Pope Anterus

Pope Anterus (died 3 January 236) was the Bishop of Rome from 21 November 235 to his death in 236.[2] He succeeded Pope Pontian, who had been deported from Rome to Sardinia, along with the antipope Hippolytus.

Anterus was the son of Romulus, born in Petilia Policastro,[1] Calabria. He is thought to have been of Greek origin,[3] and his name may indicate that he was a freed slave.[4] He created one bishop, for the city of Fondi.[3]

Pope Saint

Anterus
19-St.Anterus
Papacy began21 November 235
Papacy ended3 January 236
PredecessorPontian
SuccessorFabian
Personal details
Birth nameAnterus
Borndate unknown
Petilia Policastro, Calabria
Died3 January 236
Rome, Roman Empire
Sainthood
Feast day3 January[1]

Martyrdom

Some scholars believe he was martyred,[3][5] because he ordered greater strictness in searching into the acts of the martyrs, exactly collected by the notaries appointed by Pope Saint Clement I.[3][6] Other scholars doubt this and believe it is more likely that he died in undramatic circumstances during the persecutions of Emperor Maximinus the Thracian.[4]

Tomb

He was buried in the papal crypt of the Catacomb of Callixtus, on the Appian Way[3] in Rome. The site of his sepulchre was discovered by Giovanni Battista de Rossi in 1854, with some broken remnants of the Greek epitaph engraved on the narrow oblong slab that closed his tomb;[6] only the Greek term for bishop was legible.[5]

His ashes had been removed to the Church of Saint Sylvester in the Campus Martius[3] and were discovered on 17 November 1595, when Pope Clement VIII rebuilt that church.[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Pope Saint Antherus » Saints.SQPN.com
  2. ^ Shahan, Thomas (1907). "Pope St. Anterus" in The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g de Montor, Artaud (1911). The Lives and Times of the Popes: Including the Complete Gallery of Portraits of the Pontiffs Reproduced from Effigies Pontificum Romanorum Dominici Basae : Being a Series of Volumes Giving the History of the World During the Christian Era. New York: The Catholic Publication Society of America. pp. 49–50. OCLC 7533337.
  4. ^ a b Levillain, Philippe; O'Malley, John W. (2002). The Papacy: An Encyclopedia. London: Routledge. pp. 63, 557. ISBN 978-0-415-92230-2.
  5. ^ a b Marucchi, Orazio (2003). Manual of Christian Archeology 1935. Vecchierello, Hubert (translator). Kessinger Publishing. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-7661-4247-3.
  6. ^ a b Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope St. Anterus" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
Titles of the Great Christian Church
Preceded by
Pontian
Bishop of Rome
Pope

235–236
Succeeded by
Fabian
230s

The 230s decade ran from January 1, 230, to December 31, 239.

== Events ==

=== 230 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Alexander Severus decides that Thessaly should be a separate province from Macedonia. He increases taxes in order to maintain the war against the Sassanids and strengthen the defenses of the Roman Empire.

====== Persia ======

King Ardashir I, ruler of the Persian Empire, invades the Roman province of Mesopotamia and unsuccessfully besieges the fortress town of Nisibis (Turkey). His army threatens the border outposts of Syria and Cappadocia.

Alexander Severus assembles the Roman army and establishes his headquarters at Antioch. He attempts a diplomatic solution, but the Persians decline and choose war.

====== Korea ======

Jobun becomes king of the Korean kingdom of Silla.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

July 21 – Pope Pontian succeeds Pope Urban I as the eighteenth pope.

Patriarch Castinus succeeds Patriarch Ciriacus I as Patriarch of Constantinople.

Seventy Bishops hold the Council of the Christian Church of Africa.

=== 231 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Alexander Severus accompanies his mother Julia Mamaea to Syria and campaigns against the Persians. Military command rests in the hands of his generals, but his presence gives additional weight to the empire's policy.

====== China ======

Battle of Mount Qi between the Chinese states of Shu Han and Cao Wei

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Origen, disciple of Ammonius Saccas, founder of Neoplatonism, is exiled in Caesarea.

