Pope Anacletus

Pope Anacletus (died c. 92), also known as Cletus, was the third Bishop of Rome, following Saint Peter and Pope Linus. Anacletus served as pope between c. 79 and his death, c. 92. Cletus was a Roman, who during his tenure as Pope, is known to have ordained a number of priests and is traditionally credited with setting up about twenty-five parishes in Rome.[1] Although the precise dates of his pontificate are uncertain, he "...died a martyr, perhaps about 91".[2] Cletus is mentioned in the Roman Canon of the mass; his feast day is April 26.

Pope Saint

Anacletus
CCletus
Papacy beganc. 79
Papacy endedc. 92
PredecessorLinus
SuccessorClement I
Personal details
Bornca. AD 25
Rome, Italy, Roman Empire
Diedc. 26 April 92
Rome, Italy, Roman Empire
Sainthood
Feast day26 April
13 July (additional on Tridentine Calendar)
Venerated inCatholicism
Eastern Orthodoxy

Name and etymology

The name "Cletus" in Ancient Greek means "one who has been called," and "Anacletus" means "one who has been called back." Also "Anencletus" (Greek: Ανέγκλητος) means "unimpeachable."

The Roman Martyrology mentions the Pope in question only under the name of "Cletus." [3] The Annuario Pontificio gives both forms as alternatives. Eusebius, Saint Irenaeus, Saint Augustine and Optatus all suggest that both names refer to the same individual.[2]

Papacy

St. Cletus/Anacletus was traditionally understood to have been a Roman who served as pope for twelve years. The Annuario Pontificio states, "For the first two centuries, the dates of the start and the end of the pontificate are uncertain." It gives the years 80 to 92 as the reign of Pope Cletus/Anacletus. Other sources give the years 77 to 88.

According to tradition, Pope Anacletus divided Rome into twenty-five parishes. One of the few surviving records concerning his papacy mentions him as having ordained an uncertain number of priests.[2]

Burial

He died and was buried next to his predecessor, Saint Linus, near the grave of St. Peter's, in what is now Vatican City.[4] His name (as Cletus) is included in the Roman Canon of the Mass.

Veneration

The Tridentine Calendar reserved 26 April as the feast day of Saint Cletus, who the church honoured jointly with Saint Marcellinus, and 13 July for solely Saint Anacletus. In 1960, Pope John XXIII, while keeping the 26 April feast, which mentions the saint under the name given to him in the Canon of the Mass, removed 13 July as a feast day for Saint Anacletus. The 14 February 1961 Instruction of the Congregation for Rites on the application to local calendars of Pope John XXIII's motu proprio Rubricarum instructum of 25 July 1960, decreed that "the feast of 'Saint Anacletus,' on whatever ground and in whatever grade it is celebrated, is transferred to 26 April, under its right name, 'Saint Cletus.'" Use of this calendar, which is included in the 1962 edition of the Roman Missal, continues to be authorized under the conditions indicated in the motu proprio Summorum Pontificum; but the feast has been removed from the General Roman Calendar since 1969.[5] Although the day of his death is unknown,[5] Saint Cletus continues to be listed in the Roman Martyrology among the saints of 26 April.[6]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Pope St Anacletus, Martyr", The Brighton Oratory, July 13, 2012
  2. ^ a b c Campbell, Thomas. "Pope St. Anacletus." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 27 September 2017
  3. ^ "Martyrologium Romanum" (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2001 ISBN 88-209-7210-7)
  4. ^ "Pope Anacletus, I - Find A Grave Memorial".
  5. ^ a b Calendarium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 1969), p. 121
  6. ^ Martyrologium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2001 ISBN 88-209-7210-7)

References

  • Donald Attwater and Catherine Rachel John, The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, 3rd edition, New York: Penguin Books, 1993. ISBN 0-14-051312-4.
  • Louise Ropes Loomis, The Book of Popes (Liber Pontificalis). Merchantville, NJ: Evolution Publishing. ISBN 1-889758-86-8 (Reprint of the 1916 edition. (Ends with Pope Pelagius, who reigned from 579 until 590. English translation with scholarly footnotes, and illustrations).
  • Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes, (Harper, 2000). ISBN 0-06-065304-3

External links

Titles of the Great Christian Church
Preceded by
Linus
Bishop of Rome
Pope

79–92
Succeeded by
Clement I
80s

== Events ==

=== AD 80 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Titus completes and inaugurates the Colosseum with 100 days of games.

