Pope Callixtus II or Callistus II (c. 1065 – 13 December 1124), born Guy of Burgundy, was pope of the western Christian church from 1 February 1119 to his death in 1124. His pontificate was shaped by the Investiture Controversy, which he was able to settle through the Concordat of Worms in 1122.
|Papacy began||1 February 1119|
|Papacy ended||13 December 1124|
|Birth name||Guy de Burgundy|
Quingey, County of Burgundy, Holy Roman Empire
|Died||13 December 1124|
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
|Previous post||Archbishop of Vienne (1088–1119)|
|Other popes named Callixtus|
Born the fourth son of William I, Count of Burgundy, one of the wealthiest rulers in Europe, Guy was a member of the highest aristocracy in Europe. His family was part of a network of noble alliances. He was a cousin of Arduin of Ivrea, the King of Italy. One sister, Gisela, was married to Humbert II, Count of Savoy, and then to Renier I of Montferrat; another sister, Maud, was the wife of Odo I, Duke of Burgundy. A further sister Clementia married Robert II Count of Flanders. His brother Raymond was married to Urraca, the heiress of León, and fathered the future King Alfonso VII of León. His brother Hugh was an Archbishop of Besançon.
Guy first appears in contemporary records when he became the Archbishop of Vienne in 1088. He held strong pro-Papal views about the Investiture Controversy. As archbishop, he was appointed papal legate to France by Pope Paschal II during the time that Paschal was induced under pressure from Holy Roman Emperor Henry V to issue the Privilegium of 1111, by which he yielded much of the papal prerogatives that had been so forcefully claimed by Pope Gregory VII in the Gregorian Reforms. These concessions were received with violent opposition and nowhere more so than in France, where the opposition was led by Guy, who was present at the Lateran Synod of 1112.
On his return to France, he immediately convened an assembly of French and Burgundian bishops at Vienne, where the imperial claim to a traditional lay investiture of the clergy was denounced as heretical and a sentence of excommunication was now pronounced against Henry V on the grounds that he had extorted the Privilegium from Paschal II by means of violence. These decrees were sent to Paschal II with a request for a confirmation, which they received on 20 October 1112.
Guy was later, apparently, created cardinal by Pope Paschal, though the latter does not seem to have been quite pleased with his zeal in his attacks upon Henry V. During the violent confrontations between Henry V and Paschal II's successor, Pope Gelasius II, the Pope was forced to flee from Rome, first to Gaeta, where he was crowned, then to the Abbey of Cluny, where he died on 29 January 1119.
Archbishop Guy de Bourgogne of Vienne, France, who was not a cardinal, was elected at Cluny on 2 February 1119. Nine cardinals took part in the election. Most of the other cardinals were in Rome. He was crowned at Vienne on 9 February 1119, as Calixtus II.
At the outset, it appeared that the new Pope was willing to negotiate with Henry V, who received the papal embassy at Strasbourg, and withdrew his support from the antipope he had proclaimed at Rome. It was agreed that pope and emperor should meet at the Château de Mousson, near Rheims, and in October the new Pope opened the council at Rheims attended by Louis VI of France with most of the barons of France and more than four hundred bishops and abbots. Henry V arrived for his personal conference at Mousson — not alone, as had been anticipated, but with an army of over thirty thousand men. Calixtus II, fearing that force was likely to be used to extract prejudicial concessions, remained at Rheims. There, Calixtus II busied himself ineffectively with attempting a reconciliation between the brothers Henry I of England and Robert II, Duke of Normandy, and the council dealt with disciplinary regulations and decrees against lay investiture, simony, and clerical concubines. Since there was no compromise coming from Henry V, it was determined on 30 October 1119 that the Emperor and his antipope should be solemnly excommunicated.
Returning to Italy, where antipope Gregory VIII was supported in Rome by imperial forces and Italian allies of the emperor, Calixtus II managed to gain the upper hand amid clear demonstrations of popular support. The Imperial candidate was obliged to flee to the fortress of Sutri, where he was taken prisoner through the intervention of Norman support from the Kingdom of Naples. He was transferred from prison to prison first near Salerno, and afterwards at the fortress of Fumo. The imperial allies in Rome soon disbanded.