=== 232 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Roman–Persian Wars: Emperor Alexander Severus launches a three-pronged counterattack against the Persian forces of king Ardashir I, who have invaded Mesopotamia. However, the Roman army advancing through Armenia is halted. Alexander gives the order to march to the capital at Ctesiphon, but the Romans are defeated and withdraw to Syria. The result is an acceptance of the status quo and after heavy losses on both sides, a truce is signed.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Relics of St. Thomas are brought to Edessa from India.

Origen founds a school of Christian theology in Palestine.

Pope Heraclas of Alexandria is the first Bishop of Alexandria to use the appellation of "Pope".

=== 233 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Alexander Severus celebrates a triumph in Rome to observe his "victory" the previous year over the Persians. In reality Severus Alexander advanced towards Ctesiphon in 233, but as corroborated by Herodian, his armies suffered a humiliating defeat against Ardashir I.He is soon summoned to the Rhine frontier, where the Alamanni invade what is now modern day Swabia. German tribes destroy Roman forts and plunder the countryside at the Limes Germanicus.

=== 234 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Alexander Severus and his mother Julia Mamaea move to Moguntiacum (modern Mainz), the capital of Germania Superior. His generals have planned a military offensive and built a bridge across the Rhine. Alexander prefers to negotiate for peace by buying off the Alemanni. This policy outrages the Roman legions and he loses the trust of the troops.

====== China ======

Battle of Wuzhang Plains between the Chinese states of Shu Han and Cao Wei

====== Korea ======

Saban becomes king of the Korean kingdom of Baekje. He is succeeded by Goi of Baekje later in the same year.

=== 235 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Said to have been the beginning of the decline of the Roman empire.

March 19 – Emperor Alexander Severus and his mother Iulia Mamaea are murdered by their own soldiers near Moguntiacum (modern Mainz); Legio XXII Primigenia mutinies. The Severan dynasty ends. This marks the epoch event of the Crisis of the Third Century.

March 20 – Maximinus Thrax, age 62, is proclaimed Augustus. He is not a senator but the second emperor of the equestrian order since Macrinus 17 years earlier. Maximinus had been a common soldier in the army, serving in the Auxilia and the Imperial Horseguards to become governor of several provinces.

Widely considered to be the beginning of the Crisis of the Third Century: The Roman Empire is under pressure by the Alamanni, Franks, Goths, Quadi and Sassanids (Persia).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

September 28 – Pope Pontian resigns, the first to abdicate, because he and Hippolytus, church leader of Rome, are exiled to the mines of Sardinia. Emperor Maximinus persecutes the Christians.

November 21 – Pope Anterus succeeds Pontian as the nineteenth pope.

Origen makes revisions to the Septuagint.

=== 236 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Maximinus Thrax and Marcus Pupienus Africanus Maximus become Roman consuls.

The Roman Senate appoints a twenty-man committee to co-ordinate operations against Maximinus.

Maximinus campaigns against Dacians and Sarmatians from his supply depot at Sirmium.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

January 10 – Pope Fabian succeeds Pope Anterus as the twentieth pope.

Fabian separates Rome into seven deaconships.

Fabian sends seven missionaries to Gaul to evangelize in the large cities.

=== 237 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Maximinus Thrax campaigns on the rivers Danube and Rhine in Germania, defeating the Alemanni and never visits Rome. He is accepted by the Roman Senate, but taxes the rich aristocracy heavily and engenders such hostility among them that they plot against him.

====== Persia ======

King Ardashir I of Persia renews his attacks on the Roman province of Mesopotamia.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Patriarch Eugenius I succeeds Patriarch Castinus as Patriarch of Constantinople.

Saint Babylas becomes Patriarch of Antioch.

=== 238 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Maximinus Thrax campaigns against the Carpians on the Danube in Moesia (Balkans). In spite of the payment of a tribute, the Romans fail to persuade the Goths and the Germanic tribes.

March 22 – Roman subjects in Africa revolt against Maximinus. The elderly Marcus Antonius Gordianus yields to public demand that he succeed Maximinus and rules jointly with his 46-year-old son Gordian II.

April 12 – Battle of Carthage: Numidian forces loyal to Maximinus invade Africa with support of Legio III Augusta. Gordian II is killed and after a siege of 36 days, Gordian I commits suicide by hanging himself with his belt.

April 22 – Year of the Six Emperors: The Senate outlaws Maximinus for his bloodthirsty proscriptions in Ancient Rome and nominates two of its members, Pupienus and Balbinus, to the throne.

