Pope Celestine III

Pope Celestine III (Latin: Caelestinus III; c. 1106 – 8 January 1198), born Giacinto Bobone,[1] reigned from 30 March or 10 April 1191[2] to his death in 1198. He was born into the noble Orsini family in Rome and served as a cardinal-deacon prior to becoming pope.[3] He was ordained as a priest on 13 April 1191 and he ruled the church for six years, nine months, and nine days before he died aged 92. He was buried at the Lateran.


Celestine III
Pope Celestine III
Papacy began30 March 1191
Papacy ended8 January 1198
PredecessorClement III
SuccessorInnocent III
Ordination13 April 1191
Consecration14 April 1191
by Cardinal Ottaviano
Created cardinalFebruary 1144
by Celestine II
Personal details
Birth nameGiacinto Bobone
Bornc. 1106
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Died8 January 1198
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Previous postCardinal-Deacon of Santa Maria in Cosmedin (1144–1191)
MottoPerfice gressus meos in semitis tuis ("Going in Thy path")
Celestine III's signature
Other popes named Celestine
Papal styles of
Pope Celestine III
Reference styleHis Holiness
Spoken styleSanct(issim)e Pater
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous styleNone



Considered by the Roman Curia as an expert on Spain, Bobone conducted two legatine missions to Spain in (1154–55) and (1172–75) as the Cardinal-Deacon of Santa Maria in Cosmedin.[4]


Celestine crowned the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI on the day after his election in 1191 with a ceremony symbolizing his absolute supremacy, as described by Roger of Hoveden, after Henry VI promised to cede Tusculum. In 1192 he threatened to excommunicate King Tancred of Sicily, forcing him to release his aunt Empress Constance, who was wife of Henry VI and a contender of Sicilian crown, captured by Tancred in 1191, to Rome to exchange for his recognition of Tancred while also put pressure on Henry, but Constance was released by German soldiers on borders of the Papal States before reaching Rome the following summer. He subsequently nearly excommunicated the same Henry VI for wrongfully keeping King Richard I of England in prison.[5] He placed Pisa under an interdict, which was lifted by his successor Innocent III in 1198.[6] He condemned King Alfonso IX of León for his marriage to Theresa of Portugal on the grounds of consanguinity. Then, in 1196, he excommunicated him for allying with the Almohad Caliphate while making war on Castile.[7] Following his marriage with Berengaria of Castile, Celestine excommunicated Alfonso and placed an interdict over León.[8]

In 1198, Celestine confirmed the statutes of the Teutonic Knights as a military order.[9]


Pope Celestine, St William and an unidentified Prelate, East Window, York Minster
Image of Pope Celestine III (middle) in the east window of York Minster

Celestine would have resigned the papacy and recommended a successor (Cardinal Giovanni di San Paolo, O.S.B.) shortly before his death,[10] but was not allowed to do so by the cardinals.[11]

See also


  1. ^ The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol.1, Ed. David Luscombe, Jonathan Riley-Smith, (Cambridge University Press, 2004), 417.
  2. ^ http://www2.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1144.htm#Bobone
  3. ^ The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol.1, 417
  4. ^ The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol.1, 417–418.
  5. ^ Sikes, Thomas Burr, History of the Christian Church, from the first to the fifteenth century, (Eliott Stock, 1885), 187.
  6. ^ Clarke, Peter D., The interdict in the thirteenth century: a question of collective guilt, (Oxford University Press, 2007), 118.
  7. ^ Lower 2014, p. 605.
  8. ^ Moore, John Clare, Pope Innocent III (1160/61–1216): to root up and to plant, (Brill Publishers, 2003), 70–71.
  9. ^ Urban, William, The Teutonic Knights, (Greenhill Books, 2003), 12–13.
  10. ^ William Stubbs (editor), Chronica Magistri Rogeri de Houedene Vol. IV (London 1871), pp. 32-33.
  11. ^ Karl Holder, Die Designation deer Nachfolder durch die Päpste (Freiburg Switzerland: B. Veith 1892), pp. 69-70.


