First Council of Lyon opens, in the course of which Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, is excommunicated and deposed, and the Seventh Crusade is proclaimed.
August 1 – The second of two papal bulls refers to the marriage of King Sancho II of Portugal to Mécia Lopes de Haro, and decrees the deposition of the king.
Witness of the toll taken by war and fiscal pressure in the kingdom of Castile, the region of Segovia is described this year as depopulated and sterile.
The rebuilding of Westminster Abbey is started in England.
=== 1246 ===
==== By area ====
====== Americas ======
The Mexicans settle Chapultepec, a former Toltec stronghold.
====== Asia ======
Emperor Go-Fukakusa succeeds Emperor Go-Saga, on the throne of Japan.
Güyük Khan is enthroned as the 3rd Great Khan of the Mongol Empire (an event also witnessed by a papal mission under Giovanni da Pian del Carpine), at Karakorum.
====== Europe ======
With the death of Duke Frederick the Quarrelsome, the Babenberg Dynasty ends in Austria.
Spain: After two unsuccessful sieges in 1225 and 1230, the Castillans manage to take the city of Jaén from the Andalucians, at the Siege of Jaen.
==== By topic ====
====== Arts ======
The Gothic chapel of Sainte-Chapelle is built.
Robert Grosseteste translates Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics from Greek into Latin, which marks the true start of the rediscovery of the philosopher by medieval Europe.
====== Nature ======
The perihelion of the Earth's orbit coincides with the December solstice.
====== Religion ======
Beaulieu Abbey is dedicated.
=== 1247 ===
July 2 – A document issued by king Béla IV of Hungary, granting territories to the Knights Hospitaller in the Banate of Severin and Cumania, makes an early mention of Litovoi and other Vlach/Romanian local rulers, in Wallachia and Transylvania.
December 1 – A rebellion arises among the Muslim subjects of the Crown of Aragon, in the region of Valencia. As a punishment, the king issues an order of expulsion of the Muslims from his realm, leading numerous people into exile in Andalusia and North Africa, in the subsequent year.
Shams Tabrizi disappears, resulting in Jalal Uddin Rumi writing 30,000 verses of poetry about his disappearance.
Romford, London, England is chartered as a market town.
The future Bethlem Royal Hospital, Bedlam, is founded in London.
The Thuringian War of Succession begins.
Qin Jiushao publishes the original form of the Chinese remainder theorem.
Egypt takes control of Jerusalem from the Kharezmians.
Nijmegen becomes part of Gelderland.
Afonso III succeeds Sancho II, as King of Portugal.
Song Ci publishes the Collected Cases of Injustice Rectified, a book considered to be the first monographic work on forensic medicine.
=== 1248 ===
April 26 – The Gothic chapel Sainte-Chapelle is consecrated in Paris, France.
August 15 – The foundation stone of Cologne Cathedral is laid, after an older cathedral on the site burns down on April 30 (construction is completed 632 years later, in 1880).
August 25 – The Dutch city of Ommen receives city rights and fortification rights from Otto III, Archbishop of Utrecht, after it has been pillaged at least twice by a local robber baron.
November 23 – Reconquista: King Ferdinand III of Castile recaptures the city of Seville from the Moors, ending the Siege of Seville; this year also Prince Alfonso X of Castile takes the city of Alicante.
November 24 – In the middle of the night a mass on the north side of Mont Granier suddenly collapses, in one of the largest historical rock slope failures known in Europe.
==== Date unknown ====
King Louis IX of France launches the Seventh Crusade, setting sail with an army of 20,000 toward Egypt.
Pope Innocent IV grants the Croats permission to use their own language and script in liturgy (see Glagolitic alphabet).
Tallinn (Reval) converts from Riga law to Lübeck law.
Roger Bacon publishes the formula for black powder in Europe.
Approximate date – History of the Aztecs: The Mexica tribe, predecessors of the Aztec people, arrive at Chapultepec (in modern-day Mexico City).
