Pope Anastasius II

Pope Anastasius II (died 19 November 498) was Pope from 24 November 496 to his death in 498.[1] He was an important figure in trying to end the Acacian schism, but his efforts resulted in the Laurentian schism, which followed his death. Anastasius was born in Rome, the son of a priest,[2] and is buried in St. Peter's Basilica.[3]


Anastasius II
Anastasius II
Papacy began24 November 496
Papacy ended16 November 498
PredecessorGelasius I
Created cardinal494
by Gelasius II
Personal details
Birth nameAnastasius
Bornunknown date
Rome, Italy
Died19 November 498
Rome, Ostrogothic Kingdom
Other popes named Anastasius

Acacian schism and conciliation

The church had been in a serious doctrinal dispute since 484, between the Eastern and Western churches of Christianity, known as the Acacian schism. Pope Felix III (483–492) and Pope Gelasius I (492–496) had generally taken hardline stances towards the Eastern church and had excommunicated many of the major religious figures including Acacius, the Patriarch of Constantinople. Efforts at reducing the problem by Zeno were not recognized by Felix III or Gelasius I and so there was a large schism between the churches. Upon the death of Gelasius I, Anastasius II was named pope largely with support from a faction that wanted to improve relations between the West and the Eastern churches and end the schism.[3][4]

Upon being named pope, Anastasius II immediately sent two bishops to Constantinople to meet with the Byzantine Emperor Anastasius I, who had the same name as the pope, and work on an agreement to end the Acacian schism.[4] Anastasius II indicated in a letter that he was willing to accept the baptisms that had been performed by Acacius and to let the issue be decided by the divine rather than by church authorities[4] and Anastasius I seemed similarly willing to cooperate but wanted acceptance of the Henotikon, the compromise position developed by Zeno.[3] As a signal of attempting to reduce the tension, Anastasius II was rumored to have given communion to Photinus of Thessalonica, an associate of Acacius.[3]

The result of these conciliatory gestures was to outrage many of the bishops and clergy in Rome and to create a clear division between those who supported moderation toward the Monophysites in the Byzantine Empire and those who opposed such moderation.[4] Because of the communion with Photinus, many in Rome refused to receive communion from Anastasius II and the situation grew to a crisis point.[3]

Death and legacy

At the peak of the tension created by these attempts to improve relations between the East and the West, Anastasius II unexpectedly died.[4] For those who opposed his attempts at remedying the schism his death in 498 was seen as divine retribution.[3] The factions that had formed during his rule as pope split decisively from one another and each appointed a rival pope. The faction against conciliation was able to name Symmachus as the pope to follow Anastasius II. However, the important Roman Senator Rufius Postumius Festus, who had been a major instigator for the conciliation attempts of Anastasius II and may have led to his naming as pope, supported a rival papal claim of Laurentius.[3] The Roman church then had its own schism between different factions which made efforts at reducing the schism between the church in Rome and the church in Constantinople impossible.[5]

During the medieval period, Anastasius II was often considered a traitor to the Catholic Church and an apostate. The writer of the Liber Pontificalis, supporting the opponents to Anastasius' efforts, argued that Anastasius II's death was divine retribution and that he had broken with the church.[6] Similarly, the Decretum Gratiani writes of the pope that "Anastasius, reproved by God, was smitten by divine command."[7] This medieval view is described by modern commentators as a "legend",[6] a "misinterpretation",[6] a "confused tradition",[8] and "manifestly unjust."[3]

Dante placed Anastasius II in the sixth circle of hell: "Anastasio papa guardo, lo qual trasse Fotin de la via dritta" ("I guard Pope Anastasius, he whom Photinus drew from the straight path").[3] However, modern Dante scholars consider this to be a mistake: the person Dante intended to put at that level was the Byzantine emperor of the time, Anastasius I.[9][10][11]

Anastasius II is, with Pope Liberius,[12] one of only two of the first 50 popes not to be canonized.[3] However, Liberius is mentioned in the Greek Menology and is recognized as a saint within the Eastern Orthodox Church.[13]