  • Baaken, K. (1985)."Zur Wahl, Weihe und Krönung Papst Cölestins III.," Deutsches Archiv, 41, 1985, pp. 203-211. (in German)
  • Clarke, Peter D., The interdict in the thirteenth century: a question of collective guilt, Oxford University Press, 2007.
  • Gregorovius, Ferdinand, History of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages Volume IV, part 2 (translated from the 4th German edition by A. Hamilton) (London: George Bell 1896), pp. 625-638.
  • Lower, Michael (2014). "The Papacy and Christian Mercenaries of Thirteenth-Century North Africa". Speculum. The University of Chicago Press. Vol. 89, No. 3 JULY.
  • Moore, John Clare, Pope Innocent III (1160/61–1216): to root up and to plant, BRILL, 2003.
  • Mann, Horace K., The Lives of the Popes in the Middle Ages Volume X (London: Kegan Paul 1914), pp. 383-441.
  • Sikes, Thomas Burr, History of the Christian Church, from the first to the fifteenth century, Eliott Stock, 1885.
  • The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol.1, Ed. David Luscombe, Jonathan Riley-Smith, Cambridge University Press, 2004.
  • Urban, William, The Teutonic Knights, Greenhill Books, 2003.
  • Pope Celestine III (1191-1198): Diplomat and Pastor, ed. Damian J. Smith, John Doran, Ashgate Publishing, 2008.

External links

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Clement III
Succeeded by
Innocent III

initial text from the 9th edition (1876) of an old encyclopedia


The 1190s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1190, and ended on December 31, 1199.

== Events ==

=== 1190 ===

==== By area ====

====== Asia ======

June 10 – Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowns in the Saleph River, while leading an army to Jerusalem.

November 24 – Isabella of Jerusalem marries Conrad of Montferrat at Acre, making him de jure king.

The Teutonic Knights are founded, to defend the Latin states in the Levant.

In Myanmar, Anawrahta's lineage regains control with the assistance of Sri Lanka. Pagan has been in anarchy. The new regime reforms Burmese Buddhism, on Sri Lankan Theravada models.

====== Europe ======

February – Anti-Jewish riots break out in England.

March 16 – A massacre and mass-suicide of the Jews of York, England, led by Richard Malebys, result in the deaths of 150–500 Jews in Clifford's Tower.

July 4 – Richard I of England and Philip II of France, having met at Vézelay, set out from Marseille to join the Third Crusade.

October 4 – Richard I of England threatens war against Tancred of Sicily, and captures Messina.

Battle of Stara Zagora: The Bulgarians defeat Byzantine Emperor Isaac II.

The Almohad caliph, Yaqub al-Mansur, fails to reconquer Silves, Portugal.

Henry I becomes Duke of Brabant.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts ======

On the Harmony of Religions and Philosophy (ar. Kitab fasl al-maqal), by Averroes, is first published.

Speculum Virginum, a German manuscript, is published (approximate date).

====== Education ======

The first known foreign scholar, (Emo of Friesland), commences study at what will become the University of Oxford in England.

====== Religion ======

Cartmel Priory is founded in England.

Stefan Nemanja founds the Studenica monastery in Serbia.

=== 1191 ===

==== By place ====

====== Asia ======

July 12 – Saladin's garrison surrenders, ending the two-year siege of Acre. Conrad of Montferrat, who has negotiated the surrender, raises the banners of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, and of the Third Crusade leaders (Richard I of England, Philip II of France, and Leopold V of Austria), on the city's walls and towers. Richard stays to push on to Jerusalem, but Philip returns to France, to take possession of a part of Flanders, whose count had died at the siege of Acre. Back in France, Philip also schemes with Richard's brother, John of England, to dispossess Richard of his French lands while he is still away, but the intervention of John's (and Richard's) mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine, foils the plan.

September 7 – Battle of Arsuf in Palestine: Richard I of England defeats Saladin, during the Third Crusade.

Khmer King Jayavarman VII sacks the capital of Champa.

The administration of the Taungoo region in modern-day Myanmar is first recorded, when Pagan King Narapatisithu appoints a son-in-law, Ananda Thuriya, to be governor of Kanba Myint.

====== Europe ======

April 17 – Tusculum is destroyed by the army of the Commune of Rome.

May 12 – Richard I of England marries Berengaria of Navarre.

Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor, is crowned by Pope Celestine III.

Duke Berthold V of Zähringen founds the city of Bern (present-day Switzerland).

After having failed in their endeavor the year before, the Almohads reconquer the city of Silves in Portugal. In the same campaign, the Almohads take also Alcácer do Sal, while Palmela and Almada are sacked.

In August, Sicilians defeat an invasion of Emperor Henry VI; Empress Constance is captured and later imprisoned at Castel dell'Ovo at Naples.