Tezcapoctzin becomes Ruler of the City-state Azcapotzalco at the Valley of Mexico
=== 1249 ===
==== By place ====
====== Africa ======
King Louis IX of France captures Damietta in Egypt, in the first major military engagement of the Seventh Crusade.
====== Asia ======
Pho Khun Si Indrathit becomes the first king of the Sukhothai Kingdom, marking the founding of the modern Thai nation.
The Hikitsuke, a judicial organ of the Kamakura and Muromachi shogunates of Japan, is established.
The Japanese Hōji era ends, and the Kenchō era begins.
====== Europe ======
February 16 – Andrew of Longjumeau is dispatched by King Louis IX of France as an ambassador, to meet with the Khan of the Mongols.
May 26 – The Battle of Fossalta is fought between the Holy Roman Empire and the Lombard League. The Italians capture the German commander.
July 13 – Alexander III is crowned as King of the Scots.
August 15 – The First Battle of Athenry is fought in Galway, Ireland.
The city of Stralsund (in present-day Germany) is burned to the ground, by forces from the rival city of Lübeck.
Swedish statesman Birger Jarl subjugates the province of Tavastia in Finland, securing Swedish power in Finland.
Alphonse, Count of Poitiers orders the expulsion of Jews from Poitou, France.
The Hungarian capital is moved from Esztergom to Buda.
====== =Mediterranean= ======
The Moors lose possession of Alicante in Al-Andalus (Islamic Spain).
King Afonso III of Portugal recaptures Faro and Silves in the Algarve from the Moors, thus ending the Portuguese Reconquista.
The city of Mystras, Greece is fortified, and a palace is constructed there by William II Villehardouin.
==== By topic ====
====== Education ======
Spring – University College, the first College at Oxford, is founded with money from the estate of William of Durham.
====== Microhistory ======
Jean Mouflet makes an agreement with the abbot of Saint-Pierre-le-Vif in the Senonais region in France: in return for an annual payment, the monastery will recognize Jean as a "citizen of Sens". He is a leather merchant, with a leather shop that he leases for the rent of 50 shillings a year. The agreement is witnessed by Jean's wife, Douce, daughter of a wealthy and prominent citizen of Sens, Felis Charpentier.
====== Science ======
Roger Bacon publishes a major scientific work, including writings of convex lens spectacles for treating long-sightedness, and the first publication of the formula for gunpowder in the western world.1241
Year 1241 (MCCXLI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.1241 papal election
The papal election of 1241 (21 September to 25 October) saw the election of Cardinal Goffredo da Castiglione as Pope Celestine IV. The election took place during the first of many protracted sede vacantes of the Middle Ages, and like many of them was characterized by disputes between popes and the Holy Roman Emperor. Specifically, the election took place during the war between Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor against the Lombard League and the deceased pontiff, Pope Gregory IX, with Italy divided between pro-Papal and pro-Imperial factions known as the Guelphs and Ghibellines.
During the sede vacante, Frederick II surrounded Rome with his armies, blocking the arrival of some cardinal electors known to be hostile to his interests. Unable to reach a consensus, the cardinals were locked in a monastery called the Septasolium (corrupted in both medieval and modern narratives into Septizodium) by the Roman civic officials, eventually settling on one of their oldest and most feeble members. The conditions within the building were believed to have contributed to the death of one of the papabile and even to the death of Celestine IV soon after the election. Following Celestine IV's death, the war on the peninsula resumed and the cardinals dispersed for over a year and a half before coming together in Anagni to elect Pope Innocent IV.