See also


  1. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope Anastasius II" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  2. ^ George L. Williams (2004). Papal Genealogy: The Families And Descendants Of The Popes. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-2071-1. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Richard P. McBrien (1997). Lives of the Popes: The Pontiffs from St. Peter to John Paul II. HarperCollins. pp. 82–83. ISBN 978-0-06-065304-0. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
  4. ^ a b c d e Morehead, John (1978). "The Laurentian Schism: East and West in the Roman Church". Church History. 47 (2): 125–136. doi:10.2307/3164729. JSTOR 3164729.
  5. ^ John W. Barker (1966). Justinian and the Later Roman Empire. Univ of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-03944-8. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
  6. ^ a b c Gratian; Augustine Thompson; Katherine Christensen (1993). The Treatise on Laws (Decretum DD. 1–20) with the Ordinary Gloss. CUA Press. ISBN 978-0-8132-0786-5. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
  7. ^ Christopher I. Beckwith (2012). Warriors of the Cloisters: The Central Asian Origins of Science in the Medieval World. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-15531-9.
  8. ^ Schadé, J.P. (2006). Encyclopedia of World Religions. Foreign Media Group. ISBN 978-1-60136-000-7. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
  9. ^ Alighieri, Dante (1995). Dante's Inferno. Translated by Mark Musa. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-20930-6. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
  10. ^ Hudson-Williams, T. (1951). "Dante and the Classics". Greece & Rome. 20 (58): 38–42. doi:10.1017/s0017383500011128. Dante is not free from error in his allocation of sinners; he consigned Pope Anastasius II to the burning cauldrons of the Heretics because he mistook him for the emperor of the same name
  11. ^ Seth Zimmerman (2003). The Inferno of Dante Alighieri. iUniverse. ISBN 978-1-4697-2448-5. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
  12. ^ Earliest Pope not yet canonized by the Catholic Church. Liberius is revered as Saint Liberius the Confessor in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 27 August.
  13. ^ "St. Liberius the Pope of Rome". oca.org. Orthodox Church in America. Retrieved 2015-04-14.

External links

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Gelasius I
Succeeded by

The 490s decade ran from January 1, 490, to December 31, 499.

== Events ==

=== 490 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Spring – Odoacer receives reinforcements from the south and leaves Ravenna. He defeats the Ostrogoths near Faenza.

King Theodoric the Great retreats to Ticinum (modern Pavia), where he constructs a fortified camp, which is blockaded.

Summer – The Burgundians, under King Gundobad, cross the Alps and plunder Liguria. Many Romans are taken into captivity.

King Alaric II supports Theodoric in his conquest of Italy, by dispatching a Visigoth army to raise Odoacer's siege of Pavia.

August 11 – Battle of Adda: Theodoric and his ally Alaric II defeat the forces of Odoacer, on the Adda River, near Milan.

Theodoric and his Ostrogoths lay siege to Ravenna. The cities of Cesena and Rimini retain their allegiance to Odoacer.

====== Asia ======

Empress Feng of the Chinese Northern Wei Dynasty dies. She is buried with magnificent honors, in the Wenming Tomb.

==== By topic ====

====== Agriculture ======

Corn rises to a terrible famine price, and before the end of the siege of Ravenna the inhabitants feed on the hides of animals; many of them perish of hunger.

====== Religion ======

Euphemius becomes patriarch of Constantinople.

=== 491 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

April 9 – Emperor Zeno, age 66, dies of dysentery after a 17-year reign. He has no sons to succeed him and Anastasius, palace official (silentiarius) and favoured friend of empress Ariadne, is elevated to the throne.

May 20 – Anastasius I marries Ariadne shortly after his accession. His reign is disturbed by religious distractions and a civil war started by Longinus, brother of late emperor Zeno.

Anti-Isaurian riots break out in the Hippodrome at Constantinople. Longinus and several other Isaurians, including general Longinus of Cardala, are exiled to Thebaid (Egypt).

====== Britannia ======

Aelle of Sussex besieges and conquers the fortified town Anderitum in southern Britain. He massacres the population, apparently sub-Roman Brythons (according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle).