Maximinus advances to the town Aquileia in northern Italy; his army suffers from famine and disease, while the city is besieged. Soldiers of Legio II Parthica kill him in his tent, along with his son Maximinus (who is appointed co-emperor). Their corpses are decapitated and their heads carried to Rome.

July 29 – The Praetorian Guard storms the palace and captures Pupienus and Balbinus. They are dragged naked through the streets of Rome and executed. On the same day Gordian III, age 13, is proclaimed the new emperor. Timesitheus becomes his tutor and advisor.

Future Roman Emperor Valerian becomes princeps senatus.

The Colosseum is restored after being damaged.

The Goths, coming from Ukraine, cross the Danube and devastate the Roman Empire up to the border with Anatolia.

In North Africa, Legio III Augusta is dissolved. Until its reconstitution in 253, Africa is defended by auxiliary forces only.

====== China ======

Sima Yi, a Chinese general of the Cao Wei state, destroys the outlying northeastern warlord Gongsun Yuan in the Liaodong campaign.

==== By topic ====

====== Commerce ======

The silver content of the Roman denarius falls to 28 percent under emperor Gordianus III, down from 35 percent under Alexander Severus.

=== 239 ===

==== By place ====

====== China ======

Cao Fang succeeds his adoptive father Cao Rui as the emperor of the Cao Wei state in the Three Kingdoms period of China.

A Chinese expeditionary force from the Eastern Wu state discovers the island of Taiwan.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Origen publishes the Old Testament in five languages.

235

Year 235 (CCXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Severus and Quintianus (or, less frequently, year 988 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 235 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

236

Year 236(CCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Verus and Africanus (or, less frequently, year 989 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 236 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Anteros (disambiguation)

Anteros was the god of requited love in Greek mythology.

Anteros may also refer to:

Anteros (butterfly), a genus of butterflies

Anteros Coachworks Inc., an American sports car manufacturer

1943 Anteros, an asteroid

Eros|Anteros, a 2013 album by Belgian band Oathbreaker

Anteros (band), a London-based dream pop band.

August 5 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)

August 4 - Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar - August 6

All fixed commemorations below are observed on August 18 by Eastern Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar.For August 5, Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar commemorate the Saints listed on July 23.

Catacomb of Callixtus

The Catacomb(s) of Callixtus (also known as the Cemetery of Callixtus) is one of the Catacombs of Rome on the Appian Way, most notable for containing the Crypt of the Popes (Italian: Cappella dei Papi), which once contained the tombs of several popes from the 2nd to 4th centuries.

Cathedral Basilica of St. Dionysius the Areopagite

The Cathedral Basilica of St. Dionysius the Areopagite is the main Roman Catholic church of Athens, Greece, and the seat of the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Athens. It is located in central Athens, at the junction of Panepistimiou Avenue with Omirou Street and is dedicated to Saint Dionysius the Areopagite, disciple of the Apostle Saint Paul and the first bishop of Athens.

Griko people

The Griko people (Greek: Γκρίκο), also known as Grecanici in Calabria, are an ethnic Greek community of Southern Italy. They are found principally in regions of Calabria (Province of Reggio Calabria) and Apulia (peninsula of Salento). The Griko are believed to be remnants of the once large Ancient and Medieval Greek communities of southern Italy (the old Magna Graecia region), although there is dispute among scholars as to whether the Griko community is directly descended from Ancient Greeks or from more recent medieval migrations during the Byzantine domination. Greek people have been living in Southern Italy for millennia, initially arriving in Southern Italy in numerous waves of migrations, from the ancient Greek colonisation of Southern Italy and Sicily in the 8th century BC through to the Byzantine Greek migrations of the 15th century caused by the Ottoman conquest. In the Middle Ages Greek, regional communities were reduced to isolated enclaves. Although most Greek inhabitants of Southern Italy have become entirely Italianized over the centuries, the Griko community has been able to preserve their original Greek identity, heritage, language and distinct culture, although exposure to mass media has progressively eroded their culture and language.The Griko people traditionally spoke Italiot Greek (the Griko or Calabrian dialects), which is a form of the Greek language. In recent years, the number of Griko who speak the Griko language has been greatly reduced; the younger Griko have rapidly shifted to Italian. Today, the Griko are Catholics.

