Pope Caius

Pope Caius (died 22 April 296),[1] also called Gaius, was the Bishop of Rome from 17 December 283 to his death in 296.[2] Christian tradition makes him a native of the Dalmatian city of Salona, today Solin near Split, the son of a man also named Caius, and a member of a noble family related to the Emperor Diocletian.[3]

Little information on Caius is available except that given by the Liber Pontificalis, which relies on a legendary account of the martyrdom of St. Susanna for its information. According to legend, Caius baptized the men and women who had been converted by Saint Tiburtius (who is venerated with St. Susanna) and Saint Castulus.[4] His legend states that Caius took refuge in the catacombs of Rome and died a martyr.[5]

Pope Saint

Caius
PCaius
Papacy began17 December 283
Papacy ended22 April 296
PredecessorEutychian
SuccessorMarcellinus
Personal details
Birth nameCaius or Gaius
BornUnknown
Roman Dalmatia
Died22 April 296
Rome, Western Roman Empire
Sainthood
Feast day22 April

House of Caius

About 280, an early Christian house of worship was established on the site of Santa Susanna, which, like many of the earliest Christian meeting places, was in a house (domus ecclesiae). The domus belonged, according to the sixth-century acta, to brothers named Caius and Gabinus, prominent Christians. Caius may be this Pope, or Caius the Presbyter. Gabinus is the name given to the father of Saint Susanna. Thus, sources state that Caius was the uncle of Saint Susanna.[1]

Papacy

As pope, Caius decreed that before someone could assume the position of bishop, he must first be porter, lector, exorcist, acolyte, subdeacon, deacon, and priest. He also divided the districts of Rome among the deacons.[5][6] During his pontificate, anti-Christian measures increased, although new churches were built and cemeteries were expanded. St Caius may not have been martyred: Diocletian’s persecution of Christians began in 303 AD, after Caius’ alleged death, and Diocletian was not immediately hostile to Christianity upon becoming emperor.[3][5]

Tomb and burial

Martyrdom of Pope Caius
Depiction of the alleged martyrdom of Pope Caius by Lorenzo Monaco. It was originally part of the altarpiece of the church of San Gaggio in Florence.

Caius is mentioned in the fourth-century Depositio Episcoporum (therefore not as a martyr): X kl maii Caii in Callisti.[2]

Caius' tomb, with the original epitaph, was discovered in the catacomb of Callixtus and in it the ring with which he used to seal his letters (see Arringhi, Roma subterr., 1. iv. c. xlviii. p. 426). In 1631, his alleged residence in Rome was turned into a church. However, it was demolished in 1880 to make room for the Ministry of War, on the Via XX Settembre, and his relics were transferred to the chapel of the Barberini family.[3]

Veneration as a saint

Saint Caius's feast day is celebrated on 22 April, as is that of Saint Soter. They are celebrated jointly in the Tridentine Calendar and in the successive versions of the General Roman Calendar until that of 1969, since when they are omitted. Both are mentioned under 22 April in the Roman Martyrology, the official list of recognized saints. The entry for Saint Caius is as follows: "At Rome, in the cemetery of Callistus on the Via Appia, the burial of Saint Caius, Pope, who, fleeing from the persecution of Diocletian, died as a confessor of the faith."[7]

St Caius is portrayed in art wearing the papal tiara with Saint Nereus. He is venerated in Dalmatia and Venice. In Florence, the church of San Gaggio on the via Senese was dedicated to him; the term Gaggio is a corruption of the name Cajo. In 2003, plans were put into effect to turn it into residential council housing.[8]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Our Popes". The Church of Santa Susanna. Archived from the original on 28 July 2015. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
  2. ^ a b  Chapman, John (1908). "Caius and Soter, Saints and Popes" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. 3. New York: Robert Appleton.
  3. ^ a b c San Caio at Santi e Beati (in Italian)
  4. ^ "San Castulo, Mártir | ACI Prensa – Santos". aciprensa.com. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
  5. ^ a b c Brusher, Joseph (1959). "St. Caius". Popes Through the Ages. Archived from the original on 1 November 2007 – via Christ's Faithful People.
  6. ^ Saint of the Day, April 22: Caius SaintPatrickDC.org. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
  7. ^ Martyrologium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2001 ISBN 88-209-7210-7)
  8. ^ Firenze la città nuova – Gallery Archived 24 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine

External links

Titles of the Great Christian Church
Preceded by
Eutychian
Bishop of Rome
Pope

283–296
Succeeded by
Marcellinus
280s

The 280s decade ran from January 1, 280, to December 31, 289.

