Pope Celestine I

Pope Celestine I (Latin: Caelestinus I; d. 1 August 432) was Pope from 10 September 422 to his death in 432. According to the Liber Pontificalis, the start of his papacy was 3 November.[2] However, Tillemont places the date at 10 September.[3]

Celestine's tenure was largely spent combatting various ideologies deemed heretical. He supported the mission of the Gallic bishops that sent Germanus of Auxerre in 429, to Britain to address Pelagianism, and later commissioned Palladius as bishop to the Scots of Ireland and northern Britain. In 430, he held a synod in Rome which condemned the apparent views of Nestorius. He also opposed the Novationists who refused absolution to the lapsi, arguing that reconciliation should never be refused to any dying sinner who sincerely asked it.[1]

Pope Saint

Celestine I
Coelestinus I
Papacy began10 September 422
Papacy ended1 August 432[1]
PredecessorBoniface I
SuccessorSixtus III
Personal details
Birth nameCelestine
BornRome, Western Roman Empire
Died1 August 432
Feast day
  • 6 April (Catholic)
  • 8 April (Greek Orthodox)
Venerated in
  • Dove
  • Dragon
  • Flame
Other popes named Celestine
Papal styles of
Pope Celestine I
Emblem of the Papacy SE
Reference styleOur Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous styleSaint


Celestine I was a Roman from the region of Campania.[2] Nothing is known of his early history except that his father's name was Priscus. According to John Gilmary Shea, Celestine was a relative of the emperor Valentinian.[1] He is said to have lived for a time at Milan with St. Ambrose. The first known record of him is in a document of Pope Innocent I from the year 416, where he is spoken of as "Celestine the Deacon".[4]

Various portions of the liturgy are attributed to him, but without any certainty on the subject. In 430, he held a synod in Rome, at which the teachings of Nestorius were condemned. The following year, he sent delegates to the First Council of Ephesus, which addressed the same issue.[1] Four letters written by him on that occasion, all dated 15 March 431, together with a few others, to the African bishops, to those of Illyria, of Thessalonica, and of Narbonne, are extant in re-translations from the Greek; the Latin originals having been lost.

St. Celestine actively condemned the Pelagians and was zealous for Roman orthodoxy. To this end he was involved in the initiative of the Gallic bishops to send Germanus of Auxerre and Lupus of Troyes travelling to Britain in 429 to confront bishops reportedly holding Pelagian views.

He sent Palladius to Ireland to serve as a bishop in 431. Bishop Patricius (Saint Patrick) continued this missionary work. Pope Celestine strongly opposed the Novatians in Rome; as Socrates Scholasticus writes, "this Celestinus took away the churches from the Novatians at Rome also, and obliged Rusticula their bishop to hold his meetings secretly in private houses."[5] He was zealous in refusing to tolerate the smallest innovation on the constitutions of his predecessors. As St. Vincent of Lerins reported in 434:

Holy Pope Celestine also expresses himself in like manner and to the same effect. For in the Epistle which he wrote to the priests of Gaul, charging them with connivance with error, in that by their silence they failed in their duty to the ancient faith, and allowed profane novelties to spring up, he says: "We are deservedly to blame if we encourage error by silence. Therefore rebuke these people. Restrain their liberty of preaching."[6]

In a letter to certain bishops of Gaul, dated 428, St. Celestine rebukes the adoption of special clerical garb by the clergy. He wrote: "We [the bishops and clergy] should be distinguished from the common people [plebe] by our learning, not by our clothes; by our conduct, not by our dress; by cleanness of mind, not by the care we spend upon our person" [4]

St. Celestine died on 26 July 432. He was buried in the cemetery of St. Priscilla in the Via Salaria, but his body, subsequently moved, now lies in the Basilica di Santa Prassede.

In art, Saint Celestine is portrayed as a Pope with a dove, dragon, and flame, and is recognized by the Church as a saint.