====== Europe ======

July 9 – Odoacer makes a night assault with his Heruli guardsmen, engaging Theodoric the Great in Ad Pinetam. Both sides suffer heavy losses, but in the end Theodoric repulses the attack, forcing Odoacer back into Ravenna.

====== Asia ======

Munjamyeong becomes ruler of the Korean kingdom of Goguryeo.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Lupicinus becomes bishop of Lyon. He is the founder of the abbeys of Saint Claude (Jura Mountains).

=== 492 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Isaurian War: The Isaurians begin a revolt against Emperor Anastasius I in southern Central Anatolia. The rebels are defeated by the Eastern Roman army under John the Scythian and John the Hunchback, in the Battle of Cotyaeum (subordinate commanders include the future Justin I). They retreat to their mountain fortresses and continue guerrilla warfare against the Roman forces until 497.

====== Europe ======

King Theoderic the Great conquers Rimini, and brings his Ostrogoth fleet to blockade the harbours six miles from the capital of Ravenna. Important provisions, food and supplies, are cut off and the inhabitants are starved to death.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

January 3 – Pope Felix III dies after a 9-year reign in which he has excommunicated Patriarch Acacius of Constantinople, thus dividing the Western Church and Eastern Church (Acacian schism). He is succeeded by Gelasius I as the 49th pope.

=== 493 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Isaurian War: Claudiopolis, ancient city of Cappadocia, is besieged and captured by the Romans. The Isaurians blockade the mountain passes, but John the Hunchback (John Gibbo) wins an overwhelming victory against the rebels.

====== Britannia ======

March – Battle for the Body of St. Patrick: The Uí Néill Dynasty fights over the body of Saint Patrick with the Airgialla Kingdom (according to the Annals of the Four Masters).

====== Europe ======

February 25 – Odoacer surrenders Ravenna after a 3-year siege, and agrees to a mediated peace with Theodoric the Great. He steadily consolidates his rule and provides security for the local population. His achievement is to manage the transformation of Italy from being the center of a fractured Roman Empire to a successful and independent Ostrogothic Kingdom.

Onoulphus, brother of Odoacer, is killed during the siege of Ravenna by archers while seeking refuge in a church.

March 15 – Odoacer is invited to a banquet organised in order to celebrate the peace treaty. During the festivities, Odoacer is killed by Theodoric the Great. His body is skillfully sliced in half in full view of his guests. A massacre of Odoacer's soldiers and supporters follows.

Theodoric the Great allies with the Franks and marries Audofleda, sister of Clovis I. He also marries his own female relatives to princes or kings of the Burgundians, Vandals and Visigoths, establishing a political alliance with the Germanic kingdoms in the West.

Clovis I marries the Burgundian princess Clotilde, age 18; she is brought up in the Catholic faith and is the daughter of King Chilperic II. Her father is murdered in the same year by his brother Gundobad.

====== China ======

Emperor Xiao Wen Di starts adopting a sinicization policy as well as various reforms. He marries Feng Qing, she becomes empress of the Northern Wei Dynasty.

=== 494 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

An earthquake devastates the port town of Latakia (modern Syria).

====== China ======

Emperor Xiao Wen Di moves the capital of Northern Wei from Datong to Luoyang. He makes Chinese the official language of his court, and orders his nobility to adopt Chinese names.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Gelasius I delineates the relationship between church and state.

The Decretum Gelasianum is attributed.

Gelasius I canonizes Saint George.

=== 495 ===

==== By place ====

====== Britannia ======

Cerdic of Wessex and his son, Cynric, land somewhere on the south coast, probably near the Hampshire-Dorset border. Their followers establish the beginnings of the Kingdom of Wessex.

====== China ======

Emperor Xiao Wen Di of Northern Wei builds the Shaolin Monastery (Henan) for the monk Batuo (for alternate founding date see 477 or 497).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Pope Gelasius I gains support from Italian bishops, in his assertion that the spiritual power of the papacy is superior to the emperor's temporal authority. Like his predecessors, the pope opposes the Byzantine emperor Anastasius I's efforts to establish Miaphysite doctrine.