283

Year 283 (CCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Carus and Carinus (or, less frequently, year 1036 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 283 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

290s

The 290s decade ran from January 1, 290, to December 31, 299.

== Events ==

=== 290 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperors Diocletian and Maximian meet in Milan on the five-year anniversary of their rule to discuss politics and war. Rome becomes a ceremonial capital.

Carausius, who has established himself as king of Britain, is also reluctantly acknowledged by Diocletian and Maximian as third emperor. During his reign, he defeats Frankish and Saxon raids on the English coast.

Carausius begins to build a series of fortifications on the Saxon Shore in south-east England.

====== Asia ======

May 17 – Emperor Jin Wudi, founder of the Western Jin Dynasty, dies after a 25-year reign. He reunifies north and south, but gives away many dukedoms to his kinsmen. Crown Prince Jin Huidi succeeds his father and has to deal with conflicts among the aristocratic families in China.

=== 291 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Diocletian signs peace treaties with the kingdoms of Aksum and Nubia.

====== China ======

War of the Eight Princes: After the death of Emperor Sima Yan (Jin Wudi), a civil war breaks out among the princes and dukes of the Jin Dynasty. The struggle devastates and depopulates the provinces of northern China.

=== 292 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Achilleus, Roman general, is proclaimed emperor in Alexandria. For two years he rules over Egypt, but in the end the rebellion is crushed by Emperor Diocletian.

====== America ======

The oldest known Mayan stele is erected at the capital Tikal (Guatemala).

====== Asia ======

Bongsang becomes ruler of the Korean kingdom of Goguryeo.

=== 293 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

March 1 – Emperor Diocletian and Maximian appoint Constantius Chlorus and Galerius as Caesars. This is considered the beginning of the Tetrarchy, known as the Quattuor Principes Mundi ("Four Rulers of the World").

The four Tetrarchs establish their capitals close to the Roman frontier:

Nicomedia (northwestern Asia Minor) becomes the capital of Diocletian

Mediolanum (Milan, near the Alps) becomes the capital of Maximian

Augusta Treverorum (Trier, in Germany) becomes the capital of Constantius Chlorus

Sirmium (Serbia, on the Danube border) becomes the capital of Galerius

Diocletian's Palace is built at a small bay on the Dalmatian coast, four miles from Salona, today's Split, Croatia.

Constantius Chlorus retakes some of the Gallic territories and conquers the crucial port of Bononia (modern Boulogne).

Carausius, Roman usurper, is murdered by his finance minister Allectus, who proclaims himself "emperor" of Britain.

Constantius Chlorus defeats the Franks on the Rhine frontier in Batavia (Netherlands).

====== Asia ======

King Tiridates III of Armenia, (with Rome as suzerainty), invades Assyria.

King Bahram II of the Persian Empire dies after a 17-year reign; his son Bahram III ascends to the throne. After four months he is murdered by viceroy Narseh with support of the nobility.

Narseh becomes king of Persia and engages Rome in eight years of constant warfare.

Tuoba Fu succeeds his uncle Tuoba Chuo as chieftain of the Chinese Tuoba clan.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Probus succeeds Rufinus as Patriarch of Constantinople.

=== 294 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Galerius, Roman Caesar in the Balkans, proves his worth in campaigning on the Danube frontier, fighting the Goths, Marcomanni, Sarmatians, and Carpi.

Galerius is given the job of land reclamation and repopulation, moving the entire tribe of the Carpi to settlements within the Roman Empire.

Emperor Diocletian goes with the young Constantine I the Great (later the first Christian Roman Emperor) on his staff to Egypt. He besieges Alexandria, and deposes "emperor" Achilleus.