Danes make a crusade to Finland.

==== By topic ====

====== Technology ======

The first reference to a windmill in Europe is made by a Dean Herbert of East Anglia, whose mills are supposedly in competition with the abbey of Bury St. Edmunds.

====== Religion ======

April 14 – Pope Celestine III succeeds Pope Clement III, as the 175th pope.

November 27 – Reginald Fitz Jocelin is elected Archbishop of Canterbury.

Eisai founds the Rinzai Zen sect in Japan.

The monks of Glastonbury Abbey dig up the remains of a large knight and a blonde woman, and announce they have discovered the tomb of King Arthur and Queen Guinevere.

=== 1192 ===

January 7 – Venus occults Jupiter.

April 28 – Conrad of Montferrat (Conrad I), King of Jerusalem, is assassinated in Tyre, only days after his title to the throne is confirmed by election. The killing is carried out by Hashshashin, later the basis of folk etymology for the English word "assassin."

August 21 – Minamoto no Yoritomo is granted the title of shōgun, thereby officially establishing the first shogunate in the history of Japan.

Second Battle of Tarain in India: The Ghurid forces of Mu'izz al-Din are victorious over Prithviraj Chauhan.

The Lugouqiao (later the Marco Polo) Bridge is completed in Beijing.

Constance, Holy Roman Empress is released by Tancred, King of Sicily under the pressure of Pope Celestine III on May and returns to Germany on June.

Prince Yaroslav Vladimirovich of Novgorod burns down Tartu and Otepää Castles, in Estonia.

=== 1193 ===

January 1 – Enrico Dandolo becomes Doge of Venice.

February 14 – Richard I of England, previously imprisoned on his return from the Third Crusade by his personal enemy Leopold V, Duke of Austria, is handed over to Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor, and moved to Speyer.

March 4 – Saladin dies at Damascus. The lands of the Kurdish Ayyubid Dynasty of Egypt and Syria are split among his descendants.

August 15 – Philip II of France marries Ingeborg, daughter of Valdemar I of Denmark.

Qutb al-Din Aibak, a Ghurid slave commander, captures Delhi.

Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji, a general under the command of Qutb al-Din Aibak, sacks and burns the ancient college-city of Nalanda, India's greatest Buddhist seat of learning, and the University of Vikramashila.

Northern Crusades: Pope Celestine III calls for a crusade against those he regards as pagans, in the Baltic region of northern Europe.

=== 1194 ===

January 1 – Raja Nooruddin Khan attacked the kingdom of Rajauri in Kashmir and captured it in the year 1194 AD.

February 4 – King Richard I of England is ransomed from Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor.

c. February 10 – Henry Marshal is nominated Bishop of Exeter in England.

March 10 – Sultan Toghrul III is defeated and killed in battle with Ala ad-Din Tekish, near Rey in Persia, ending the Seljuq Dynasty of Hamedan; the Great Seljuq Empire passes to the Khwarazmian Dynasty.

March 12–28 – King Richard returns to England and besieges Nottingham Castle, to reclaim it from his brother John.

April 17 – Richard I is crowned for the second time at Winchester.

May 2 – The port of Portsmouth in England is granted a Royal Charter.

May 12 – After settling affairs in England, Richard I leaves for Barfleur in Normandy, to reclaim lands lost to Philip II of France.

June 10 – A fire at Chartres Cathedral leads to the start of its rebuilding.

July 3 – Battle of Fréteval: Richard I of England reconquers his French fiefdoms from Philip II.

July 5 – Emperor Guangzong of Song China is forced to give up his throne.

November 20 – Palermo in Sicily falls to Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor.

December 25 – Henry VI is crowned king of Sicily.

The Danes attack Estonia.

Ordinance of the Jewry in England: Strict records are to be kept of financial transactions by Jews in England, for taxation purposes.

The Yellow River of China experiences a major course change, taking over the Huai River drainage system for the next 700 years.

=== 1195 ===

June 1 – Battle of Shamkor: Georgians defeat the Ildenizids of Azerbaijan.

July 18 – Battle of Alarcos: Almohad ruler Abu Yusuf Ya'qub al-Mansur decisively defeats Castilian King Alfonso VIII.

The Priory of St Mary's is founded in Bushmead.

Alexius III Angelus overthrows Isaac II, and becomes Byzantine Emperor.