The forced sequestration of the cardinals during the election was historically significant, and—along with other papal elections of the 13th century—contributed to the development of the papal conclave.1243
Year 1243 (MCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.1243 papal election
The papal election of 1243 (16 May – 25 June) elected Cardinal Sinibaldo Fieschi of Genoa to succeed Pope Celestine IV. The conclave began after the Holy See had been vacant for 18 months and six days, therefore ca. May 16, 1243. There were nine cardinals present. Six votes were needed, therefore, for a canonical election. It took some five weeks for the cardinals to agree on an acceptable candidate. Fieschi took the name Innocent IV.Castiglioni
Castiglioni is an Italian surname. People with this surname include:
Giannino Castiglioni (1884–1971), Italian artist
Achille Castiglioni (1918–2002), Italian industrial designer
Pier Giacomo Castiglioni (1913–1968), Italian industrial designerFrancesco Saverio Castiglioni (1761–1830), Pope Pius VIII
Goffredo da Castiglione / Godfrey Castiglioni (died 1241), Pope Celestine IV
St. Buono Castiglioni (818–822), Bishop of Milan
St. Honoratus Castiglioni (568–572), Bishop of MilanArturo Castiglioni (1874–1952), Italian-American medical historian
Camillo Castiglioni (1879–1961), Austrian financier and banker
Consuelo Castiglioni, b. 1959, Chilean-Italian fashion designer
Luis Alberto Castiglioni Soria, former vice president of Paraguay
Niccolò Castiglioni (1932–1996), Italian composer and pianistCelestine
Celestine may refer to:
Pope Celestine I (died 432)
Pope Celestine II (died 1144)
Pope Celestine III (c. 1106–1198)
Pope Celestine IV (died 1241)
Pope Celestine V (1215–1296)
Antipope Celestine II, antipope for one day: December 16, 1124
Celestine Babayaro (born 1978), Nigerian former footballer
Celestine Damiano (1911-1967), American Roman Catholic prelate
Célestine Galli-Marié (1840–1905), French mezzo-soprano who created the title role in the opera Carmen
Célestine Guynemer de la Hailandière (1798–1882), French-born American Roman Catholic prelate
Celestine Tate Harrington (1956–1998), quadriplegic street musician known for playing the keyboard with her lips and tongue
Célestine N'Drin (born 1963), Côte d'Ivoire runner who specialized in the 400 and 800 metres
Celestine Omehia (born 1959), Nigerian politician
Celestine Sibley (1914–1999), Southern American author, journalist, and syndicated columnist
James Celestine (born 1973), Bermudian cricketerFictional characters:
Célestine (Mirbeau), main character and narrator of the French novel The Diary of a Chambermaid, by Octave Mirbeau
Celestine Tavernier, on the BBC soap opera EastEnders
Celestine (comics), in the Image Comics universeOther uses:
Celestines, a branch of the Benedictine Order of monks
Celestine (mineral), a mineral, also known as celestite, found worldwide
Celestine, Indiana, a town in Dubois County, Indiana
La Celestine (Carlota Valdivia), a 1904 painting from Picasso's Blue Period
Celestine (album) by Filipino singer Toni Gonzaga, released in May, 2014
Ernest and Celestine, animated French film, 2012Gerhard von Malberg
Gerhard von Malberg (born c. 1200, died after 1245) was the sixth Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, serving from c. 1241 to 1244. He was forced to resign from the office, and he does not appear in lists of the order's Grand Masters compiled in the 15th and 16th centuries.
The order was divided and in danger of dissolution during the 1240s and 1250s because its involvement in the papal-imperial conflict.
Gerhards immediate successors, Heinrich von Hohenlohe and Gunther von Wüllersleben are also omitted from pre-modern lists, so that Poppo von Osterna (r. 1252–1256) is given as the order's sixth Grand Master in historical sources. Gerhard was likely a younger son of Dietrich, margrave of Are (Altenahr) and Agnes of Malberg. He apparently received the castle of his mother's family. He was married and had two known sons.
He entered the order after the death of his wife, at an unknown time before 1239.
He is first mentioned in 1239 as a witness, as frere Girard de Mauberge.
In 1240 he signs as Marshall of the order in a treaty with the Knights Hospitaller.
At this time, Pope Gregory IX was planning to incorporate the Teutonic Order into the Knights Hospitaller, and Gerhard's career in the order was likely furthered by his good connections to the Hospitaller order.
He was most likely elected Grand Master in late 1241. He is recorded as holding this office in February 1242, when he represented Frederick II at the Roman curia.
