Pope Celestine II

Pope Celestine II (Latin: Caelestinus II; died 8 March 1144), born Guido di Castello,[1] was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 26 September 1143[2] to his death in 1144. He is the first pope mentioned in the prophecy of Saint Malachy.


Celestine II
Caelestinus II
Papacy began26 September 1143
Papacy ended8 March 1144
PredecessorInnocent II
SuccessorLucius II
Personal details
Birth nameGuido di Castello
BornCittà di Castello, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Died8 March 1144
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Other popes named Celestine
Papal styles of
Pope Celestine II
Emblem of the Papacy SE
Reference styleHis Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous stylenone

Early life

Guido di Castello, possibly the son of a local noble, Niccolo di Castello,[3] was born either in Città di Castello, situated in Paterna Santa Felicità upon the Apennines, or at Macerata in the March of Ancona.[3][4]

Guido had studied under Pierre Abélard, and eventually became a distinguished master in the schools.[3] Eventually Guido began his career in Rome as a subdeacon and a scriptor apostolicus under Pope Callixtus II.[3] He was created Cardinal-Deacon of Santa Maria in Via Lata by Pope Honorius II in 1127;[5] as such, he signed the papal bulls issued between 3 April 1130 and 21 December 1133.[6] In the double papal election of 1130 he joined the obedience of Pope Innocent II. In December 1133 Innocent promoted him to the rank of Cardinal-Priest of San Marco.[5] He signed the papal bulls as S.R.E. indignus sacerdos between 11 January 1134 and 16 May 1143.[7] As the cardinal of San Marco’s, he supported Innocent’s claims with regards to Monte Cassino, and as a mark of his confidence in him, Innocent made Guido the rector of Benevento. Afterwards, he made him a papal legate to France in 1140.[1]

He participated in the papal election of 1143, the first undisturbed papal election that Rome had seen for eighty-two years,[8] and was elected pope two days after the death of Innocent II,[9] on 25 September 1143,[1] taking the name of Celestine.[8]


Celestine II governed the Church for only five months and thirteen days from his election until his death on 8 March 1144. Upon his accession he wrote to Peter the Venerable and the monks of Cluny, asking them to pray for him, while he was congratulated by Arnulf of Lisieux.[10] Regardless of the brevity of his reign, he was prepared to chart a very different course from that of his predecessor. He was opposed to Innocent II’s concessions to King Roger II of Sicily[11] and refused to ratify the Treaty of Mignano ("a foolish policy, which he survived - just - long enough to regret"[12]). He was in favor of the House of Plantagenet’s claim to the English throne, thus opposed to King Stephen of England. To emphasise this shift, he refused to renew the legatine authority that Innocent II had granted to King Stephen’s brother, Henry of Blois.[11] Celestine also favored the Templars, ordering a general collection for them, as well as the Hospitallers, giving them control of the hospital of Saint Mary Teutonicorum in Jerusalem.[13]

The principal act of his papacy was the absolution of Louis VII of France.[11] King Louis had refused to accept the nomination of Pierre de la Chatre as the Archbishop of Bourges, who went to see Innocent II to have his nomination confirmed.[14] When Pierre returned to France in 1142, Louis refused him permission to enter his Episcopal city, causing Pierre to flee to the court of Theobald II, Count of Champagne. Innocent responded by placing France under an interdict.[14] For two years, the various parties remained at loggerheads while Bernard of Clairvaux attempted to mediate the dispute.[15] With the election of Celestine, both Bernard and Theobald appealed to the pope, while Louis sent ambassadors to have the interdict lifted.[16] Louis agreed to accept Pierre as the legitimate Archbishop of Bourges, and in return, Celestine removed the sentence of interdict.[13]

Celestine died on 8 March 1144[1] in the monastery of Saint Sebastian on the Palatine hill and was buried in the south transept of the Lateran.[13] Celestine’s heraldic badge was a lozengy shield of argent and gules.[9]

Celestine II is the first pope listed in the Prophecies of St Malachy.