====== Asia ======

Tuoba Luguan succeeds his nephew Tuoba Fu as chieftain of the Tuoba clan.

=== 295 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Galerius, Roman Caesar in the Balkans, is dispatched to Egypt to fight against the rebellious cities Busiris and Coptos.

====== Asia ======

King Narseh, Shah of the Sassanid Empire, declares war on Rome and invades Armenia with his army.

Tuoba Luguan divides the territory of the Tuoba clan into three areas. His nephews Tuoba Yilu and Tuoba Yituo become chieftains of the western and central areas of (Shanxi province). Tuoba Luguan dominates the eastern area (near Hohhot).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Petra rejoins the province of Palestine, and is converted to Christianity by the Syrian monk Barsauma.

=== 296 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Constantius Chlorus assembles two invasion fleets with the intent of crossing the English Channel. The first is under the command of Asclepiodotus, Constantius' long serving Praetorian Prefect. He sails from the mouth of the Seine, and lands near the Isle of Wight, where his forces defeat the usurper Allectus in Hampshire. Constantius leaves with his fleet Boulogne and occupies London, saving the city from an attack by Frankish mercenaries who are roaming the province.

Maximian, emperor (Augustus) of the Roman Empire, mobilises an army, consisting of Praetorian cohorts, Aquileian, Egyptian, and Danubian legionaries, marching through Spain. He crosses the Strait of Gibraltar into Mauretania (modern Morocco) to protect the area against Frankish pirates.

Constantius Chlorus reconquers Britain; he rebuilds the cities Eboracum (York), Londinium (London), and Verulamium (St Albans).

====== Persia ======

Emperor Diocletian dispatches his son-in-law Galerius with a large army to Armenia. He invades Mesopotamia, but suffers a complete defeat outside Ctesiphon against the Persian king Narseh, and is forced to retreat. Galerius crosses the Euphrates into Syria to join Diocletian at Antioch.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

April 22 – Pope Caius dies at Rome after a 13-year reign and is succeeded by Pope Marcellinus as the 29th pope.

=== 297 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Maximian begins an offensive against the Berbers in Mauritania, driving them back into their homelands in the Atlas Mountains. He spends the rest of the winter in Carthage (Africa).

====== Persia ======

Galerius makes preparations in Syria for a campaign against the Persian king Narseh. He recruits veterans from Illyria and Moesia, and strengthens his bodyguard with Gothic auxiliaries.

=== 298 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Battle of Lingones: Constantius Chlorus defeats the Alamanni in the territory of the Lingones (Langres) in Gaul. He strengthens the border along the Rhine frontier.

Battle of Vindonissa: Constantius I defeats the Alamanni at Vindonissa (modern Switzerland).

March 10 – Emperor Maximian concludes his campaign in North Africa against the Berbers, and makes a triumphal entry into Carthage.

The Baths of Diocletian are commissioned by Maximian in honor of Emperor Diocletian.

Christians are expelled from the Roman army.

====== Persia ======

Galerius invades Armenia with an army of 25,000 men. He makes personal reconnaissances, and marched deep in occupied Mesopotamia.

Battle of Satala: Galerius decisively defeats king Narseh. He captures the Persian camp, including Narseh's family, harem and treasure.

King Tiridates III is restored as ruler of Armenia.

====== Asia ======

The manufacture of cultured silk becomes popular from Korea to Japan.

Bunseo becomes king of the Korean kingdom of Baekje.

Girim becomes the king of the Korean kingdom of Silla.

=== 299 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Peace of Nisibis: Galerius signs a treaty with the Persian king Narseh that will last for 40 years. The Persians accept Roman dominion over Armenia and northern Mesopotamia. The Tigris becomes the boundary between Rome and the Sassanid Empire.

Galerius commissions the Arch of Galerius in Thessaloniki (Greece). The structure is built to celebrate the war and victory over the Sassanid Persians.

====== Asia ======

Empress Jia Nanfeng frames Crown Prince Yu for treason and has him deposed.

296

Year 296 (CCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Valerius and Constantius (or, less frequently, year 1049 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 296 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

April 22

April 22 is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 253 days remain until the end of the year.