In 1120 Calixtus II issued the papal bull Sicut Judaeis (Latin: "As the Jews") setting out the official position of the papacy regarding the treatment of Jews. It was prompted by the First Crusade, during which over five thousand Jews were slaughtered in Europe. The bull was intended to protect Jews and echoed the position of Pope Gregory I that Jews were entitled to "enjoy their lawful liberty."  The bull forbade Christians, on pain of excommunication, from forcing Jews to convert, from harming them, from taking their property, from disturbing the celebration of their festivals, and from interfering with their cemeteries.
It was reaffirmed by popes Alexander III, Celestine III (1191-1198), Innocent III (1199), Honorius III (1216), Gregory IX (1235), Innocent IV (1246), Alexander IV (1255), Urban IV (1262), Gregory X (1272 & 1274), Nicholas III, Martin IV (1281), Honorius IV (1285-1287), Nicholas IV (1288–92), Clement VI (1348), Urban V (1365), Boniface IX (1389), Martin V (1422), and Nicholas V (1447).
Having established his power in Italy, the Pope resolved to re-open negotiations with Henry V on the question of investiture. Henry V was anxious to put an end to a controversy which had reduced imperial authority in Germany — terminally so, as it appeared in the long run. An embassy of three cardinals was sent by Calixtus II to Germany, and negotiations for a permanent settlement of the investiture struggle were begun in October 1121 at Würzburg, where it was agreed that a general truce should be proclaimed in Germany, that the Church should have free use of its possessions, and that the lands of those in rebellion should be restored. These decrees were communicated to Calixtus II, who despatched the legate Lambert to assist at the synod that had been convoked at Worms, where, on 23 September 1122, the agreement known as the Concordat of Worms was concluded. On his side the Emperor abandoned his claim to investiture with ring and crosier, and granted freedom of election to episcopal sees. On the papal side, it was conceded that the bishops should receive investiture with the sceptre, that the episcopal elections should be held in the presence of the Emperor or his representatives, that in case of disputed elections the Emperor should, after the decision of the metropolitan and the suffragan bishops, confirm the rightfully elected candidate, and lastly, that the imperial investiture of the temporal properties connected to the sees should take place in Germany before the consecration. In Burgundy and in Italy the imperial investiture would take place after the consecration ceremony, while in the Papal States the pope alone had the right of investiture, without any interference on the part of the Emperor. As a result of this Concordat, the Emperor still retained in his hands the controlling influence in the election of the bishops in Germany, though he had abandoned much in regard to episcopal elections in Italy and Burgundy.
To secure the confirmation of this Concordat of Worms, Calixtus II convened the First Lateran Council on 18 March 1123. It solemnly confirmed the Concordat and passed several disciplinary decrees, such as those against simony and concubinage among the clergy. Decrees were also passed against violators of the Truce of God, church-robbers, and forgers of ecclesiastical documents. The indulgences already granted to the crusaders were renewed, and the jurisdiction of the bishops over the clergy, both secular and regular, was more clearly defined.
Calixtus II devoted his last few years to re-establishing papal control over the Roman Campagna and establishing the primacy of his See of Vienne over the See of Arles, an ancient conflict. He rebuilt the church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin in Rome.
Calixtus died on 13 December 1124.
|Catholic Church titles|
The papal election of 1119 (held January 29 to February 2) was, by an order of magnitude, the smallest papal election of the 12th century currently considered legitimate by the Roman Catholic Church.
Pope Gelasius II had died in Cluny having been expelled from Rome by Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, as a result of the Investiture Controversy. Probably only two cardinal bishops, four cardinal priests and four cardinal deacons participated in the election. The election took place in Cluny Abbey in France, while the rest of the College of Cardinals remained in Rome. A non-cardinal Guy de Bourgogne, the Archbishop of Vienne, was elected Pope Callixtus II, and crowned in Vienne on February 9; Callixtus II reached Rome on June 3, 1120.1124
Year 1124 (MCXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.1124 papal election
The papal election of 1124 (held 13–21 December) took place after the death of Pope Callixtus II and chose Pope Honorius II as his successor.Albero I of Louvain
Albero I of Louvain (1070 – 1 January 1128) was the 57th Prince-Bishop of Liège from 1123 until his death.