See also


  • Thomas, P. C., A Compact History of the Popes, St Pauls BYB, 2007
  • Mann, Horace K., The Lives of the Popes in the Middle Ages, Vol 9 (1925)


  1. ^ a b c d Thomas, pg. 91
  2. ^ http://www2.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1127.htm#Castello
  3. ^ a b c d Mann, pg. 105
  4. ^ According to Mann (pg. 104), there is a local tradition that Celestine II, when he became pope, presented the cathedral in Città di Castello with a sculptured silver altar-front.
  5. ^ a b Mann, pg. 106
  6. ^ J.M.Brixius, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130–1181, Berlin, 1912, p. 35 no. 19
  7. ^ J.M.Brixius, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130–1181, Berlin, 1912, p. 35 no. 19 and p. 43 no. 23, indicates that Guido del Castello and Guido S.R.E. indignus sacerdos were two different persons; but see L. Spätling, Kardinal Guido und seine Legation in Böhmen-Mähren (1142–1146) in: Mitteilungen des Instituts für österreichische Geschichtsforschung, Wagner'sche Universitäts-buchhandlung, 1958, p. 310
  8. ^ a b Mann, pg. 103
  9. ^ a b Mann, pg. 102
  10. ^ Mann, pgs. 106–107
  11. ^ a b c Mann, pg. 108
  12. ^ NORWICH, JOHN JU (2012). The Popes: A History. London: Vintage. ISBN 9780099565871.
  13. ^ a b c Mann, pg. 111
  14. ^ a b Mann, pg. 109
  15. ^ Mann, pgs. 109–110
  16. ^ Mann, pgs. 110–111
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Innocent II
Succeeded by
Lucius II

The 1140s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1140, and ended on December 31, 1149.

== Events ==

=== 1140 ===

==== By area ====

====== Europe ======

April – Henry Jasomirgott is made count palatine of the Rhine.

Summer – The Assizes of Ariano are enacted by Roger II of Sicily.

December 21 – Conrad III of Germany besieges Weinsberg, the stronghold of Welfs.

====== = Date unknown = ======

Roger II of Sicily places the practice of medicine under royal control.

The town of Lanark in Scotland is made a Royal Burgh, by David I of Scotland.

Marburg becomes a town.

====== Asia ======

August 21 – Jin–Song Wars: Battle of Yancheng – Song dynasty forces under the command of Yue Fei defeat a numerically superior Jin army led by Wuzhu.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

June 3 – Pierre Abelard is condemned for heresy by a church court in Sens, France.

September 8 – Sephardi Jewish philosopher Judah Halevi, having completed the Kuzari, arrives in Alexandria on a pilgrimage to Palestine.

The first Cistercian monastery in Spain is founded in Fitero. The order enjoys a rapid expansion in the region in the following 15 years.

Camaldolite monk Gratian founds the science of Canon law with the publication of the Decretum Gratiani.

=== 1141 ===

February 2 – The Anarchy in the Kingdom of England – Battle of Lincoln: Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester and Empress Matilda wrest control of the throne of England from King Stephen.

February 13 – Géza II is crowned King of Hungary and Croatia at age 11, succeeding his father.

May 14 – Sephardi Jewish philosopher Judah Halevi sets off from Alexandria, on a pilgrimage to Palestine.

September 9 – Battle of Qatwan: Liao Dynasty general Yelü Dashi, founder of the Kara-Khitan Khanate, defeats the Seljuk Empire and Kara-Khanid forces.

September 14 – The Anarchy in the Kingdom of England – Rout of Winchester: Empress Matilda returns to the throne, after Robert is captured by loyalist forces.

November 1 – The Anarchy in the Kingdom of England – Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester is exchanged by Empress Matilda for King Stephen, who reassumes the throne of England.

November – The Jin Dynasty and Southern Song Dynasty sign the Treaty of Shaoxing, and peace in the Jin–Song Wars lasts for the next twenty years. The Huai River is established as the boundary between them.

The first German colonists (the future Transylvanian Saxon community) arrive in Transylvania, following grants by Andrew II of Hungary. The colonization process is completed in 1162.

The Italian winemaking company Ricasoli is founded.

=== 1142 ===

==== By area ====

====== Africa ======

Unable to feed his population during a famine, the emir of the great commercial center of Mahdia has to recognize the de facto protectorate of Roger II of Sicily.

A Norman raid against the city of Tripoli fails.

====== Asia ======

October 11 – The Treaty of Shaoxing between the Jin Dynasty and Southern Song Dynasty, ending the Jurchen campaigns against the Song Dynasty in China, is formally ratified when a Jin envoy visits the Song court.