=== 1196 ===

England is struck by a pestilence and a resulting famine

Spring – In London, a popular uprising of the poor against the rich is led by William Fitz Osbern.

Upon the death of Knut Eriksson, he is succeeded peacefully as king of Sweden, by his rival Sverker the Younger.

According to a popular legend, Prince Madog of Gwynedd reaches North America, in what is present-day Alabama.

Stefan Prvovencani becomes Grand Župan of Serbia.

General Ch'oe Ch'ung-hon takes control in Korea.

=== 1197 ===

==== By area ====

====== Asia ======

Genghis Khan defeats the Jurkins. Mukhali's father gives him and his brother to Genghis Khan, as personal hereditary slaves.

Amalric II succeeds Henry II of Champagne, as King of Jerusalem.

====== Europe ======

Theobald III becomes Count of Champagne.

Kaloyan becomes Tsar of Bulgaria.

Corfu is occupied by the Genoese.

Hubert Walter, Archbishop of Canterbury, negotiates a peace with Wales.

North Crawley is split into Great Crawley and Little Crawley.

Philip of Swabia marries Irene Angelina, daughter of Byzantine emperor Isaac II.

Danish king Knud raids area of present day Estonia.

Saracen pirates, from the Balearic Islands, raid the city of Toulon in Provence, and the Benedictine monastery of Saint Honorat, on the Lérins Islands.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Arbroath Abbey is consecrated, and dedicated to St. Thomas Becket.

=== 1198 ===

==== By place ====

====== Asia ======

Emperor Tsuchimikado succeeds Emperor Go-Toba, on the throne of Japan.

====== Europe ======

March – Philip of Swabia is elected King of Germany by his supporters.

July – Otto of Brunswick is crowned King of Germany by the House of Welf.

Frederick II, infant son of German King Henry VI, is crowned King of Sicily.

John of England captures a party of eighteen French knights & many men-at-arms, in the ongoing conflict against France. King Richard I of England introduces a new Great Seal, in an attempt to keep the war against France funded. The government proclaims that charters previously struck with the old seal are no longer valid, and must be renewed with a fresh payment. The office of Lord Warden of the Stannaries is also introduced, to tax the produce of tin mines in Cornwall and Devon.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

January 8 – Pope Innocent III succeeds Pope Celestine III, to become the 176th pope. He immediately lays an interdict on Laon, in an attempt to stamp out independent beliefs there. This will be followed by interdicts against France in 1199, and Normandy in 1203.

=== 1199 ===

January 13 – A short-lived truce is declared, between England and France.

March 25 – King Richard I of England is shot in the left shoulder with a crossbow, by French boy Pierre Basile, at the siege of the castle of Châlus in France. The war between the kingdoms of England and France has become so brutal, that Hugh of Lincoln is warned that "nothing now is safe, neither the city to dwell in nor the highway for travel".

April 6 – King Richard I of England dies from gangrene, caused by his crossbow wound. His younger brother, John, becomes king of England. Richard's jewels are left to his nephew, Otto, King of the Romans. As a result of Richard's death, French soldier Mercadier has Pierre Basile flayed alive and hanged.

King Philip II of France renews his war against John, King of England, supporting the rival claim to the English throne of Arthur I, Duke of Brittany.

St Laurence's Church, Ludlow, in England is rebuilt.


Year 1198 (MCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

1198 papal election

The papal election of 1198 (held January 8) was convoked after the death of Pope Celestine III; it ended with the election of Cardinal Lotario dei Conti di Segni, who took the name Innocent III. In this election for the first time the new pope was elected per scrutinium.

Bobo of San Teodoro

Bobo of San Teodoro (died 9 October 1199) was an Italian cardinal.

He was relative of Pope Celestine III, who named him cardinal-deacon of San Teodoro on 20 February 1193. He subscribed papal bulls between 4 March 1193 and 19 June 1199. His death is recorded in the necrology of the Vatican Basilica, of which he was canon before his promotion to the cardinalate.

Cardinals created by Celestine III

Pope Celestine III (r. 1191-98) created eleven cardinals in six consistories. The exact dates for some of these consistories are not known.