Albero was the third son of Henry II, Count of Leuven and Adela of Tweisterbant.
After the suspicious death of Prince-Bishop Frederick of Liege in 1121, Holy Roman Emperor Henry V appointed Alexander of Jülich as his successor. But Friedrich von Schwarzenburg, Archbishop of Cologne refused to ordain Alexander, and the see remained vacant.
The next year, the Concordat of Worms was signed between the Emperor and Pope Callixtus II. As a consequence, Albero of Leuven became the new Bishop of Liège in 1123.
Albero restored order in the Bishopric with the support of his brother Godfrey I, Count of Leuven.Caffaro di Rustico da Caschifellone
Caffaro di Rustico da Caschifellone (c. 1080 – c. 1164) was a statesman, diplomat, admiral and historian of the Republic of Genoa. Between 1122 and 1149 he served eight terms as a consul. His most enduring work was the Annales ianuenses ("Genoese annals"), the official history of the Genoese republic, which he began and which was continued by successors down to 1294. He also wrote Ystoria captionis Almarie et Turtuose, an account of the siege of Almería (1 August – 17 October 1147) and the siege of Tortosa (1 July – 30 December 1148).
Caffaro was born in the village of Caschifellone (now part of Serra Riccò) in either 1080 or 1081. While a teenager, he travelled to the Holy Land with a Genoese contingent on the First Crusade from August 1100 until January 1101. He returned to the Holy Land in the 1130s. Some time after that, perhaps in 1155–56, when Genoa was in the midst of a dispute with the Kingdom of Jerusalem, Caffaro wrote De liberatione civitatum orientis ("On the Liberation of the Cities of the East"), a work on the First Crusade, the relations between the West and the Byzantine Empire and travel distances between the cities of the East.Shortly thereafter he began writing his history of Genoa, titled Annales. Though Caffaro's imperfect Latin prevented the Annales from achieving greatness as literature, the chronicle was the first of its kind in Genoa and remains an important historical record. It is an important source of information on the careers of the early Embriachi.
On the strength of his fame as crusader, Caffaro became a captain in the Genoese navy, and fought in several battles against the Republic of Pisa and other Mediterranean powers. Toward the end of his life he became a diplomat, and carried out several diplomatic missions on behalf of Genoa to the courts of Pope Callixtus II, the Emperor Frederick I and King Alfonso VII of León and Castile, and also to Pisa.Cardinals created by Callixtus II
Pope Callixtus II (r. 1119-24) created 35 cardinals in eight consistories held throughout his pontificate. This included one future successor (Lucius II) and two future antipopes (Celestine II and Victor IV).Concordat of Worms
The Concordat of Worms (Latin: Concordatum Wormatiense), sometimes called the Pactum Calixtinum by papal historians, was an agreement between Pope Callixtus II and Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor on September 23, 1122, near the city of Worms. It brought to an end the first phase of the power struggle between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Emperors and has been interpreted as containing within itself the germ of nation-based sovereignty that would one day be confirmed in the Peace of Westphalia (1648). In part this was an unforeseen result of strategic maneuvering between the Church and the European sovereigns over political control within their domains. The King was recognised as having the right to invest bishops with secular authority ("by the lance") in the territories they governed, but not with sacred authority ("by ring and staff"). The result was that bishops owed allegiance in worldly matters both to the pope and to the king, for they were obliged to affirm the right of the sovereign to call upon them for military support, under his oath of fealty. Previous Holy Roman Emperors had thought it their right, granted by God, to name Church officials within their territories (such as bishops) and to confirm the Papal election (and, at times of extraordinary urgency, actually name popes). In fact, the Emperors had been heavily relying on bishops for their secular administration, as they were not hereditary or quasi-hereditary nobility with family interests. A more immediate result of the Investiture struggle identified a proprietary right that adhered to sovereign territory, recognising the right of kings to income from the territory of a vacant diocese and a basis for justifiable taxation. These rights lay outside feudalism, which defined authority in a hierarchy of personal relations, with only a loose relation to territory. The pope emerged as a figure above and out of the direct control of the Holy Roman Emperor.