Caius

Caius may refer to:

Caius (name), a spelling of the Latin prenom Gaius (including a list of people and characters with the name)

Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge

Caius Boat Club

Gonville & Caius A.F.C.

February 19 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)

February 18 - Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar - February 20

All fixed commemorations below are observed on March 4 (March 3 on leap years) by Eastern Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar.For February 19th, Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar commemorate the Saints listed on February 6.

Franciscan Province of the Most Holy Redeemer

Franciscan Province of the Most Holy Redeemer (Croatian: Franjevačka provincija Presvetog Otkupitelja, Latin: Provincia franciscana Sanctissimi Redemptoris) is a province of the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans) of the Catholic Church based in Split, Croatia which is active in Dalmatia, Croatia.

The province is one of the original Franciscan provinces founded in the Croatian lands in the Middle Ages. In 1735, when the area was divided between the Kingdom of Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and the Venetian Republic, that province was split, and the latter was named the Province of Pope Caius. In 1743, it was renamed to the current name.The province has monasteries throughout Dalmatia as well as one in Zagreb and one in Munich.They run the Franciscan Grammar School of Sinj (a high school) and a seminary, also in Sinj.

The province has maintained a publishing activity for over half a century, publishing Vjesnik since 1951, Služba Božja since 1961, Kačić since 1966.

Gabinus

Saint Gabinus (Saint Gabin) is the title given to two personages.

Saint Gabinus, who died as a martyr at Porto Torres, Sardinia, Italy (the ancient Turris) in about the year 300. His feast day is 30 May, and he is the only Gabinus included in the Roman Martyrology, the official though professedly incomplete list of saints recognized by the Roman Catholic Church. According to a twelfth-century Passio, Gabinus was a Roman soldier put in charge of a priest and a deacon imprisoned for their faith, they converted him to Christianity, and all three died as martyrs. Each year on 3 May three wooden statues representing the three martyrs are taken in procession from the Basilica of Saint Gabinus (Basilica di San Gavino), the largest and oldest of the Romanesque church of Sardinia, to a little church where there are three rock-cut tombs of Roman times. in which the statues are placed until Pentecost. The little church then becomes a place of pilgrimage until the statues are return to the basilica in another procession on Pentecost evening, after which the little church remains closed until the following 3 May.

Saint Gabinus, said to be the father of Saint Susanna and brother of Pope Caius (283-296), and, though a relative of Emperor Diocletian to have been beheaded in 296 for refusing to sacrifice to the pagan gods. His relics are venerated in Holy Trinity church in Lyon, France, where his feast day is celebrated on 19 February. He is not listed in the Roman Martyrology.

List of Christians martyred during the reign of Diocletian

The reign of the emperor Diocletian (284−305) marked the final widespread persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire. The most intense period of violence came after Diocletian issued an edict in 303 more strictly enforcing adherence to the traditional religious practices of Rome in conjunction with Imperial cult. Modern historians estimate that during this period, known as the Diocletianic or Great Persecution and extending several years beyond the reign of Diocletian, as many as 3,000−3,500 Christians were executed under the authority of Imperial edicts.The church historian Eusebius, a Bishop of Caesarea who lived through both the "Little Peace" of the Church and the Great Persecution, is a major source for identifying Christian martyrs in this period. Martyr narratives flourished later as a genre of Christian literature, but are not contemporary with the persecutions and are often of dubious historicity. This article lists both historical and legendary figures traditionally identified as martyrs during the reign of Diocletian.

List of canonised popes

This article lists the Popes who have been canonised or recognised as Saints in the Roman Catholic Church they had led. A total of 83 (out of 266) Popes have been recognised universally as canonised saints, including all of the first 35 Popes (31 of whom were martyrs) and 52 of the first 54. If Pope Liberius is numbered amongst the Saints as in Eastern Christianity, all of the first 49 Popes become recognised as Saints, of whom 31 are Martyr-Saints, and 53 of the first 54 Pontiffs would be acknowledged as Saints. In addition, 13 other Popes are in the process of becoming canonised Saints: as of December 2018, two are recognised as being Servants of God, two are recognised as being Venerable, and nine have been declared Blessed or Beati, making a total of 95 (97 if Pope Liberius and Pope Adeodatus II are recognised to be Saints) of the 266 Roman Pontiffs being recognised and venerated for their heroic virtues and inestimable contributions to the Church.