3-year-old Emperor Konoe succeeds Emperor Sutoku on the throne of Japan.

====== Europe ======

Henry the Lion becomes Duke of Saxony.

=== 1143 ===

==== By area ====

====== Africa ======

Jijel is taken by the Normans.

A Norman raid on Ceuta fails, but at the same time the Normans lead a successful assault against Sfax.

====== Asia ======

December 25 – Baldwin III is crowned King of Jerusalem, succeeding his father Fulk.

====== Europe ======

April 5 – Manuel I Comnenus becomes Byzantine Emperor.

July 1 – Battle of Wilton: Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester defeats Stephen I of England at Wilton.

September 26 – Pope Celestine II succeeds Pope Innocent II, as the 165th pope.

October 5 – Treaty of Zamora: Portugal is recognized by the Kingdom of León as an independent kingdom, although it had already functioned as one since the Battle of São Mamede in 1128.

Robert of Ketton makes the first European translation of the Qur'an into Latin.

The exploration of the uncharted eastern parts of Germany begins, and results in the founding of cities such as Lübeck.

During the summer the people of Rome revolt against the authority of the Pope, and create a republican city-state comparable to that of the other Italian cities.

=== 1144 ===

==== By area ====

====== Africa ======

Catalan mercenary Reverter de La Guardia, the main Almoravid commander in the Maghrid al-Aqsa, dies. His elimination opens the regions to the troops of the Almohads.

====== Asia ======

December 24 – The County of Edessa falls to Zengi of Mosul (see Siege of Edessa). Raymond of Poitiers, Prince of Antioch, sends Bishop Hugh of Jabala to seek the aid of Pope Eugene III, while Manuel I Comnenus brings Raymond under Byzantine influence.

====== Europe ======

Louis VII of France capitulates to Pope Celestine II, and so earns the pope's absolution.

Normandy comes under Angevin control, under Geoffrey of Anjou.

The city of Montauban, France, is founded.

The city of Ljubljana, Slovenia, is first mentioned in historical records.

Giordano Pierleoni founds the revolutionary Commune of Rome.

The Byzantines fail to reconquer Malta.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

March 12 – Pope Lucius II succeeds Pope Celestine II, as the 166th pope.

March 22 – The first example of an anti-Semitic blood libel is recorded in England, in connection with the murder of William of Norwich.

June 11 – The Basilica of St Denis near Paris, in the Kingdom of France, is consecrated, as the first Gothic church.

The Priory in Lesmahagow, Scotland, is founded by the Benedictines.

The first Knights Templar stronghold is established in the Kingdom of León and Castile.

=== 1145 ===

==== By place ====

====== Africa ======

Conquest of North Africa by the Almohads:

The Banu Zayan of Tlemcen submit to the arriving Almohad armies.

The Merinids of Maghrib al-Aqsa attempt to resist the Almohads, but are forced into the desert areas around the Tafilalt.

Oran falls to the Almohads.

A Norman raid against the Tripolitania region succeeds.

====== Asia ======

Estimation: Merv (in the Seljuk Empire) becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Constantinople.

====== Europe ======

February 15 – Pietro Bernardo Paganelli of Montemagno, Calci is elected as Pope Eugene III, and succeeds Pope Lucius II as the 167th pope.

Arnold of Brescia joins the revolutionary Commune of Rome, where he becomes its intellectual leader for the next decade.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and culture ======

Kim Pusik and his team of historians finish the compilation of the Korean historical text Samguk Sagi.

Construction begins on Notre-Dame de Chartres Cathedral in Chartres, France.

Woburn Abbey is founded.

====== Religion ======

December 1 – Pope Eugene III issues the bull Quantum praedecessores, calling for the Second Crusade. At Christmas Louis VII of France announces his intention of making a pilgrimage which becomes part of the Crusade.

=== 1146 ===

==== By place ====

====== Africa ======

June 18 – George of Antioch conquers Tripoli, Libya for the king of Sicily.

The Almohad caliph Abd al-Mu'min conquers most of Morocco from the Almoravids.

====== Europe ======

March 1 – Pope Eugene III reissues the bull Quantum praedecessores of 1145, calling for the Second Crusade.