Following efforts by Lamberto Scannabecchi (later Pope Honorius II) and the Diet of Würzburg (1121) in 1122, Pope Callixtus II and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V entered into an agreement that effectively ended the Investiture Controversy. By the terms of the agreement, the election of bishops and abbots in Germany was to take place in the emperor's presence as judge between potentially disputing parties, free of bribes, thus retaining to the emperor a crucial role in choosing these great territorial magnates of the Empire. Beyond the borders of Germany, in Burgundy and Italy, the Emperor was to forward the symbols of authority within six months. Callixtus' reference to the feudal homage due the emperor on appointment is guarded: "shall do unto thee for these what he rightfully should" was the wording of the privilegium granted by Callixtus. The Emperor's right to a substantial imbursement on the election of a bishop or abbot was specifically denied.
The Emperor renounced the right to invest ecclesiastics with ring and crosier, the symbols of their spiritual power, and guaranteed election by the canons of cathedral or abbey and free consecration. The two ended by granting one another peace.
The Concordat was confirmed by the First Council of the Lateran in 1123.
The Concordat of Worms was a part of the larger reforms put forth by many popes, most notably Pope Gregory VII. These included the reinforcement of celibacy of the clergy, end of simony and autonomy of the Church from secular leaders (lack of autonomy was known as lay investiture).Gilles de Paris (cardinal)
Gilles de Paris (died ca. 1139–1142) was a Cardinal-Bishop of Tusculum from 1123 until 1139.
He was born in Toucy and became archdeacon at Paris. In 1119 he entered the monastery of Cluny. Pope Callixtus II created him cardinal-bishop of Tusculum probably in March 1123 (or in December 1122). He served as papal legate in Poland and Hungary in the 1120s but the exact time of this legation is uncertain (1123–24 or 1125–27). In 1126 he consecrated a cemetery by the Arnoldstein abbey. Then he was legate in Outremer from 1129–1130. He did not participate in the double papal election, 1130, but on his return from Syria he gave his support to antipope Anacletus II. In the following years he served as his legate in France. After the death of Anacletus he reconciled with Pope Innocent II, who restored him to the dignity of Cardinal on 29 May 1138. However, during the Second Lateran Council in April 1139 he was deposed again together with the other former adherents of the antipope. He died no later than at the beginning of 1142.Hugh of Châteauneuf
Saint Hugh of Châteauneuf (1053 – 1 April 1132) was the Bishop of Grenoble from 1080 to his death. He was a partisan of the Gregorian reform and opposed to the Archbishop of Vienne, later Pope Callixtus II.Pope Callixtus
Pope Callixtus has been the papal name of three popes of the Roman Catholic Church.
Pope Callixtus I (217–222)
Pope Callixtus II (1119–1124)
Pope Callixtus III (1455–1458)Raymond of Burgundy
Raymond of Burgundy (c. 1070 – 24 May 1107) was the ruler of Galicia from about 1090 until his death. He was the fourth son of Count William I of Burgundy and Stephanie. He married Urraca, future queen of León, and was the father of the future emperor Alfonso VII.