Frederick II dispatched the new Grand Master, the Archbishop of Bari, and the Magister Roger Porcastrello to pressure the papal conclave to elect Otto of St. Nicholas as pope, but Pope Celestine IV was chosen instead.During 1243, he seems to have been a follower of Frederick II and his son Conrad IV in their conflict with the new pope Innocent IV, sent by Frederick as an ambassador to the pope to negotiate a reconciliation in June 1243.
The pope gave Gerhard an apostolic ring, representing Prussia as a papal fief of the knights in return for annual tribute from the Order.The knights fought against Świętopełk II of Pomerania during von Malberg's service.
In late 1243 or early 1244 (before 7 July 1244), Gerhard resigned as Grand Master. The reasons for his resignation are unclear, but he seems to have been accused of poor leadership and mismanagement. Innocent IV permitted Gerhard to enter the Knights Templar, but there is no evidence that Gerhard made use of this.Goffredo
Goffredo is an Italian given name, cognate with Godfrey, Gottfried, Galfrid, etc. Notable people with the name include:
Goffredo Alessandrini (1904–1978), Italian script writer and film director
Goffredo Baur, Italian cross country skier who competed in the 1930s
Goffredo Borgia (born 1481), the youngest son of Pope Alexander VI and Vannozza dei Cattanei, member of the House of Borgia
Goffredo Cappa (1644–1717), Italian luthier, known for his violins and cellos
Goffredo da Castiglione, Pope Celestine IV (died 1241)
Gregory Goffredo, American businessman who runs the waste management firm Top Job Carting
Goffredo di Hohenstaufen (died 1194), Patriarch of Aquileia in northern Italy from 1182 to 1194
Goffredo Lagger (born 1901), Italian Olympic biathlete
Goffredo Lombardo (1920–2005), Italian film producer
Goffredo Malaterra, eleventh-century Benedictine monk and historian, possibly of Norman origin
Goffredo Mameli (1827–1849), Italian patriot, poet, and writer was a notable figure in the Italian Risorgimento
Goffredo Parise (1929–1986), Italian writer and journalist
Goffredo Petrassi (1904–2003), Italian composer of modern classical music, conductor, and teacher
Goffredo Ridello (died 1084), the Duke of Gaeta as a vassal of the Prince of Capua from 1067 or 1068
Goffredo Sommavilla (1850–1944), Italian painter, mainly of genre themes
Goffredo Stabellini (born 1925), Italian professional football player
Goffredo da Trani (died 1245), Italian jurist, known as a canon lawyer
Goffredo da Viterbo (1120–1196), Roman Catholic chronicler, either Italian or German
Goffredo Zehender (1901–1958), Italian racing driverHautecombe Abbey
Hautecombe Abbey (Latin: Altæcumbæum) is a former Cistercian monastery, later a Benedictine monastery, in Saint-Pierre-de-Curtille near Aix-les-Bains in Savoy, France. For centuries it was the burial place of the members of the House of Savoy. It is visited by 150,000 tourists yearly.List of papal conclaves
There have been 110 papal elections that have produced popes currently recognized by the Catholic Church as legitimate. There was no fixed process for papal succession before 1059 and popes were often selected with substantial secular involvement, if not outright appointment. Since the promulgation of In nomine Domini (1059), however, suffrage has been limited to the College of Cardinals.Papal elections since 1276 have taken the form of papal conclaves, which are elections that follow a set of rules and procedures developed in Ubi periculum (1274) and later papal bulls; observance of the conclave varied until 1294, but all papal elections since have followed relatively similar conclave procedures.