Celestine may refer to:


Pope Celestine I (died 432)

Pope Celestine II (died 1144)

Pope Celestine III (c. 1106–1198)

Pope Celestine IV (died 1241)

Pope Celestine V (1215–1296)

Antipope Celestine II, antipope for one day: December 16, 1124

Celestine Babayaro (born 1978), Nigerian former footballer

Celestine Damiano (1911-1967), American Roman Catholic prelate

Célestine Galli-Marié (1840–1905), French mezzo-soprano who created the title role in the opera Carmen

Célestine Guynemer de la Hailandière (1798–1882), French-born American Roman Catholic prelate

Celestine Tate Harrington (1956–1998), quadriplegic street musician known for playing the keyboard with her lips and tongue

Célestine N'Drin (born 1963), Côte d'Ivoire runner who specialized in the 400 and 800 metres

Celestine Omehia (born 1959), Nigerian politician

Celestine Sibley (1914–1999), Southern American author, journalist, and syndicated columnist

James Celestine (born 1973), Bermudian cricketerFictional characters:

Célestine (Mirbeau), main character and narrator of the French novel The Diary of a Chambermaid, by Octave Mirbeau

Celestine Tavernier, on the BBC soap opera EastEnders

Celestine (comics), in the Image Comics universeOther uses:

Celestines, a branch of the Benedictine Order of monks

Celestine (mineral), a mineral, also known as celestite, found worldwide

Celestine, Indiana, a town in Dubois County, Indiana

La Celestine (Carlota Valdivia), a 1904 painting from Picasso's Blue Period

Celestine (album) by Filipino singer Toni Gonzaga, released in May, 2014

Ernest and Celestine, animated French film, 2012

Cum universi

Cum universi (Latin: With the yoke) is a papal bull written by Pope Celestine III, issued on 13 March 1192. The bull ended the claim of the Archbishop of York to metropolitan jurisdiction in Scotland and established an independent national church, albeit one with no figurehead.

Gerardo Allucingoli

Gerardo Allucingoli (died 1208) was an Italian cardinal and cardinal-nephew of Pope Lucius III, who elevated him in 1182.

He was canon of the cathedral chapter in his native city of Lucca. After the election of his uncle to the papacy (1 September 1181) he was named Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church (ca.1182/84), and then cardinal-deacon of S. Adriano (probably in December 1182). He signed the papal bulls between 2 January 1183 and 19 April 1204. He was Cardinal Vicar General of Rome from 1184 until 1188. He participated in the papal election, 1191 and papal election, 1198. He was elected bishop of Lucca in 1195 but Pope Celestine III did not ratify this election. Legate in various parts of Italy on several occasions. Cardinal-protodeacon from 1205. Pope Innocent III appointed him spiritual and secular vicar of the Kingdom of Sicily in April 1204. His name appears for the last time in the document dated 20 July 1208.

Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor

Henry VI (Heinrich VI) (November 1165 – 28 September 1197), a member of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was King of Germany (King of the Romans) from 1190 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 until his death. From 1194 he was also King of Sicily.

He was the second son of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa and his consort Beatrix of Burgundy. In 1186 he was married to Constance of Sicily, the posthumous daughter of the Norman king Roger II of Sicily. Henry, still stuck in the Hohenstaufen conflict with the House of Welf, had to enforce the inheritance claims by his wife against her nephew Count Tancred of Lecce. Based on an enormous ransom for the release of King Richard I of England, he conquered Sicily in 1194; however, the intended unification with the Holy Roman Empire ultimately failed.

John Gualbert

Saint Giovanni Gualberto (c. 985 – 12 July 1073) was an Italian Roman Catholic abbot and the founder of the Vallumbrosan Order. Born into a noble family, Gualberto was a predictably vain individual who sought pleasure in vanities and romantic intrigues. When his older brother Ugo was murdered, Gualberto set out for revenge. He found the murderer in Florence, but as it was Good Friday, granted the killer's plea for mercy. Soon after Gualberto became a member of the Order of Saint Benedict though he left in order to found his own congregation. He condemned nepotism and all simoniacal actions and was known for the pureness and meekness of his faith. Even popes held him in high esteem.Miracles were reported at his tomb after his death. Pope Celestine III canonized Gualberto on 24 October 1193.

Niccolò Scolari

Niccolo Scolari (died 1200) was an Italian cardinal.

He was cardinal-nephew of Pope Clement III, his uncle, who elevated him in September 1190. In older historiography he is erroneously listed as Niccolo Boboni and nephew of Pope Celestine III. He subscribed papal bulls as S.R.E. diaconus cardinalis between October 23 and December 19, 1190, as cardinal-deacon of Santa Lucia in Orthea on February 17, 1191, and finally as cardinal-deacon of Santa Maria in Cosmedin between May 15, 1191 and August 4, 1200. He died before December 23, 1200.