The earliest stage of Lullingstone Roman villa is built.

The Roman occupation of Britain reaches the River Tyne–Solway Firth frontier area. Gnaeus Julius Agricola creates a fleet for the conquest of Caledonia; he finally proves that Britannia is an island.

Legio II Adiutrix is stationed at Lindum Colonia (modern Lincoln). The city is an important settlement for retired Roman legionaries.

The original Roman Pantheon is destroyed in a fire, along with many other buildings.

The Eifel Aqueduct is constructed to bring water 95 km (59 mi) from the Eifel region to Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensum (modern Cologne).

Gnaeus Julius Agricola begins his invasion of Scotland.

====== Asia ======

Some 30,000 Asian tribesmen migrate from the steppes to the west with 40,000 horses and 100,000 cattle, joining with Iranian tribesmen and with Mongols from the Siberian forests to form a group that will be known in Europe as the Huns.

King Pasa becomes ruler of the Korean kingdom of Silla.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

The aeolipile, the first steam engine, is described by Hero of Alexandria.

====== Religion ======

The Gospel of Luke and Acts of the Apostles are written (approximate date).

=== AD 81 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

September 14 – Domitian succeeds his brother Titus as emperor. Domitian is not a soldier like his two predecessors, and his administration is directed towards the reinforcement of a monarchy. By taking the title of Dominus ("lord"), he scandalizes the senatorial aristocracy. Romanisation progresses in the provinces, and life in the cities is greatly improved. Many provincials – Spanish, Gallic, and African – become Senators.

The Arch of Titus is constructed.

Pliny the Younger is flamen Divi Augusti (priest in the cult of the Emperor).

==== By topic ====

====== Commerce ======

The silver content of the Roman denarius rises to 92% under emperor Domitian, up from 81% in the reign of Vitellius.

=== AD 82 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Roman emperor Domitian becomes Roman Consul.

Gnaeus Julius Agricola raises a fleet and encircles the Celtic tribes beyond the Forth, the Caledonians rise in great numbers against the Romans. They attack the camp of Legio IX Hispana at night, but Agricola sends his cavalry in and put them to flight.

Calgacus unites the Picts (30,000 men) in Scotland and is made chieftain of the Caledonian Confederacy.

Dio Chrysostom is banished from Rome, Italy, and Bithynia after advising one of the Emperor's conspiring relatives.

Domitian levies Legio I Minervia.

=== AD 83 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Possible date of the Battle of Mons Graupius (AD 83 or 84). According to Tacitus, 10,000 Britons and 360 Romans are killed.

Roman emperor Domitian fights the Chatti, a Germanic tribe. His victory allows the construction of fortifications (Limes) along the Rhine-frontier.

Inchtuthil, Roman fort built in Scotland.

Domitian is again also a Roman Consul.

Possible date that Demetrius of Tarsus visited an island in the Hebrides populated by holy men, possibly druids.

In Rome, the castration of slaves is prohibited.

=== AD 84 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Possible date of the Battle of Mons Graupius (AD 83 or 84), in which Gnaeus Julius Agricola defeats the Caledonians.

Emperor Domitian recalls Agricola back to Rome, where he is rewarded with a triumph and the governorship of the Roman province Africa, but he declines it.

Pliny the Younger is sevir equitum Romanorum (commander of a cavalry squadron).

The construction of the Limes, a line of Roman fortifications from the Rhine to the Danube, is begun.

Through his election as consul for ten years and censor for life, Domitian openly subordinates the republican aspect of the state to the monarchical.

Domitian increases the troops' pay by one third, thus securing their loyalty.

====== Asia ======

Change from Jianchu to Yuanhe era of the Chinese Eastern Han Dynasty.

=== AD 85 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Dacians under Decebalus engage in two wars against the Romans from this year to AD 88 or 89.

Emperor Domitian repulses a Dacian invasion of Moesia.

Domitian appoints himself censor for life, which gives him the right to control the Senate. His totalitarian tendencies put the senatorial aristocracy firmly in opposition to him.

====== Asia ======

Baekje invades the outskirts of Silla in the Korean peninsula. The war continues till the peace treaty of 105.