See also


  1. ^ a b c d Shea, John Gilmary. "Celestine I", Little Pictorial Lives of the Saints, Benziger Brothers: New York, 1894
  2. ^ a b Loomis, Louise Ropes (1916). The Book of the Popes (Liber Pontificalis). New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 92f.
  3. ^ Tillemont, Louis Sébastien Le Nain de (1709). Memoires pour servir a l'histoire ecclesiaástique des six premiers siécles. Paris: Charles Robustel. pp. 14:148.
  4. ^ a b Murphy, John F.X. "Pope St. Celestine I." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 3. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. 15 September 2017
  5. ^ "Ecclesiastical History 7:11". Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  6. ^ Lerins, St. Vincent of. "Commonitory 32". Retrieved 12 July 2011.

External links

Titles of the Great Christian Church
Preceded by
Boniface I
Succeeded by
Sixtus III

The 420s decade ran from January 1, 420, to December 31, 429.


Year 428 (CDXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Felix and Taurus (or, less frequently, year 1181 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 428 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.


Year 429 (CDXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Florentius and Dionysius (or, less frequently, year 1182 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 429 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.


The 430s decade ran from January 1, 430, to December 31, 439.

== Events ==

=== 430 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Spring – The Vandals under king Genseric extend their power in North Africa along the Mediterranean Sea, and lay siege to Hippo Regius (where Augustine has recently been bishop).

Flavius Aetius gains appointment as master of both services (magister utriusque militiae), after gaining victories in Gaul over Visigoth and Frankish forces.

The Huns led by Octar attack the Burgundians, who occupied territory on the Rhine near the city of Worms (Germany). During the fighting Octar dies and his army is destroyed.

Flavius Felix, his wife and a deacon are accused of plotting against Aetius. They are arrested in Ravenna and executed. Aetius is granted the title of patricius (Roman nobility).

====== Asia ======

Feng Ba abdicates as emperor of the Northern Yan, one of the states vying for control of China. He is succeeded by his brother Feng Hong.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

August 28 – Augustine dies during the siege of Hippo Regius at age 75, leaving behind his monumental work The City of God and other works that will have influence on Christianity.

Saint Patrick reaches Ireland on his missionary expedition (approximate date).

Peter the Iberian founds a Georgian monastery near Bethlehem.

=== 431 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Flavius Aetius, Roman general (magister militum), fights a campaign in Rhaetia (Switzerland) and Noricum (Austria). He is attested in the city of Vindelicia (modern Augsburg), reestablishing Roman rule on the Danube frontier.

Aetius pushes the Salian Franks back across the River Somme. King Chlodio signs a peace treaty and becomes a foederati of the Western Roman Empire.

====== Africa ======

Hippo Regius becomes the capital of the Vandal Kingdom. After 14 months of hunger and disease, the Vandals ravage the city. Emperor Theodosius II sends an imperial fleet with an army under command of Aspar, and lands at Carthage.

Aspar is routed by the Vandals and Flavius Marcian, future Byzantine emperor, is captured during the fighting. He negotiates a peace with King Genseric and maintains imperial authority in Carthage.

====== Mesoamerica ======

K'uk' B'alam I, the first known ruler of the Mayan city of Palenque, comes to power.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and Sciences ======

Greek Neoplatonist philosopher Proclus begins studying at the Academy in Athens.

====== Religion ======

June – First Council of Ephesus: Nestorianism is rejected, the Nicene creed is declared to be complete. Nestorius is deposed from his see.

October 1 – Maximianus is enthroned as Patriarch of Constantinople.

Pope Celestine I dispatches Palladius to serve as bishop to the Irish.

=== 432 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Battle of Ravenna: Roman forces under command of Flavius Aetius are defeated near Rimini (Italy). His rival comes Bonifacius is mortally wounded and dies several days later. Aetius flees to Dalmatia and seeks refuge with the Huns.

Sebastianus, son-in-law of Bonifacius, becomes supreme commander (magister militum) of the Western Roman army. Empress Galla Placidia gives him considerable influence over imperial policy.

====== Europa ======

The Huns are united by King Rugila (also called Rua) on the Hungarian Plain. He exacts annual peace payments from the Eastern Roman Empire.