Order of Monte Vergine

The Benedictine Williamites, more often known by the name of its chief house, Territorial Abbey of Montevergine in central Italy, was a Catholic monastic order.Besides Monte Vergine, St. William of Vercelli founded a considerable number of monasteries, especially in the Kingdom of Naples, including a double monastery for men and women at Goleto (near Nusco). Pope Celestine III confirmed the congregation by a bull (4 November 1197). In 1611 there were 26 larger and nineteen smaller Williamite houses. Benedict XIV confirmed new constitutions in 1741 to be added to the declarations on the Rule of St. Benedict prescribed by Clement VIII.

The mother-house, the only surviving member of the congregation, was affiliated to the Cassinese Congregation of the Primitive Observance in 1879. The community at Monte Vergine retains the white colour of the habit, which is in other respects like that of the black Benedictines.

There are said to have been some 50 Williamite nunneries, of which only two survived at the beginning of the eighteenth century. The habit was white with a black veil, and their rule very severe in the matter of fasting and abstinence.

Pandolfo da Lucca

Pandolfo da Lucca (1140/45–1210/11), erroneously Pandolfo Masca, was an Italian cardinal of the late 12th century. His name is sometimes given in the anglicised form Pandulf or Pandulph.

Pandolfo was born in Lucca in the early 1140s. He was the son of a certain Pietro di Roberto. In the 16th century, the Spanish historian Alfonso Chacón mistakenly assigned him to the noble Masca family from the Pisan commune, an error finally caught in 1844 by Domenico Barsocchini, who found a document from 1208 naming Pandolfo's father.Pandolfo commissioned several paintings from Tuscany on the orders of Callixtus II, for which he was made sub-deacon of the apostolic seat. He was created a cardinal by Pope Lucius III in December 1182 with the title (titulus) of Santi XII Apostoli. He held this title at the time of the five papal elections at which he was present - Pope Urban III on November 25, 1185; Pope Gregory VIII on October 21, 1187; Pope Clement III on December 17–19, 1187; Pope Celestine III on March 25 (?) - 30, 1191; and Pope Innocent III on January 8, 1198. He subscribed the papal bulls between January 4, 1183 and November 11, 1200.

Pope Celestine III, wanting peace between Genoa and Pisa, sent Masca to Tuscany but, as for Lerici, at 1196 peace negotiations it proved impossible to arrive at an understanding. Anti-imperialist sentiment was also growing in Tuscany and, following the example of the Lombard League, a new league was formed, the League of San Genesio or the Tuscan League. The Church favoured such moves, seeing the need to return power to the Communes. On arrival in Tuscany, Masca succeeded in uniting the towns under the flag of the anti-feudality and of keeping themselves distinct from imperial authority. However, on the succession of Innocent III, the new pope did not wish to become part of the anti-imperialist league but instead to take possession of the Tuscan towns himself. Innocent wrote immediately to Masca and another cardinal who accepted the League's agreements (Bernardo, canon of S. Frediano of Lucca), affirming that the alliance had his disapproval since signoria (overlordship) over the March of Tuscany formally belonged to the Church, and as such the Pope could not negotiate with those who were in fact his subjects. Though this weakened the League, the Tuscan towns opposed the Pope in this, forcing him soon to give up the idea of a temporal dominion over Tuscany and limit himself to obstructing the League.Owing to confusion with an earlier cardinal, Pandulf of Pisa, Pandolfo was thought to have been born in 1101 and thus died over the age of one hundred in or after 1201. In reality, Pandolfo seems to have gone into an informal retirement to his native Lucca after 1201. He never appears at the papal court after that date, but he was active in Lucca as late as 1210. He probably died late that year or early the next. He was certainly dead by 1213.

Peder Vognsen

Peder Vognsen (died 11 April 1204) was bishop of Aarhus, Denmark, from 1191. He belonged to the nobility as a member of the Hvide clan. Related to Archbishop Absalon (his mother's cousin), he used his extensive private means to found Aarhus Cathedral. He established several prebends for the cathedral which were authorized by Pope Celestine III in 1197 and confirmed by Pope Innocent III in 1198. From the deed of his donation to the cathedral in 1203, it can be seen he owned a large estate in Zealand including four churches. Peder Vognsen is entombed in Aarhus Cathedral. He is commemorated by a black marble slab in the chancel.