=== AD 86 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Domitian introduces the Capitoline Games.

The Roman General Trajan, future emperor, begins a campaign to crush an uprising in Germany.

Germany is divided into two provinces, Upper Germany and Lower Germany.

====== Dacia ======

Roman legions face disaster in Dacia in the First Battle of Tapae, when Cornelius Fuscus, Praetorian prefect, launches a powerful offensive that becomes a failure. Encircled in the valley of Timi, he dies along with his entire army. Rome must pay tribute to the Dacians in exchange for a vague recognition of Rome's importance.

====== Asia ======

Ban Gu (Pan Kou) and his sister Ban Zhao (Pan Tchao) compose a History of China.

=== AD 87 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

The Roman Maternus arrives in Ethiopia.

Lyon, a city in Gaul, has a population of over 100,000.

Sextus gains power in the senate.

====== Europe ======

Decebalus becomes king of Dacia.

=== AD 88 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Two Egyptian obelisks are erected in Benevento in front of the Temple of Isis, in honour of emperor Domitian.

Quintilian retires from teaching and from pleading, to compose his great work on the training of the orator (Institutio Oratoria).

The First Dacian War ends: Decebalus becomes a client king of Rome, he receives money, craftsmen and war machines to protect the borders (Limes) of the Roman Empire.

====== Asia ======

Emperor Han Zhangdi dies at age 31 after a 13-year reign in which Chinese military forces have become powerful enough to march against tribes who threaten their northern and western borders. Having used intrigue as well as armed might to achieve his ends. Zhangdi and his General Ban Chao have reestablished Chinese influence in Inner Asia, but court eunuchs have increased their power during the emperor's reign. Zhangdi is succeeded by his 9-year-old son Zhao, who will reign until 105 as emperor Han Hedi, but he will be a virtual pawn of Empress Dou (adoptive mother) and scheming courtiers who will effectively rule the Chinese Empire.

Last year (4th) of yuanhe era and start of zhanghe era of the Chinese Eastern Han Dynasty.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Pope Clement I succeeds Pope Anacletus I as the fourth pope.

=== AD 89 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

1 January -- Lucius Antonius Saturninus incites a revolt against the Roman Emperor Domitian. It is suppressed by 24 January.

Legio XIII Gemina is transferred to Dacia to help in the war against Decebalus.

Aquincum (old Budapest, Óbuda) is founded.

====== Asia ======

First year of Yongyuan era of the Chinese Han Dynasty.

June – The Han Chinese army under Dou Xian (d. AD 92), allied with the southern Xiongnu, is victorious over the Northern Xiongnu in the Battle of Ikh Bayan.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Change of Patriarch of Constantinople from Polycarpus to Plutarch.

Publication in Syria or Phoenicia of the Gospel of Matthew by a converted Jewish scholar.

AD 76

AD 76 (LXXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Titus and Vespasianus (or, less frequently, year 829 Ab urbe condita). The denomination AD 76 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

AD 88

AD 88 (LXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Augustus and Rufus (or, less frequently, year 841 Ab urbe condita). The denomination AD 88 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Antipope Anacletus II

Anacletus II (died January 25, 1138), born Pietro Pierleoni, was an Antipope who ruled in opposition to Pope Innocent II from 1130 until his death in 1138. After the death of Pope Honorius II, the college of cardinals was divided over his successor. A majority of cardinals elected Pietro, while a minority elected Papareschi (Innocent II). This led to a major schism in the Roman Catholic Church. Anacletus had the support of most Romans, and the Frangipani family, and forced Innocent to flee to France. North of the Alps, Innocent gained the crucial support of St. Bernard of Clairvaux, Peter the Venerable, and Emperor Lothar III, leaving Anacletus with few patrons. Anacletus, with little remaining support, died in the middle of the crisis. In 1139 the second Lateran Council ended the schism, though opinion remained divided.

April 26

April 26 is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 249 days remain until the end of the year.

Cathedral Basilica of St. Dionysius the Areopagite

The Cathedral Basilica of St. Dionysius the Areopagite is the main Roman Catholic church of Athens, Greece, and the seat of the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Athens. It is located in central Athens, at the junction of Panepistimiou Avenue with Omirou Street and is dedicated to Saint Dionysius the Areopagite, disciple of the Apostle Saint Paul and the first bishop of Athens.