==== By topic ====

====== Art ======

The Basilica of Saint Sabina at the Aventine (Rome) is finished by Priest Petrus of Illyria.

Assembly begins on The Parting of Lot and Abraham, a mosaic in the nave arcade of the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore.

====== Religion ======

July 27 – Pope Celestine I dies after a 10-year reign in which he led a vigorous policy against Nestorianism. He is succeeded by Sixtus III as the 44th pope.

Saint Patrick, Scottish-born missionary, is consecrated a bishop and converts the Irish to Christianity until his death around 460.

December 25 – Christmas is celebrated for the first time in Alexandria (approximate date).

=== 433 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Flavius Aetius returns, with the support of the Huns, back to Italy. He gains control over emperor Valentinian III, age 14, and becomes his "protector".

Petronius Maximus is appointed consul of the Western Roman Empire.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Pope Sixtus III helps to settle a Christological dispute between the patriarchs Cyril of Alexandria and John of Antioch, that has continued since the First Council of Ephesus, two years ago. They sign the "Formula of Reunion", thus ending their conflict over Nestorianism.

=== 434 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Flavius Aetius, Roman general (magister militum) in the service of emperor Valentinian III, begins to hold power in Rome. This will continue for twenty years. He allows the Huns to settle in Pannonia, along the Sava River.

Justa Grata Honoria, older sister of Valentinian, becomes pregnant from an officer in her household. The liaison shakes the foundations of the Western Roman Empire. Circles in the court at Ravenna assume inevitably that Honoria is planning to raise her paramour to imperial rank and challenge her brother. Valentinian then has him executed.

Summer – The Huns under Rugila devastate Thrace and move steadily towards Constantinople. The citizens prepare themselves for a long siege, depending on the strength of the Theodosian Walls.

Emperor Theodosius II bribes the Huns (after the death of Rugila) to keep the peace in the Eastern Roman Empire.

====== Africa ======

The Vandals in North Africa defeat the Roman general Aspar and force him to withdraw. He serves as consul at Constantinople.

====== Europe ======

Attila, king of the Huns, consolidates his power in the Hungarian capital, probably on the site of Buda (modern Budapest). He jointly rules the kingdom with his brother Bleda.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

April 12 – Maximianus dies on Great and Holy Thursday. He is succeeded by Proclus, who becomes archbishop of Constantinople.

=== 435 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Roman general (magister militum) Flavius Aetius begins, in Gaul, a campaign against the Burgundians, following their raids into neighbouring Gallia Belgica by King Gunther.

November 14 – Emperor Theodosius II orders a new edict for the death penalty of all heretics and pagans in the Empire. Judaism is considered a legal non-Christian religion.

====== Africa ======

King Genseric concludes a peace treaty with the Romans, under which the Vandals retain Mauretania and a part of Numidia as foederati (allies under a special treaty) of Rome.

The Vandals use Hippo Regius (modern Annaba) as a port for their expeditions. Genseric establishes a merchant fleet to transport goods between Africa and the Italian mainland.

Huneric, eldest son of Genseric, is sent as a child hostage to the court at Ravenna to secure the alliance with the Western Roman Empire.

====== Mesoamerica ======

August 10 – A figure known to Mayanist scholars as "Casper" begins a 52-year reign in Palenque.

December 8 marks the beginning of the 9th Baktun in Mesoamerica. There is a change in political alliances just preceding the event when royal personages from the Mexican highland city of Teotihuacan consolidate power individually as Mayan kings.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

August 3 – Theodosius II exiles Nestorius, archbishop of Constantinople, to a monastery in the Libyan desert at the behest of his sister Pulcheria.

Ibas is elected bishop of Edessa. He becomes associated with the growth of Nestorianism and openly preaching heretical doctrines in public.

=== 436 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Flavius Aetius, Roman general (magister militum), attempts to put an end to Burgundian raids in Gaul. He calls in Hun mercenaries under command of Attila and his brother Bleda, which plunder Augusta Vangionum, killing some 20,000 Burgundians. The Kingdom of the Burgundians is destroyed; King Gunther and his family are killed (this epic disaster will later provide the source for the Nibelungenlied).