=== 496 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Emperor Anastasius I has Euphemius, patriarch of Constantinople, deposed and excommunicated. He appoints Macedonius II as his successor. Euphemius is sent into exile.

====== Europe ======

Battle of Tolbiac: King Clovis I defeats the Alamanni at Zülpich (Germany). Gibuld, last king of the Alamanni, is killed in battle and the territory is incorporated into the Frankish Kingdom.

December 25 – Clovis I is baptized into the Catholic faith at Rheims, by Saint Remigius. The conversion strengthens the bonds between his Gallo-Roman subjects, led by their Catholic bishops.

====== Africa ======

Thrasamund succeeds his brother Gunthamund after his death, and becomes king of the Vandals. He ends under his rule the persecution of the Catholics.

====== Asia ======

King Kavadh I of Persia is deposed and exiled to Susiana by his younger brother Djamasp. He is installed by the nobles to the Sassanid throne.

Emperor Xiao Wen Di of Northern Wei starts the Sinicization process, by changing his clan name to the Han Chinese surname Yuan.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

November 21 – Gelasius I dies after a 4-year reign, and is succeeded by the Rome-born Anastasius II as the 50th pope.

=== 497 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Emperor Anastasius I gives formal recognition to the Ostrogoth king Theodoric the Great, as his representative (viceroy) in Italy. He sends the imperial standard to Ravenna. Theodoric respects the agreement and allows Roman citizens within the Ostrogothic Kingdom to be subject to Roman law.

Isaurian War: Anastasius I regains control of the Isauria region (Asia Minor) and has the rebel leaders executed. He pacifies the mountain strongholds of the Isaurians, ending the revolt that they began upon his ascension to the throne 6 years ago.

====== China ======

The Shaolin Temple (Henan) is founded (according to the Jiaqing Chongxiu Yitongzhi). For alternate founding date, see 477 or 495).

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Aryabhata, Indian astronomer and mathematician, calculates pi (π) as ≈ 62832/20000 = 3.1416, correct to four rounded-off decimal places.

====== Literature ======

The Ambrosian Iliad, an Illuminated manuscript, on vellum of the Iliad of Homer is produced in Constantinople (approximate date).

=== 498 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Emperor Anastasius I abolishes the chrysargyron tax throughout the Eastern Roman Empire, before reforming the monetary system, using Greek numerals instead of Roman.

====== Persia ======

Kavadh I returns from exile with support of 30,000 Hephthalites (White Huns), and again assumes the Sassanid throne. He punishes his opponents and probably his brother Djamasp, who usurped the throne from him.

====== Asia ======

Prince Buretsu, age 9, succeeds his father Ninken and becomes the 25th emperor of Japan.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

November 19 – Pope Anastasius II dies after a 2-year reign in which he has tried to conciliate followers of Acacius, late patriarch of Constantinople, who was excommunicated by Felix III.

November 22 – Anastasius is succeeded by Symmachus as the 51st pope, in the official papal selection in the Lateran Palace (Rome). Meanwhile, Antipope Laurentius is elected "pope" in the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore, causing a schism.

Flavian II succeeds Palladius as patriarch of Antioch.

=== 499 ===

==== By place ====

====== China ======

April 26 – Emperor Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei dies of starvation in his capital at Luoyang, after a 27-year reign in which he has Sinicized his tribal relatives (Tuoba clan), created a Chinese-style government and instituted a land-reform program.

Crown prince Xuan Wu Di, age 16, succeeds his father Xiaowen and becomes emperor of Northern Wei. He appoints his uncle Yuan Xie provincial governor, who serves temporarily as regent to form a new government.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

March 1 – During a synod in Rome, which is attended by 72 bishops and all of the Roman clergy, Pope Symmachus makes Antipope Laurentius bishop of the diocese of Nocera in Campania.


Year 498 (CDXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Paulinus and Scytha (or, less frequently, year 1251 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 498 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.


Anastasius (Latinized) or Anastasios (Greek: Αναστάσιος, romanized: Anastasios) is derived from the Greek ἀνάστασις (anastasis) meaning "resurrection". Its female form is Anastasia (Greek: Αναστασία). A diminutive form of Anastasios is Tasos (Greek: Τάσος).