County of Sicily

The County of Sicily, also known as County of Sicily and Calabria, was a Norman state comprising the islands of Sicily and Malta and part of Calabria from 1071 until 1130. The county began to form during the Christian reconquest of Sicily (1061–91) from the Muslim Emirate, established by conquest in 965. The county is thus a transitional period in the history of Sicily. After the Muslims had been defeated and either forced out or incorporated into the Norman military, a further period of transition took place for the county and the Sicilians.

List of Greek popes

This is a list of Greek popes. Most were pope before or during the Byzantine Papacy (537–752). It does not include all the Sicilian and Syrian popes of Greek extraction from that period.

List of canonised popes

This article lists the Popes who have been canonised or recognised as Saints in the Roman Catholic Church they had led. A total of 83 (out of 266) Popes have been recognised universally as canonised saints, including all of the first 35 Popes (31 of whom were martyrs) and 52 of the first 54. If Pope Liberius is numbered amongst the Saints as in Eastern Christianity, all of the first 49 Popes become recognised as Saints, of whom 31 are Martyr-Saints, and 53 of the first 54 Pontiffs would be acknowledged as Saints. In addition, 13 other Popes are in the process of becoming canonised Saints: as of December 2018, two are recognised as being Servants of God, two are recognised as being Venerable, and nine have been declared Blessed or Beati, making a total of 95 (97 if Pope Liberius and Pope Adeodatus II are recognised to be Saints) of the 266 Roman Pontiffs being recognised and venerated for their heroic virtues and inestimable contributions to the Church.

The most recently reigning Pope to have been canonised was Pope John Paul II, whose cause for canonisation was opened in May 2005. John Paul II was beatified on May 1, 2011, by Pope Benedict XVI and later canonised, along with Pope John XXIII, by Pope Francis on April 27, 2014. Pope Francis also canonised Pope Paul VI on October 14, 2018.

List of non-extant papal tombs

This is a list of non-extant papal tombs, which includes tombs not included on the list of extant papal tombs. Information about these tombs is generally incomplete and uncertain.

Chronologically, the main locations of destroyed or unknown papal tombs have been: the obscure tombs of the first two centuries of popes near Saint Peter, the repeated waves of translations from the Catacombs of Rome, the demolition of the papal tombs in Old St. Peter's Basilica, and the 1306 and 1361 fires in the Basilica of St. John Lateran.

Papal tombs have also been destroyed by other instances of fire, remodeling, and war (most recently, World War II). Others are unknown due to creative or geographically remote methods of martyrdom, or—in the case of Pope Clement I—both. Burial in churches outside the Aurelian Walls of Rome (Italian: fuori le Mura)—in the basilicas of Paul or Lorenzo—have not generally survived.

List of popes who died violently

A collection of popes who have had violent deaths through the centuries. The circumstances have ranged from martyrdom (Pope Stephen I) to war (Lucius II), to a beating by a jealous husband (Pope John XII). A number of other popes have died under circumstances that some believe to be murder, but for which definitive evidence has not been found.

List of tombs of antipopes

An antipope is a historical papal claimant not recognized as legitimate by the Catholic Church. Unlike papal tombs, the tombs of antipopes have generally not been preserved, with a few notable exceptions.

Several tombs of antipopes were desecrated and destroyed, often by their rival claimants, shortly after their creation. For example, Pope Innocent II razed Santa Maria in Trastevere (one of the main Marian basilicas and one of the oldest churches of Rome) to the ground and was eventually buried over the spot once occupied by the tomb of his rival, Pope Anacletus II. Others survived centuries, only to be destroyed during conflicts such as the French Revolution and the War of the Spanish Succession, a fate common to some non-extant papal tombs. Such was the case with the tomb of Antipope Felix V (the last historical antipope), who was buried with most of his predecessors as Count of Savoy in Hautecombe Abbey.Others are obscure because of the damnatio memoriae surrounding the lives of antipopes, or because they were refused burial due to excommunication. Some of those can be presumed to have been buried unceremoniously in the monasteries to which the antipopes were confined after submitting or losing power. The exception is Hippolytus of Rome, the first antipope, who was translated to Rome by his former rival Pope Fabian following his martyrdom, and is regarded as a saint.Various antipopes, however, received prominent burials, including one among the papal tombs in Old St. Peter's Basilica (which were destroyed during the sixteenth/seventeenth century demolition). In particular, the conciliar claimants of the Western Schism were entombed in elaborate tombs in important churches by famous sculptors. The tomb of Antipope John XXIII typifies political iconography of antipapal burial, subtly arguing for the legitimacy of the entombed.