King Theodoric I besieges the city of Narbonne; the Visigoths obtain access to the Mediterranean Sea and the roads to the Pyrenees.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

The Buddhist Srimala Sutra is translated into Chinese by Gunabhadra.

=== 437 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Flavius Aetius, Roman general (magister militum), secures the besieged city of Narbonne (Southern Gaul) against king Theodoric I. He concludes a peace treaty with the Visigoths, and becomes consul for the second time.

July 2 – Valentinian III, age 18, rules as emperor over the Western Roman Empire. His mother Galla Placidia ends her regency, but continues to exercise political influence until her death in 450.

October 29 – Valentinian III cements an alliance with the eastern emperor, Theodosius II, by marrying his daughter Licinia Eudoxia in Constantinople. This marks the reunion of the two branches of the House of Theodosius.

====== Britannia ======

Battle of Wallop: Ambrosius Aurelianus, leader of the Romano-British, defeats the Anglo Saxons under King Vortigern. He is given all the kingdoms of the western side of Britain (according to Historia Brittonum).

====== Mesoamerica ======

K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo' dies after an 11-year reign. He is the founder and first ruler of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization centered at Copán (modern Honduras).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

A synod at Constantinople attempts to impinge on the Pope's rights in Illyria. Proclus tries to implement the synod's decisions, and Pope Sixtus III reminds the Illyrian bishops of their obligations to his vicar at Thessaloniki.

=== 438 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Theodosius II forbids the divulging of secrets of naval carpentry, probably to avoid its spread to the rising Vandal power in North Africa.

February 15 – The Codex Theodosianus, a collection of edicts of Roman law, is published.

Aelia Eudocia, wife of Theodosius II, goes on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, bringing back with her holy relics to prove her faith.

The last gladiatorial fights are held in the Colosseum (Rome). Animal hunts continue until at least 523.

====== Europe ======

King Hermeric of the Suebic Kingdom of Galicia is forced after a seven-year illness to retire. He hands the government over to his son Rechila.

====== Persia ======

Bahram V dies after an 18-year reign. He is succeeded by his son Yazdegerd II, who becomes the fifteenth Sassanid king of the Persian Empire.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Relics of John Chrysostom are transported to Constantinople.

=== 439 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

====== = Britain = ======

Battle of Guoloph: Vitalinus (possibly Vortigern) is defeated at the hands of Ambrosius Aurelianus and a combined force of Romano-British forces from across southern Britain.

====== = Roman Empire = ======

Litorius, Roman general (Magister militum per Gallias), lays siege to Toulouse. During the decisive battle before the walls he suffers a severe defeat and is killed, and only the heavy loss of Visigoths makes King Theodoric I decide to agree to a provisional restoration of the status quo.

Licinia Eudoxia, wife of emperor Valentinian III, is granted the title of Augusta following the birth of their daughter Eudocia.

Greek becomes an official language in the Eastern Roman Empire.

====== Balkans ======

Winter – Hun and Roman envoys meet at Margum (modern Bosnia and Herzegovina), an important market town on the Sava River. After negotiations, Attila and his brother Bleda, who are present, accept a four-point peace plan. Trading rights between the two states are confirmed and emperor Theodosius II pays an annual tribute of 700 pounds of gold.

====== Africa ======

King Genseric breaks his treaty with the Western Roman Empire and invades Africa Proconsularis.

October 19 – Carthage falls to the Vandals. Genseric makes it his capital and establishes the Vandal Kingdom.

The Vandals establish a North African granary that enables them to enforce their will on other nations, who are dependent on North Africa for grain and other food staples.

Winter – The Vandals conquer Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica and the Balearic Islands.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Isaac the Great, Armenian apostolic patriarch, dies at Ashtishat. He helped to develop a Greek-inspired alphabet, and translate the Bible, along with various Christian writings, into Armenian.

The monastery of Mar Saba is founded near Bethlehem (Palestine).


Year 431 (CDXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Bassus and Antiochus (or, less frequently, year 1184 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 431 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.