Although the cardinals have historically gathered at a handful of other locations within Rome and beyond, only five elections since 1455 have been held outside the Apostolic Palace. Twenty-eight papal elections have been held outside Rome, in: Terracina (1088), Cluny (1119), Velletri (1181), Verona (1185), Ferrara (October 1187), Pisa (December 1187), Perugia (1216, 1264–1265, 1285, 1292–1294, 1304–1305), Anagni (1243), Naples (1254, 1294), Viterbo (1261, 1268–1271, July 1276, August–September 1276, 1277, 1281–1282), Arezzo (January 1276), Carpentras/Lyon (1314–1316), Avignon (1334, 1342, 1352, 1362, 1370), Konstanz (1417) and Venice (1799–1800). Three elections moved between locations while in progress: the elections of 1268–71, 1292–94, and 1314–16.List of papal relatives created cardinal
This is a list of papal relatives created cardinal by a pope other than their relative. These creates are similar to cardinal-nephews but this list does not include cardinals included in the list of cardinal-nephewsLorsch Abbey
Lorsch Abbey, otherwise the Imperial Abbey of Lorsch (German: Reichsabtei Lorsch; Latin: Laureshamense Monasterium or Laurissa), is a former Imperial abbey in Lorsch, Germany, about 10 km east of Worms. It was one of the most renowned monasteries of the Carolingian Empire. Even in its ruined state, its remains are among the most important pre-Romanesque–Carolingian style buildings in Germany. Its chronicle, entered in the Lorscher Codex compiled in the 1170s (now in the state archive at Würzburg), is a fundamental document for early medieval German history. Another famous document from the monastic library is the Codex Aureus of Lorsch. In 1991 the ruined abbey was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.November 10
November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 51 days remain until the end of the year.Palazzo Castiglioni (Cingoli)
Palazzo Castiglioni is a historical mansion in the heart of the mountain top town of Cingoli, near Macerata, in the Marche, central Italy.Pope Celestine
There have been five Popes Celestine of the Roman Catholic Church:
Pope Celestine I (422–432)
Antipope Celestine II (1124)
Pope Celestine II (1143–1144)
Pope Celestine III (1191–1198)
Pope Celestine IV (1241)
Pope Celestine V (1294)Pope Urban III
Pope Urban III (Latin: Urbanus III; died 20 October 1187), born Uberto Crivelli, reigned from 25 November 1185 to his death in 1187.Septizodium
The Septizodium (also called Septizonium or Septicodium) was a building in ancient Rome. It was built in 203 AD by Emperor Septimius Severus. The origin of the name "Septizodium" is from Septisolium, from the Latin for temple of seven suns, and was probably named for the seven planetary deities (Saturn, Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus) or for the fact that it was originally divided into seven parts. The building had no known practical purpose and was probably meant to be a decorative façade, known as a Nymphaeum. Ancient and medieval sources describe its purpose as being intended to impress Severus' fellow Africans as they entered the city, as it was located at the place where the Via Appia passes the Palatine and leads east towards the Forum Romanum. Other examples of septizodia are known, all from Africa.Ammianus Marcellinus refers to the building in an ambiguous passage: "The plebs...had come together at the Septemzodium, a popular place, where Marcus Aurelius built a Nymphaeum in a rather ostentatious style."By the 8th century, the edifice was already ruined and had been incorporated in one of the numerous baronial fortresses of the medieval city, held in the 12th-13th century by the Frangipani family.
In August 1241, after the death of Pope Gregory IX, the 11 cardinals who were able to get into Rome through the lines of Emperor Frederick II's army came together in the ramshackle palace of the Septizodium. The two-month-long election was arduous, not only because of the deep political crisis but the physical hardships. There was a frightful heat and the rain leaked through the roof of the chamber of the cardinals, mingled with the urine of Matteo Rosso Orsini's guards on the rooftiles. One of the cardinals fell ill and died. The new pope, Celestine IV was also very worn out, and died 16 days after his election.
In 1588, during the reign of Pope Sixtus V, the eastern facade of the building was demolished under the direction of Domenico Fontana. The stones obtained were used for the basement of the obelisk of Piazza del Popolo, the restoration of the Column of Marcus Aurelius, the pope's tomb in Santa Maria Maggiore and other structures.
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
Papal selection before 1059
Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
Western Schism (1378–1417)
Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)
Reformation Papacy (1534–1585)
Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)
Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848)
Roman Question (1870–1929)
Vatican City (1929–present)
|History of the papacy|
of the faithful
|Early Middle Ages|
|High Middle Ages|
|Late Middle Ages|