Pope Innocent II

Pope Innocent II (Latin: Innocentius II; died 23 September 1143), born Gregorio Papareschi, was Pope from 14 February 1130 to his death in 1143. His election was controversial and the first eight years of his reign were marked by a struggle for recognition against the supporters of Antipope Anacletus II. He reached an understanding with Lothair II, Holy Roman Emperor who supported him against Anacletus and whom he crowned King of the Romans. Innocent went on to preside over the Second Lateran council.

Pope Linus

Linus ( (listen); died c. AD 76) was the second Bishop of Rome, and is listed by the Catholic Church as the second pope.

His papacy lasted from c. AD 67 to his death. Among those to have held the position of pope, Peter, Linus and Clement are specifically mentioned in the New Testament.Linus is mentioned in the closing greeting of the Second Epistle to Timothy as being with Paul in Rome near the end of Paul's life.

Saint Peter's tomb

Saint Peter's tomb is a site under St. Peter's Basilica that includes several graves and a structure said by Vatican authorities to have been built to memorialize the location of Saint Peter's grave. St. Peter's tomb is near the west end of a complex of mausoleums that date between about AD 130 and AD 300. The complex was partially torn down and filled with earth to provide a foundation for the building of the first St. Peter's Basilica during the reign of Constantine I in about AD 330. Though many bones have been found at the site of the 2nd-century shrine, as the result of two campaigns of archaeological excavation, Pope Pius XII stated in December 1950 that none could be confirmed to be Saint Peter's with absolute certainty. Following the discovery of bones that had been transferred from a second tomb under the monument, on June 26, 1968, Pope Paul VI claimed that the relics of Saint Peter had been identified in a manner considered convincing.The grave claimed by the Church to be that of Saint Peter lies at the foot of the aedicula beneath the floor. The remains of four individuals and several farm animals were found in this grave. In 1953, after the initial archeological efforts had been completed, another set of bones were found that were said to have been removed without the archeologists' knowledge from a niche (loculus) in the north side of a wall (the graffiti wall) that abuts the red wall on the right of the aedicula. Subsequent testing indicated that these were the bones of a 60- to 70-year-old man. Margherita Guarducci argued that these were the remains of Saint Peter and that they had been moved into a niche in the graffiti wall from the grave under the aedicula "at the time of Constantine, after the peace of the church" (313). Antonio Ferrua, the archaeologist who headed the excavation that uncovered what is known as Saint Peter's Tomb, said that he wasn't convinced that the bones that were found were those of Saint Peter.The upper image shows the area of the lower floor of St. Peter's Basilica that lies above the site of Saint Peter's tomb. A portion of the aedicula that was part of Peter's tomb rose above level of this floor and was made into the Niche of the Pallium which can be seen in the center of the image.

San Nicola in Carcere

San Nicola in Carcere (Italian, "St Nicholas in prison") is a titular church in Rome near the Forum Boarium in rione Sant'Angelo. It is one of the traditional stational churches of Lent.

San Sisto Vecchio

The Basilica of San Sisto Vecchio (in Via Appia) is one of the over sixty minor basilicas among the churches of Rome, and a titular church since 600 AD. As such, it is connected to the title of a Cardinal priest, the current holder of which is Marian Jaworski of Ukraine.

1st–4th centuries
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
5th–8th centuries
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
9th–12th centuries
Papal selection before 1059
Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
13th–16th centuries
Viterbo (1257–1281)
Orvieto (1262–1297)
Perugia (1228–1304)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
Western Schism (1378–1417)
Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)
Reformation Papacy (1534–1585)
Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)
17th–20th centuries
Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848)
Roman Question (1870–1929)
Vatican City (1929–present)
21st century
History of the papacy
Virgin Mary
Apostles
Archangels
Confessors
Disciples
Doctors
Evangelists
Church
Fathers
Martyrs
Patriarchs
Popes
Prophets
Virgins
See also

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