The most recently reigning Pope to have been canonised was Pope John Paul II, whose cause for canonisation was opened in May 2005. John Paul II was beatified on May 1, 2011, by Pope Benedict XVI and later canonised, along with Pope John XXIII, by Pope Francis on April 27, 2014. Pope Francis also canonised Pope Paul VI on October 14, 2018.

List of popes by country

This page is a list of popes by country of origin. They are listed in chronological order within each section.

As the office of pope has existed for almost two millennia, many of the countries of origin of popes no longer exist, and so they are grouped under their modern equivalents. Popes from Italy are in a separate section, given the very large number of popes from that peninsula.

List of popes who died violently

A collection of popes who have had violent deaths through the centuries. The circumstances have ranged from martyrdom (Pope Stephen I) to war (Lucius II), to a beating by a jealous husband (Pope John XII). A number of other popes have died under circumstances that some believe to be murder, but for which definitive evidence has not been found.

Pope Marcellinus

Pope Marcellinus (died 304) was the Bishop of Rome or Pope from 30 June 296 to his death in 304. According to the Liberian Catalogue, he was a Roman, the son of a certain Projectus. His predecessor was Pope Caius.

Saint Susanna

Saint Susanna of Rome (Latin: Susana), according to Christian legend, a Christian martyr whose feast day is 11 August which is the same as Saint Tiburtius. The saints were not related, but they are sometimes associated because they are venerated on the same day.

San Caio

San Caio (English: Saint Caius; sometimes also spelled San Cajo) was an ancient titular church in Rome, possibly dating from as early as the third century. It was demolished in the late nineteenth century.

San Gaggio, Florence

The Church of San Gaggio (Italian: Chiesa di San Gaggio) is a Roman Catholic church located on via Senese in Florence, Italy. It was once associated with a large convent.

An early church at the site was associated with the Patarines, and demolished by the followers of St Peter Martyr. Under the patronage of Donna Nera Manieri and the Corsini family, a church at the site was founded in the mid-14th century and dedicated to St Catherine delle Ruote. In 1353, it was joined to an adjacent monastery of Santa Caterina a Monte, and dedicated to San Cajo (Saint and Pope Caius). The name was corrupted to San Gaggio. The church was subsequently heavily patronized by the Corsini family.

Synod of Diamper

The Synod of Diamper, held at Udayamperoor (called Diamper in non-vernacular sources), was a diocesan synod or council that laid down rules and regulations for the ancient Saint Thomas Christians of the Malabar Coast (modern Kerala state, India), formally uniting them with the Catholic Church. This led to the creation of the Eastern Catholic Syro-Malabar Church, which follows a Latinized East Syriac Rite liturgy.It was convened on 20 June 1599, under the leadership of Aleixo de Menezes, Latin rite Archbishop of Goa. Archdeacon George of the Cross was forced to comply with the wishes of the Archbishop of Goa. This separated the Saint Thomas Christians from the Church of the East in Persia and subjected them directly to the Latin Archbishopric of Goa. The Archbishopric of Angamaly was downgraded to a bishopric under Goa in 1600 AD. Portuguese Padroado rule was thus imposed and the bishops for Saint Thomas Christians were appointed by Portuguese Padroado.

1st–4th centuries
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
5th–8th centuries
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
9th–12th centuries
Papal selection before 1059
Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
13th–16th centuries
Viterbo (1257–1281)
Orvieto (1262–1297)
Perugia (1228–1304)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
Western Schism (1378–1417)
Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)
Reformation Papacy (1534–1585)
Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)
17th–20th centuries
Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848)
Roman Question (1870–1929)
Vatican City (1929–present)
21st century
History of the papacy
Virgin Mary
Apostles
Archangels
Confessors
Disciples
Doctors
Evangelists
Church
Fathers
Martyrs
Patriarchs
Popes
Prophets
Virgins
See also

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