March 31 – Bernard of Clairvaux preaches the Second Crusade at Vézelay, in Burgundy. Louis VII of France and his wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine, take up the cross. In a repeat of the events of 1096, Crusaders attack and massacre Jewish communities along the Rhine. Bernard de Clairvaux condemns these pogroms in strong terms, reminding the Crusaders that those who attacked the Jewish people during the previous Crusade came to a sorry end, and were massacred to the last man by the Turks.

Ildeniz, atabeg of Azerbaijan, founds the first independent Turkish dynasty of Azerbaijan.

The city of Bryansk is first mentioned in written records.

The Republic of Genoa raids the Muslim-held Balearic Islands. The Republic of Pisa protests officially, seeing the islands as rightfully theirs. The Genoese then proceed to lay siege to Almería, in vain.

While discussing the details of a military expedition against the Almoravids for the following year, the representative of the Republic of Genoa and the count of Barcelona reach a commercial agreement, granting privileges to merchants of both nations in the Catalan and Ligurian ports.

The city of Quona is conquered by the Republic of Florence, in a drive to expand its control over the surrounding countryside.

==== By topic ====

====== Markets ======

A rainy year causes the harvest to fail in Europe; one of the worst famines of the century ensues.

=== 1147 ===

==== By place ====

====== Africa ======

April – Abd al-Mu'min destroys the Almoravid Empire, after capturing Marrakech and killing the last emir, Ishaq ibn Ali.

The Siculo-Normans take control of Gabes.

====== Asia ======

October 25 – Battle of Dorylaeum: The Seljuq Turks defeat German crusaders, under Conrad III.

====== Europe ======

The Second Crusade begins.

====== =Eastern Europe= ======

June – The Wendish Crusade fails to convert most of the Polabian Slavs.

The cities of Moscow and Vologda are first mentioned in written records.

====== =Southern Europe= ======

July 1–October 25 – Siege of Lisbon: With the support of English and Flemish Crusaders, Afonso I of Portugal besieges and conquers Lisbon. The same year, the troops of the young Portuguese kingdom take Sintra and Santarém, and sack Palmela.

September – The German contingent of the Second Crusade arrives at Constantinople; after a battle before the city walls, the Germans accept being ferried over the Bosporus to Asia.

Roger II of Sicily takes Corfu from the Byzantine Empire, and pillages Corinth, Athens and Thebes.

October 7 – Almería, one of the most important maritime and commercial centers of al-Andalus, falls into Christian hands, after two months of siege.

Almohad general Berraz ibn Mohammad al-Masufi conquers Seville.

The church of San Frediano in Lucca is consecrated.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Dore Abbey is founded is England.

Hildegard of Bingen founds the convent of Rupertsberg near Bingen.

Jedburgh Abbey is founded by David I of Scotland.

=== 1148 ===

==== Africa ====

Taking advantage of internal strife and a famine episode, George of Antioch takes Mahdia (June 22), Susa (July 1) and Sfax (July 12) in Tunisia, in the name of Roger II of Sicily.

The Anglo-Flemish Crusader fleet takes Oran.

Following the uprising of other cities of the region (Meknes, Sijilmasa) under al-Massati, the population of Ceuta rebels against the Almohads.

==== Asia ====

Battle of Ghazni: Saif-ud-din of Ghor defeats Bahram Shah.

Siege of Damascus in the Second Crusade:

June – The Second Crusade reaches Jerusalem. They meet at the Council of Acre and decide to attack Damascus.

July 29 – The Siege of Damascus ends in failure for the Crusaders.

Anna Komnene writes the Alexiad, a biography of her father, Emperor Alexios I Komnenos.

==== Europe ====

King Afonso I of Portugal takes Abrantes from the Moors.

December 30 – Siege of Tortosa.

=== 1149 ===

==== By area ====

====== Asia ======

June 29 – Battle of Inab: Nur ad-Din, atabeg of Aleppo, defeats the Principality of Antioch.

July 15 – The Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem is consecrated, after reconstruction.

July 28 – The leaders of the Second Crusade take the decision to retreat.

====== Europe ======

April 8 – Pope Eugene III takes refuge in the castle of Ptolemy II of Tusculum.

October 24 – Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona conquers Lleida from the Almoravids, after a siege of seven months (as well as Fraga).