Peter of Tarentaise

Saint Pierre de Tarentaise (1102 – 14 September 1174) was a French Roman Catholic Cistercian who served as the Archbishop of Tarentaise from 1141 until his death.

In 1132, he founded Tamié Abbey as a daughter house of Bonnevaux Abbey. Abbot Peter tried to refuse an elevation to the episcopate though his superiors and Saint Bernard of Clairvaux insisted that he accept the position. As archbishop, he had special care for the poor, the ill, and those who traveled the Alpine passes.

Pierre died in 1174 as he attempted to mediate between feuding monarchs after a serious but brief illness. Miracles were reported at his tomb after his death and this led Pope Celestine III to canonize Pierre as a saint in mid-1191.

Saint Meinhard

Saint Meinhard (b. 1134 or 1136 - died August 14 or October 11, 1196) was a German canon regular and the first Bishop of Livonia. His life was described in the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia. His body rests in the now-Lutheran Riga Cathedral.

As a canon at the Segeberg Abbey, Meinhard was possibly inspired by Vicelinus missionary work among the Slavs. Meinhard traveled with merchants to Livonia on a Catholic mission to convert pagan Semigallians, Latgalians, and Livonians into Christianity. He settled on the Daugava River at Ikšķile (German: Üxküll) southeast of Riga. In 1185–1186 he built a stone church, dedicated to Our Lady. Following an attack by the Lithuanians, Meinhard brought stonemasons from Gotland to build a fortress to defend against future attacks. These were the first known stone buildings among the Baltic tribes. Remains of the church survive to this day. Another stone castle was built in Salaspils (German: Holm) as a gift to newly converted pagans. But the inhabitants rebelled and attacked Meinhard attempting to drive him out of Livonia.When he briefly returned to Germany in 1186, Meinhard was consecrated as Bishop of Üxküll by Hartwig of Uthlede, Archbishop of Bremen. The new bishopric was confirmed by Pope Clement III in September 1188. In 1190, Clement III allowed any monk to join Meinhard's mission. New Pope Celestine III showed more enthusiastic support for the mission in his letter in April 1193, authorizing active missionary recruitment, making exceptions to rules governing monks' food and clothing, and granting indulgences to those who joined the mission. Among the recruits was Theodorich from Loccum Abbey, who started a mission in Turaida (German: Treyden). Meinhard initially converted the pagans by peaceful means, but faced with resistance and apostasy, he turned to the idea of a crusade.Meinhard was succeeded by Berthold of Hanover and Albert of Riga, who began the Livonian Crusade and established the Livonian Brothers of the Sword, a crusading military order, in Riga.

Santa Margherita, Fidenza

Santa Margherita or Santa Margherita Vergine e Martire is a Roman Catholic church Fidenza, Province of Parma, Italy.

A church at the site is documented since 1172 in a papal document sent from Pope Celestine III to the head of the nearby church of San Donnino. By 1477, it was a parish church. The structure today was based on a Romanesque 15th century building with later refurbishments. Including chapels added in the 17th century.

Simon of Southwell

Simon of Southwell was a medieval English canon lawyer and canon who became treasurer of the cathedral chapter of Lichfield Cathedral. He served in the household of Hubert Walter, who was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1193 to 1205. Pope Celestine III appointed Simon as a papal judge-delegate, and Simon also served Walter in Rome on two legal cases. A number of the glosses on a late-twelfth-century copy of Gratian's Decretum are ascribed to Simon.

St. Bernward's Church, Hildesheim

St. Bernward's Church is a Catholic church in the city of Hildesheim in Lower Saxony, Germany. The name refers to the bishop Bernward of Hildesheim (960-1022) who was canonized by Pope Celestine III.

1st–4th centuries
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
5th–8th centuries
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
9th–12th centuries
Papal selection before 1059
Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
13th–16th centuries
Viterbo (1257–1281)
Orvieto (1262–1297)
Perugia (1228–1304)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
Western Schism (1378–1417)
Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)
Reformation Papacy (1534–1585)
Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)
17th–20th centuries
Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848)
Roman Question (1870–1929)
Vatican City (1929–present)
21st century
History of the papacy
Bible and
By country
of the faithful
Early Church
Late antiquity
Early Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
19th century
20th century
21st century

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