Anastasius II

Anastasius II or Anastasios II could refer to:

Anastasios II (emperor)

Pope Anastasius II

Antipope Laurentius

Laurentius (possibly Caelius) was Archpriest of Santa Prassede and later antipope of the Roman Catholic Church. Elected in 498 at the Basilica Saint Mariae (presumably Saint Maria Maggiore) with the support of a dissenting faction with Byzantine sympathies, who were supported by Eastern Roman Emperor Anastasius, in opposition to Pope Symmachus, the division between the two opposing factions split not only the church, but the senate and the people of Rome. However, Laurentius remained in Rome as Pope until 506.


In Christian theology, a heresiarch (also hæresiarch, according to the Oxford English Dictionary; from Greek: αἱρεσιάρχης, hairesiárkhēs via the late Latin haeresiarcha) or arch-heretic is an originator of heretical doctrine, or the founder of a sect that sustains such a doctrine.

Inferno (Dante)

Inferno (pronounced [iɱˈfɛrno]; Italian for "Hell") is the first part of Italian writer Dante Alighieri's 14th-century epic poem Divine Comedy. It is followed by Purgatorio and Paradiso. The Inferno tells the journey of Dante through Hell, guided by the ancient Roman poet Virgil. In the poem, Hell is depicted as nine concentric circles of torment located within the Earth; it is the "realm ... of those who have rejected spiritual values by yielding to bestial appetites or violence, or by perverting their human intellect to fraud or malice against their fellowmen". As an allegory, the Divine Comedy represents the journey of the soul toward God, with the Inferno describing the recognition and rejection of sin.

Liber Pontificalis

The Liber Pontificalis (Latin for 'pontifical book' or Book of the Popes) is a book of biographies of popes from Saint Peter until the 15th century. The original publication of the Liber Pontificalis stopped with Pope Adrian II (867–872) or Pope Stephen V (885–891), but it was later supplemented in a different style until Pope Eugene IV (1431–1447) and then Pope Pius II (1458–1464). Although quoted virtually uncritically from the 8th to 18th centuries, the Liber Pontificalis has undergone intense modern scholarly scrutiny. The work of the French priest Louis Duchesne (who compiled the major scholarly edition), and of others has highlighted some of the underlying redactional motivations of different sections, though such interests are so disparate and varied as to render improbable one popularizer's claim that it is an "unofficial instrument of pontifical propaganda."The title Liber Pontificalis goes back to the 12th century, although it only became current in the 15th century, and the canonical title of the work since the edition of Duchesne in the 19th century. In the earliest extant manuscripts it is referred to as Liber episcopalis in quo continentur acta beatorum pontificum Urbis Romae ('episcopal book in which are contained the acts of the blessed pontiffs of the city of Rome') and later the Gesta or Chronica pontificum.

List of popes by country

This page is a list of popes by country of origin. They are listed in chronological order within each section.

As the office of pope has existed for almost two millennia, many of the countries of origin of popes no longer exist, and so they are grouped under their modern equivalents. Popes from Italy are in a separate section, given the very large number of popes from that peninsula.

November 19

November 19 is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 42 days remain until the end of the year.

Ostrogothic Papacy

The Ostrogothic Papacy was a period from 493 to 537 where the papacy was strongly influenced by the Ostrogothic Kingdom, if the pope was not outright appointed by the Ostrogothic King. The selection and administration of popes during this period was strongly influenced by Theodoric the Great and his successors Athalaric and Theodahad. This period terminated with Justinian I's (re)conquest of Rome during the Gothic War (535–554), inaugurating the Byzantine Papacy (537-752).

According to Howorth, "while they were not much interfered with in their administrative work, so long as they did not themselves interfere with politics, the Gothic kings meddled considerably in the selection of the new popes and largely dominated their election. Simony prevailed to a scandalous extent, as did intrigues of a discreditable kind, and the quality and endowments of the candidates became of secondary importance in their chances of being elected, compared with their skill in corrupting the officials of the foreign kings and in their powers of chicane." According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, "[Theodoric] was tolerant towards the Catholic Church and did not interfere in dogmatic matters. He remained as neutral as possible towards the pope, though he exercised a preponderant influence in the affairs of the papacy."