Year 432 (CDXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Aetius and Valerius (or, less frequently, year 1185 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 432 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Catholic Church in Ireland

The Catholic Church in Ireland (Irish: Eaglais Chaitliceach na hÉireann) is part of the worldwide Catholic Church in communion with the Holy See. With 3.7 million members, it is the largest Christian church in Ireland. In the Republic of Ireland's 2016 census, 78% of the population identified as Catholic, which represents a decrease of 6% from 2011. By contrast, 45% of Northern Ireland identified as Catholic at the 2011 census, a percentage that is expected to increase in the coming years. The Primate of All Ireland is the Archbishop of Armagh. The church is administered on an all-Ireland basis. The Irish Catholic Bishops' Conference is a consultative body for ordinaries in Ireland.

Christianity has existed in Ireland since the 5th century and arrived from Roman Britain (most famously associated with Saint Patrick), forming what is today known as Gaelic Christianity. It gradually gained ground and replaced the old pagan traditions. The Catholic Church in Ireland cites its origin to this period and considers Palladius as the first bishop sent to the Gaels by Pope Celestine I. However, during the 12th century a stricter uniformity in the Western Church was enforced, with the diocesan structure introduced with the Synod of Ráth Breasail in 1111 and culminating with the Gregorian Reform which coincided with the Norman invasion of Ireland.

After the Tudor conquest of Ireland the Catholic Church was outlawed. The English Crown attempted to export the Protestant Reformation into Ireland. In the 16th century, Irish national identity coalesced around Irish Catholicism. For several centuries, the Irish Catholic majority were suppressed, but eventually the Church and the British Empire came to a rapprochement. Funding for Maynooth College was agreed as was Catholic Emancipation to ward off revolutionary republicanism. Following the Easter Rising of 1916 and the creation of the Irish Free State, the Church gained significant social and political influence. This has seen a decline due to social liberal modernity.


Celestine may refer to:


Pope Celestine I (died 432)

Pope Celestine II (died 1144)

Pope Celestine III (c. 1106–1198)

Pope Celestine IV (died 1241)

Pope Celestine V (1215–1296)

Antipope Celestine II, antipope for one day: December 16, 1124

Celestine Babayaro (born 1978), Nigerian former footballer

Celestine Damiano (1911-1967), American Roman Catholic prelate

Célestine Galli-Marié (1840–1905), French mezzo-soprano who created the title role in the opera Carmen

Célestine Guynemer de la Hailandière (1798–1882), French-born American Roman Catholic prelate

Celestine Tate Harrington (1956–1998), quadriplegic street musician known for playing the keyboard with her lips and tongue

Célestine N'Drin (born 1963), Côte d'Ivoire runner who specialized in the 400 and 800 metres

Celestine Omehia (born 1959), Nigerian politician

Celestine Sibley (1914–1999), Southern American author, journalist, and syndicated columnist

James Celestine (born 1973), Bermudian cricketerFictional characters:

Célestine (Mirbeau), main character and narrator of the French novel The Diary of a Chambermaid, by Octave Mirbeau

Celestine Tavernier, on the BBC soap opera EastEnders

Celestine (comics), in the Image Comics universeOther uses:

Celestines, a branch of the Benedictine Order of monks

Celestine (mineral), a mineral, also known as celestite, found worldwide

Celestine, Indiana, a town in Dubois County, Indiana

La Celestine (Carlota Valdivia), a 1904 painting from Picasso's Blue Period

Celestine (album) by Filipino singer Toni Gonzaga, released in May, 2014

Ernest and Celestine, animated French film, 2012

Collectiones canonum Dionysianae

The Collectiones canonum Dionysianae (Latin: Dionysian collections of canons) are the several collections of ancient canons prepared by the Scythian monk Dionysius 'the humble' (exiguus). They include the Collectio conciliorum Dionysiana I, the Collectio conciliorum Dionysiana II, and the Collectio decretalium Dionysiana. They are of the utmost importance for the development of the canon law tradition in the West.