January 3

January 3 is the third day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 362 days remain until the end of the year (363 in leap years). Perihelion, the point during the year when the Earth is closest to the Sun, occurs around this date.

List of Greek popes

This is a list of Greek popes. Most were pope before or during the Byzantine Papacy (537–752). It does not include all the Sicilian and Syrian popes of Greek extraction from that period.

List of canonised popes

This article lists the Popes who have been canonised or recognised as Saints in the Roman Catholic Church they had led. A total of 83 (out of 266) Popes have been recognised universally as canonised saints, including all of the first 35 Popes (31 of whom were martyrs) and 52 of the first 54. If Pope Liberius is numbered amongst the Saints as in Eastern Christianity, all of the first 49 Popes become recognised as Saints, of whom 31 are Martyr-Saints, and 53 of the first 54 Pontiffs would be acknowledged as Saints. In addition, 13 other Popes are in the process of becoming canonised Saints: as of December 2018, two are recognised as being Servants of God, two are recognised as being Venerable, and nine have been declared Blessed or Beati, making a total of 95 (97 if Pope Liberius and Pope Adeodatus II are recognised to be Saints) of the 266 Roman Pontiffs being recognised and venerated for their heroic virtues and inestimable contributions to the Church.

The most recently reigning Pope to have been canonised was Pope John Paul II, whose cause for canonisation was opened in May 2005. John Paul II was beatified on May 1, 2011, by Pope Benedict XVI and later canonised, along with Pope John XXIII, by Pope Francis on April 27, 2014. Pope Francis also canonised Pope Paul VI on October 14, 2018.

List of popes by country

This page is a list of popes by country of origin. They are listed in chronological order within each section.

As the office of pope has existed for almost two millennia, many of the countries of origin of popes no longer exist, and so they are grouped under their modern equivalents. Popes from Italy are in a separate section, given the very large number of popes from that peninsula.

List of popes who died violently

A collection of popes who have had violent deaths through the centuries. The circumstances have ranged from martyrdom (Pope Stephen I) to war (Lucius II), to a beating by a jealous husband (Pope John XII). A number of other popes have died under circumstances that some believe to be murder, but for which definitive evidence has not been found.

November 21

November 21 is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 40 days remain until the end of the year.

Petilia Policastro

Petilia Policastro is a comune and town with a population of 9,276 people in the province of Crotone, in Calabria, Italy.

Pope Fabian

Pope Fabian (Latin: Fabianus; c. 200 – 20 January 250) was the Bishop of Rome from 10 January 236 to his death in 250, succeeding Anterus. He is famous for the miraculous nature of his election, in which a dove is said to have descended on his head to mark him as the Holy Spirit's unexpected choice to become the next pope. He was succeeded by Cornelius.

Most of his papacy was characterized by amicable relations with the imperial government, and Fabian could thus bring back to Rome for Christian burial the bodies of Pope Pontian and the antipope Hippolytus, both of whom had died in exile in the Sardinian mines. It was also probably during his reign that the schism between the two corresponding Roman congregations of these leaders was ended. He was highly esteemed by Cyprian; Novatian refers to his nobilissima memoriae, and he corresponded with Origen. One authority refers to him as Flavian.The Liber Pontificalis, a fourth-century document that survives in later copies, says that he divided Rome into diaconates and appointed secretaries to collect the records of the martyrs. He is also said, probably without basis, to have baptized the emperor Philip the Arab and his son. More plausible is the report in the Liberian Catalogue that he sent out seven "apostles to the Gauls" as missionaries.

He died a martyr at the beginning of the Decian persecution and is venerated as a saint by the Catholic Church. Fabian's feast day is commemorated on January 20, the same as Saint Sebastian, in whose church his sepulcher lies in Rome.

1st–4th centuries
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including under Constantine (312–337)
5th–8th centuries
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
9th–12th centuries
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Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
13th–16th centuries
Viterbo (1257–1281)
Orvieto (1262–1297)
Perugia (1228–1304)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
Western Schism (1378–1417)
Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)
Reformation Papacy (1534–1585)
Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)
17th–20th centuries
Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
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Roman Question (1870–1929)
Vatican City (1929–present)
21st century
History of the papacy
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See also

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