The Castle of Carimate in Lombardy is destroyed.

Åhus, in present-day Sweden, gains city rights.

==== By topic ====

====== Markets ======

Genoa grants the benefits of a part of the city's fiscal revenues to a consortium of creditor called compera, the first example of the consolidation of public debt in medieval Europe.


Year 1143 (MCXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

1143 papal election

The papal election of 1143 followed the death of Pope Innocent II and resulted in the election of Pope Celestine II.


Year 1144

(MCXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

1144 papal election

The papal election of 1144 followed the death of Pope Celestine II and resulted in the election of Pope Lucius II.

1153 papal election

The papal election of 1153 followed the death of Pope Eugene III and resulted in the election of Pope Anastasius IV.

1154 papal election

The papal election of 1154 followed the death of Pope Anastasius IV and resulted in the election of Pope Adrian IV, the only Englishman to become pope.

Antipope Celestine II

Celestine II (born Teobaldo Boccapecci or Boccapeconai, Latin: Thebaldus Buccapecuc) was an antipope for one day, December 16, 1124. He was considered legitimate, but nonetheless submitted to the opposing pope, Honorius II.

He was made a Cardinal Deacon by Paschal II. He was selected as pope in a confused and chaotic election, in which Theobald and another cardinal, Saxo, were supported by the Pierleoni family. During the process of Celestine's investment, Robert Frangipani and a body of troops broke into the church and proclaimed Lamberto Cardinal Scannabecchi (a man of considerable learning) pope.

On Celestine's resignation, Scannabecchi became Honorius II.


Celestine may refer to:


Pope Celestine I (died 432)

Pope Celestine II (died 1144)

Pope Celestine III (c. 1106–1198)

Pope Celestine IV (died 1241)

Pope Celestine V (1215–1296)

Antipope Celestine II, antipope for one day: December 16, 1124

Celestine Babayaro (born 1978), Nigerian former footballer

Celestine Damiano (1911-1967), American Roman Catholic prelate

Célestine Galli-Marié (1840–1905), French mezzo-soprano who created the title role in the opera Carmen

Célestine Guynemer de la Hailandière (1798–1882), French-born American Roman Catholic prelate

Celestine Tate Harrington (1956–1998), quadriplegic street musician known for playing the keyboard with her lips and tongue

Célestine N'Drin (born 1963), Côte d'Ivoire runner who specialized in the 400 and 800 metres

Celestine Omehia (born 1959), Nigerian politician

Celestine Sibley (1914–1999), Southern American author, journalist, and syndicated columnist

James Celestine (born 1973), Bermudian cricketerFictional characters:

Célestine (Mirbeau), main character and narrator of the French novel The Diary of a Chambermaid, by Octave Mirbeau

Celestine Tavernier, on the BBC soap opera EastEnders

Celestine (comics), in the Image Comics universeOther uses:

Celestines, a branch of the Benedictine Order of monks

Celestine (mineral), a mineral, also known as celestite, found worldwide

Celestine, Indiana, a town in Dubois County, Indiana

La Celestine (Carlota Valdivia), a 1904 painting from Picasso's Blue Period

Celestine (album) by Filipino singer Toni Gonzaga, released in May, 2014

Ernest and Celestine, animated French film, 2012

Città di Castello

Città di Castello (Italian pronunciation: [tʃitˈta ddi kaˈstɛllo]; "Castle Town") is a city and comune in the province of Perugia, in the northern part of the Umbria. It is situated on a slope of the Apennines, on the flood plain along the upper part of the river Tiber. The city is 56 km (35 mi) north of Perugia and 104 km (65 mi) south of Cesena on the motorway SS 3 bis. It is connected by the SS 73 with Arezzo and the A1 highway, situated 38 km (23 mi) west. Città di Castello has an exclave named Monte Ruperto within Marche.

Congregation of Savigny

The monastic Congregation of Savigny (Savigniac Order) started in the abbey of Savigny, situated in northern France, on the confines of Normandy and Brittany, in the Diocese of Coutances. It originated in 1105 when Vitalis of Mortain established a hermitage in the forest at Savigny in France.