Towards 500 a Scythian monk, known as Dionysius Exiguus, who had come to Rome after the death of Pope Gelasius (496), and who was well skilled in both Latin and Greek, undertook to bring out a more exact translation of the canons of the Greek councils. In a second effort he collected papal decretals from Siricius (384-89) to Anastasius II (496-98), inclusive, anterior therefore, to Pope Symmachus (514-23). By order of Pope Hormisdas (514-23), Dionysius made a third collection, in which he included the original text of all the canons of the Greek councils, together with a Latin version of the same; but the preface alone has survived. Finally, he combined the first and second in one collection, which thus united the canons of the councils and the papal decretals; it is in this shape that the work of Dionysius has reached us.

This collection opens with a table or list of titles, each of which is afterwards repeated before the respective canons; then come the first fifty canons of the Apostles, the canons of the Greek councils, the canons of Carthage (419), and the canons of preceding African synods under Aurelius, which had been read and inserted in the Council of Carthage. This first part of the collection is closed by a letter of Pope Boniface I, read at the same council, letters of Cyril of Alexandria and Atticus of Constantinople to the African Fathers, and a letter of Pope Celestine I. The second part of the collection opens likewise with a preface, in the shape of a letter to the priest Julian, and a table of titles; then follow one decretal of Siricius, twenty-one of Innocent I, one of Zozimus, four of Boniface I, three of Celestine I, seven of pope Leo I, one of Gelasius I and one of Anastasius II. The additions met with in Voel and Justel are taken from inferior manuscripts.

Commissary Apostolic

A Commissary Apostolic (Latin Commissarius Apostolicus)

is Commissary (i.e. one who has received power from a legitimate superior authority to pass judgment in a certain cause or to take information concerning it) who has been appointed by the pope, hence commissary Apostolic.

Councils of Alexandria

The Councils of Alexandria started in 231 AD as a council of bishops and priests met at Alexandria, Egypt, called by Bishop Demetrius for the purpose of declaring Origen of Alexandria unworthy of the office of teacher, and of excommunicating him.


Icosium (Greek: Ικοσιον, Ikosion) was a small Punic and Berber city that became an important Roman colony and an early medieval bishopric (now a Latin titular see) in the casbah area of actual Algiers..

Lucanus of Sabiona

Saint Lucanus of Sabiona or Lucanus of Säben (Italian: San Lucano or Lugano; German: Lukan von Säben; fl. 5th century; died 20 July), is a Roman Catholic saint of the fifth century, associated with the Dolomites and the Tyrol.

He is often described as bishop of Säben, and later—erroneously—as bishop of Brixen in the South Tyrol.

Maximianus of Constantinople

Maximianus (? – 12 April 434) was the archbishop of Constantinople from 25 October 431 until his death on 12 April 434.

Palladius (bishop of Ireland)

Palladius (fl. A.D. 408–431; died c. A.D. 457/461) was the first bishop of the Christians of Ireland, preceding Saint Patrick; the two were perhaps conflated in many later Irish traditions. He was a deacon and member of one of the prominent families in Gaul. Pope Celestine I consecrated him a bishop and sent him to Ireland "to the Scotti believing in Christ".

Pope Celestine

There have been five Popes Celestine of the Roman Catholic Church:

Pope Celestine I (422–432)

Antipope Celestine II (1124)

Pope Celestine II (1143–1144)

Pope Celestine III (1191–1198)

Pope Celestine IV (1241)

Pope Celestine V (1294)

Quiza Xenitana

Quiza, which Pliny the Elder called Quiza Xenitana, was a Roman–Berber colonia, located in the former province of Mauretania Caesariensis. The town is identified with ruins at Sidi Bellater, Algiers.


Saint-Célestin may refer to:

Saint-Célestin, Quebec (municipality), a municipality in the Centre-du-Québec region of Quebec

Saint-Célestin, Quebec (village), a village municipality enclaved within the municipality

St Padrig's Church, Llanbadrig

St Padrig's Church is a medieval church in the village of Llanbadrig, Anglesey, Wales. The building probably dates from the 12th century and underwent renovations in the 19th century. It was designated a Grade II* listed building on 5 December 1970.

1st–4th centuries
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13th–16th centuries
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History of the papacy
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See also

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