Papal selection before 1059

There was no fixed process for papal selection before 1059. Popes, the bishops of Rome and the leaders of the Catholic Church, were often appointed by their predecessors or secular rulers. While the process was often characterized by some capacity of election, an election with the meaningful participation of the laity was the exception to the rule, especially as the popes' claims to temporal power solidified into the Papal States. The practice of papal appointment during this period would later give rise to the jus exclusivae, a veto right exercised by Catholic monarchies into the twentieth century.

The lack of an institutionalized process for papal succession was prone to religious schism, and several papal claimants before 1059 are currently regarded by the Church as antipopes. Furthermore, the frequent requirement of secular approval of elected popes significantly lengthened periods of sede vacante and weakened the papacy. In 1059, Pope Nicholas II succeeded in limiting future papal electors to the cardinals with In nomine Domini, creating standardized papal elections that would eventually evolve into the papal conclave.

Photinus of Thessalonica

Photinus (Greek: Φωτεινός, romanized: Phōteinós) of Thessalonica was a disciple of Acacius, Patriarch of Constantinople (471–489) and a deacon in the Church.

Pope Felix III (13 March 483–492) excommunicated Acacius for his heretical theories. Thus the foundation was laid for the Acacian Schism between the Eastern and Western Christian Churches.Photinus was sent to Pope Anastasius II (496–498), probably by a supporter of Acasius, to plead his case. This Pope was, however, a moderate and tried to resolve the conflict by allowing the heretic deacon, who had been labelled an Acacian by his predecessor Pope Gelasius I, to partake in holy communion. This peace offering did not sway Photinus, but did result in suspicions among certain groups of Christians in the West about the views and opinions of Pope Anastasius.

Pope Anastasius died shortly after this visit in 498 and many Christians in the West perceived his death as a sign of God thus deepening the growing divide between the Western and Eastern Christian Churches even further, which resulted in an additional schism, the so-called Laurentian Schism.

Pope Anastasius

Pope Anastasius may refer to:

Pope Anastasius I, Pope from 399–401

Pope Anastasius II, Pope from 496–498

Pope Anastasius of Alexandria, 605–616

Pope Anastasius III, Pope from 911–913

Pope Anastasius IV, Pope from 1153–1154

Antipope Anastasius

Pope Symmachus

Pope Symmachus (d. 19 July 514) was Pope from 22 November 498 to his death in 514. His tenure was marked by a serious schism over who was legitimately elected pope by the citizens of Rome.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Pesaro

The Archdiocese of Pesaro (Latin: Archidioecesis Pisaurensis) is a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical territory in central Italy. Its see at Pesaro was elevated in status to archiepiscopal see in 2000. Its suffragans are the Diocese of Fano-Fossombrone-Cagli-Pergola and the Archdiocese of Urbino-Urbania-Sant'Angelo in Vado.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Todi

The Italian Catholic diocese of Todi existed until 1986, when it was united into the diocese of Orvieto-Todi. Up until that point, the diocese had always been directly dependent on the Holy See.

Rufius Postumius Festus

Rufius Postumius Festus (fl. 472-507) was a Roman aristocrat who lived during the Late Roman Empire. Festus was the last consul appointed by an Emperor in the West. The next consul appointed in the West was Caecina Decius Maximus Basilius, whom king Odoacer appointed in 480, eight years after Festus.

1st–4th centuries
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
5th–8th centuries
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
9th–12th centuries
Papal selection before 1059
Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
13th–16th centuries
Viterbo (1257–1281)
Orvieto (1262–1297)
Perugia (1228–1304)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
Western Schism (1378–1417)
Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)
Reformation Papacy (1534–1585)
Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)
17th–20th centuries
Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848)
Roman Question (1870–1929)
Vatican City (1929–present)
21st century
History of the papacy
Bible and
By country
of the faithful
Early Church
Late antiquity
Early Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
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19th century
20th century
21st century

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