When Raymond and his cousin, Henry of Burgundy, first arrived in Iberia is uncertain, but it probably was with the army of Duke Odo I of Burgundy in 1086. In April 1087, the army abandoned the siege of Tudela. While most of the army returned home, Odo and his retinue went west. By 21 July 1087 they were probably at Burgos, at the court of King Alfonso VI of León and Castile, and by 5 August he was in the capital city of León. There Odo most likely arranged Raymond's marriage to Alfonso's heiress, Urraca. All surviving charters which seem to place Raymond in Spain before 1087 are either mis-dated or interpolated.By his marriage Raymond received as dowry the government of the Kingdom of Galicia (which included the County of Portugal and the County of Coimbra), although shortly after, in 1095, Alfonso VI gave the County of Portugal and the County of Coimbra to Henry of Burgundy, father of the first Portuguese King Afonso Henriques of Portugal, basing it in Bracara Augusta (nowadays Braga). During his government he was titled Count, Dominus, Prince, Emperor and Consul of Galicia or of the Galicians, exercising near absolute power in his domains ("in urbe Gallecia regnante Comite Raymundus"): "serenissimus totius Gallecie comes", "totius Gallecie Senior et Dominus", "totius Gallecie Consul", "totius Gallecie Princeps", "totius Gallecie Imperator".He was father of Alfonso VII of León and Castile (1104/1105–1157), already crowned king of Galicia in 1111, while his brother later became Pope Callixtus II.Reginald II, Count of Burgundy
Reginald II, Count Palatine of Burgundy and Count of Mâcon, Vienne and Oltingen, was born in 1061; he was the eldest son of William I of Burgundy and brother to Stephen I of Burgundy, his successor, as well as to Pope Callixtus II.
He succeeded to the County, aged 25, on his father's death in 1087, also gaining the title of Count of Mâcon.
From his wife, the Countess Regina of Oltingen, he inherited—among others—the title of Count of Oltingen, they were the parents of William II of Burgundy.
The place and date of his death is uncertain, as is his potential participation in the First Crusade. His death is dated either to 1095, prior to the First Crusade or to circa 1102 in the Holy Land along with his brothers Stephen I and Hugh, archbishop of Besançon.Romuald (cardinal)
Romuald (Italian: Romualdo) (died 1 April 1136) was the cardinal-deacon of Santa Maria in Via Lata from about 1109, and the Archbishop of Salerno (as Romuald I) from 1121 until his death.
In the capacity of a cardinal, he served Pope Paschal II as a diplomat. Together with Pietro Senex, cardinal-bishop of Porto, he mediated between Landulf II, Archbishop of Benevento, and Landulf of Greca, the papal constable of the Duchy of Benevento, in 1114. Romuald found the archbishop to blame for the conflict, and the pope deposed him from his see at the Council of Ceprano in October that year. An eyewitness account of the proceedings against Landulf is found in Falco of Benevento.
He was consecrated archbishop of Salerno on 15 September 1121 by Pope Callixtus II; at the same time, he resigned his title of cardinal. During the papal schism of 1130–38 he supported antipope Anacletus II.Saint David's Day
Saint David's Day (Welsh: Dydd Gŵyl Dewi Sant or Dydd Gŵyl Dewi, Welsh pronunciation: [ˈdiːð ˈɡʊi̯l ˈdɛ.wi ˈsant]) is the feast day of Saint David, the patron saint of Wales, and falls on 1 March, the date of Saint David's death in 589 AD. The feast has been regularly celebrated since the canonisation of David in the 12th century (by Pope Callixtus II), though it is not a national holiday in the UK.
Traditional festivities include wearing daffodils and leeks, recognised symbols of Wales and Saint David respectively, eating traditional Welsh food including cawl and Welsh rarebit, and women wearing traditional Welsh dress. An increasing number of cities and towns across Wales including Cardiff, Swansea and Aberystwyth also put on parades throughout the day.Sicut Judaeis
Sicut Judaeis (Latin: "As the Jews") was a papal bull setting out the official position of the papacy regarding the treatment of Jews. The first bull by that name was issued in about 1120 by Calixtus II and served as a papal charter of protection to Jews. It was prompted by attacks on Jews by the First Crusade, during which over five thousand Jews were slaughtered in Europe. The bull forbade Christians, on pain of excommunication, from forcing Jews to convert, from harming them, from taking their property, from disturbing the celebration of their festivals, and from interfering with their cemeteries.