Elisabeth, Countess of Vermandois

Not to be confused with Elizabeth of Vermandois, Countess of Leicester

Elisabeth of Vermandois also known as Isabelle Mabile or Isabelle de Vermandois (1143 – Arras 28 March 1183) was ruling Countess of Vermandois from 1168 to 1182, and also Countess of Flanders by marriage to Philip I, Count of Flanders. She was the eldest daughter of Ralph I, Count of Vermandois and his second spouse Petronilla of Aquitaine.

Giovanni Paparoni

Giovanni Cardinal Paparoni (sometimes known in English as John Cardinal Paparo; died ca. 1153/1154) was an Italian Cardinal and prominent papal legate in dealings with Ireland and Scotland.

He was created Cardinal by Pope Celestine II in 1143. He presided at the Synod of Kells in 1152, which decided the system of four archbishops (Armagh, Dublin, Cashel, and Tuam) for Ireland. He argued for a reduction in the number of bishops.

Guido de Summa

Guido de Summa (died 1151) was an Italian Cardinal.

He was born in Milan. Probably he was already a Cardinal-Deacon under Pope Innocent II and as such, he signed papal bulls between 12 January 1142 and 9 December 1143. Certainly Pope Celestine II named him Cardinal-Priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso in the consistory celebrated on 17 December 1143. He subscribed the papal bulls as Cardinal-Prest between 28 December 1143 and 6 May 1149 and participated in the papal election, 1144 and papal election, 1145. On 23 September 1149 Eugenius III consecrated him Bishop of Ostia; as such, he signed papal bulls from 6 November 1149 until 14 April 1150. For many years he acted as papal legate in Lombardy. He is attested for the last time in the document issued in Ferentino on 10 May 1151.

Milites Templi

Milites Templi (Latin for "Soldiers of the Temple") was a papal bull issued by Pope Celestine II in 1144.

It ordered the clergy to protect the Knights Templar and encouraged the faithful to contribute to their cause. It allowed the Templars to make their own collections once a year, even in areas under interdict.This is one of the most important papal bulls relating to the Temple, and together with Omne datum optimum (1139) and Militia Dei (1145) forms the foundation for the Order's future wealth and success.


The Olivetans, or the Order of Our Lady of Mount Olivet, are a monastic order formally recognised in 1344. They have formed the Olivetan Congregation within the Benedictine Confederation since 1960.

Petronilla of Aquitaine

Petronilla of Aquitaine (c. 1125 – 1193) was the second daughter of William X of Aquitaine and Aenor of Châtellerault. She was the elder sister of William Aigret and the younger sister of Eleanor of Aquitaine, who was Queen consort of France, later England. She is variously called Alix (or Aelith in Occitan) and Petronilla; she typically went by Alix after her marriage, while Petronilla seems to have been her childhood name (she is referred to as such in her father's will).

Petronilla accompanied her sister to the French court, where she met Count Raoul I of Vermandois, who was a married man and a cousin to her brother-in-law Louis VII of France. He repudiated his wife and married her, and they were excommunicated by the Pope. Pope Innocent II promised to lift the excommunication, but recanted his promise in 1143. Hostilities flared, and Louis VII infamously burned Vitry-le-François. Finally the Pope died and his successor Pope Celestine II lifted the excommunication at Council of Reims in 1144. However, Petronilla and Raoul divorced in 1151, and he remarried the next year. Petronilla remained a member of the French royal court and a constant companion to her sister Eleanor while she was imprisoned by her husband King Henry II in England and Wales. After Henry's death, Eleanor was freed, and Petronilla planned on returning to France. Yet, records of Petronilla after 1189 are scarce. It is believed that she came down with a fever on her voyage from England back to France and died in early 1190 before her arrival at port.

Together Raoul and Petronilla had three children:

Elisabeth, Countess of Vermandois also known as Isabelle Mabile (1143 – 28 March 1183), married Philip, Count of Flanders.

Ralph II, Count of Vermandois (1145–1167), married Margaret I, Countess of Flanders.

Eleanor, Countess of Vermandois (1148/49 – 1213), married four times.

Pope Celestine

There have been five Popes Celestine of the Roman Catholic Church:

Pope Celestine I (422–432)

Antipope Celestine II (1124)

Pope Celestine II (1143–1144)

Pope Celestine III (1191–1198)

Pope Celestine IV (1241)

Pope Celestine V (1294)

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