Following further attacks, the bull was reaffirmed by many popes including Alexander III, Celestine III (1191-1198), Innocent III (1199), Honorius III (1216), Gregory IX (1235), Innocent IV (1246), Alexander IV (1255), Urban IV (1262), Gregory X (1272 & 1274), Nicholas III, Martin IV (1281), Honorius IV (1285-1287), Nicholas IV (1288-92), Clement VI (1348), Urban V (1365), Boniface IX (1389), Martin V (1422), and Nicholas V (1447).Stephen I, Count of Burgundy
Stephen I (1065–1102), Count Palatine of Burgundy, shared his father's nickname "the Rash" (French tête hardie). He was Count of Burgundy and Count of Mâcon and Vienne.
Born into a powerful and influential family, he was the son of Count William I of Burgundy and his wife Stephanie. His younger brother was Pope Callixtus II.
Stephen succeeded to the County in 1097, following the death in the Crusades of his elder brother, Reginald II. He participated in the Crusade of 1101, as a commander in the army of Stephen of Blois, helping with the capture of Ancyra and fighting in the disastrous Battle of Mersivan. Stephen would later die at the battle of Ramla in 1102. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Reginald III of Burgundy.William I, Count of Burgundy
William I (1020 – 12 November 1087), called the Great (le Grand or Tête Hardie, "the Stubborn"), was Count of Burgundy from 1057 to 1087 and Mâcon from 1078 to 1087. He was a son of Renaud I and Alice of Normandy, daughter of Richard II, Duke of Normandy. William was the father of several notable children, including Pope Callixtus II.
In 1057, he succeeded his father and reigned over a territory larger than that of the Franche-Comté itself. In 1087, he died in Besançon, Prince-Archbishopric of Besançon, Holy Roman Empire -- an independent city within the County of Burgundy. He was buried in Besançon's Cathedral of St John.
William married a woman named Stephanie (a.k.a. Etiennette).Children of Stephanie (order uncertain):
Renaud II, William's successor, died on First Crusade
Stephen I, successor to Renaud II, Stephen died on the Crusade of 1101
Raymond of Burgundy who married Urraca of León and Castile and thus was given the government of Galicia (Spain) (died 1107)
Sybilla (or Maud), married (1080) Eudes I of Burgundy
Gisela of Burgundy, married (1090) Humbert II of Savoy and then Renier I of Montferrat
Clementia married Robert II, Count of Flanders and was Regent, during his absence. She married secondly Godfrey I, Count of Leuven and was possibly the mother of Joscelin of Louvain.
Guy of Vienne, elected pope, in 1119 at the Abbey of Cluny, as Calixtus II
Hugh III, Archbishop of Besançon
Stephanie married Lambert, Prince de Royans (died 1119)
Ermentrude, married (1065) Theodoric I
(perhaps) Bertha wife of Alphonso VI of Castile
and maybe another daughterWilliam V, Marquess of Montferrat
William V of Montferrat (occ./piem. Guilhem, it. Guglielmo) (c. 1115 – 1191) also known regnally as William III of Montferrat while also referred to as William the Old or William the Elder, in order to distinguish him from his eldest son, William Longsword, was seventh Marquess of Montferrat from c. 1136 to his death in 1191. William was the only son of marquess Renier I and his wife Gisela, a daughter of William I, Count of Burgundy and widow of Count Humbert II of Savoy. It seems likely, given that he was still fit enough to participate in battle in 1187, that William was one of his parents' youngest children.
He was described by Acerbo Morena as of medium height and compact build, with a round, somewhat ruddy face and hair so fair as to be almost white. He was eloquent, intelligent and good-humoured, generous but not extravagant. Dynastically, he was extremely well-connected: a nephew of Pope Callixtus II, a half-brother of Amadeus III of Savoy, a brother-in-law of Louis VI of France (through his half-sister Adelasia of Moriana), and cousin of Alfonso VII of Castile.Étienne de Bar
Étienne de Bar (also: Stephen of Bar) was a French cardinal and cardinal-nephew of Pope Callixtus II. He was elevated, by his uncle, to cardinal-deacon of Santa Maria in Cosmedin in 1120. He was bishop of Metz from 1120 until his death in 1163.