Pope Adrian V

Pope Adrian V (Latin: Adrianus V; c. 1210/1220 – 18 August 1276), born Ottobuono de' Fieschi,[1] was Pope from 11 July 1276 to his death on 18 August 1276.

Pope

Adrian V
Papa Adriano V
Papacy began11 July 1276
Papacy ended18 August 1276
PredecessorInnocent V
SuccessorJohn XXI
Orders
Created cardinalDecember 1251
by Innocent IV
Personal details
Birth nameOttobuono de' Fieschi
Bornc. 1210–1220
Genoa, Republic of Genoa, Holy Roman Empire
Died18 August 1276
Viterbo, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Previous post
Coat of armsAdrian V's coat of arms
Other popes named Adrian
Blason AdrienV
Coat of Arms of the Fieschi family.

Biography

Ottobuono belonged to a feudal family of Liguria, the Fieschi, Counts of Lavagna.

His first clerical position came in 1243, when he was created a papal chaplain. Subsequently, he received several ecclesiastical benefices, becoming archdeacon in Bologna (1244) and Parma (1244/48–1255), canon and chancellor of the cathedral chapter in Reims (1243–1250), canon and dean of the chapter in Piacenza (c. 1247) and canon of the cathedral chapter in Paris (1244/45–1270). In December 1251, he was created Cardinal Deacon of San Adriano by his uncle Pope Innocent IV. He was also archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian Basilica (attested from 1262).

He was sent to England in 1265 by Pope Clement IV to mediate between King Henry III of England and his barons, and to preach the Crusades. He remained there for several years as the papal legate, serving from October 1265 to July 1268. His diplomatic position was such that his name is still on the oldest extant piece of English statute law, the Statute of Marlborough of 1267, where the formal title mentions as a witness "the Lord Ottobon, at that time legate in England". (Also on this legation was a young diplomat, the future Boniface VIII.) In April 1268 he issued a set of canons, which formed the basis of church law in England until the Protestant Reformation of the sixteenth century.

Fieschi was related distantly, by affinity, to Henry III; his sister had married Thomas II of Savoy, who was a cousin of Henry's wife, Eleanor of Provence.[2]

Under the influence of Charles of Anjou, he was elected Pope to succeed Innocent V on 11 July 1276 but died at Viterbo on 18 August 1276 from illness without ever having been ordained to the priesthood.[3] He is buried there in the church of San Francesco alla Rocca. His funeral monument is attributed to Arnolfo di Cambio. Adrian V was the third pope in "The Year of Four Popes" of 1276.

He annulled Pope Gregory X's bull on the holding of papal conclaves, but died before enacting new regulations.

In literature

In the Divine Comedy, Dante meets Adrian's spirit in Purgatory, on the level reserved for the avaricious, where Adrian atones for his sin of worldly ambition. (Purgatorio XIX, 88-145).

See also

References

  1. ^ Alban Butler and Paul Burns, Butler's Lives of the Saints, Vol. 9, (Burns & Oates, 2000), 131.
  2. ^ Howell, Margaret (1998). "Eleanor of Provence: Queenship in 13th Century England", p.154. Blackwell Publishing, Malden Massachusetts. ISBN 0-631-17286-6
  3. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Adrian" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 216.

Bibliography

  • Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope Adrian V" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  • Cristofori, Francesco (1887). Le tombe dei pape in Viterbo. Siena 1887.
  • Sternfeld, Richard (1905). Der Kardinal Johann Gaetan Orsini (Papst Nikolaus III.) 1244-1277. Berlin: E. Ebering 1905.
  • Gregorovius, Ferdinand (1906). History of Rome in the Middle Ages, Volume V.2 second edition, revised. London: George Bell, 1906.
  • Schöpp, Natalie (1916). Papst Hadrian V (Kardinal Ottobuono Fieschi). Heidelberg; C. Winter 1916.
  • Gatto, Ludovico (2000). "Adriano V," Enciclopedia dei papi (ed. Manlio Simonetti et al.) Vol. I (Roma 2000), pp. 425–427.
  • Maxwell-Stuart, P. G. Chronicle of the Popes: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Papacy from St. Peter to the Present. New York: Thames & Hudson, 2002, p. 117–118. ISBN 0-500-01798-0.
  • Paravicini Bagliani, A. (1972). Cardinali di curia e familiae cardinalizie dal 1227 al 1254, Padova 1972, p. 358–365
  • Bolton, Brenda M. (2004). "Ottobuono [Ottobuono or Ottobono Fieschi; later Adrian V] (c.1205–1276)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/50348. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Innocent V
Pope
1276
Succeeded by
John XXI
1268–71 papal election

The papal election of 1268–71 (from November 1268 to 1 September 1271), following the death of Pope Clement IV, was the longest papal election in the history of the Catholic Church. This was due primarily to political infighting between the cardinals. The election of Teobaldo Visconti as Pope Gregory X was the first example of a papal election by "compromise", that is, by the appointment of a committee of six cardinals agreed to by the other remaining ten. The election occurred more than a year after the magistrates of Viterbo locked the cardinals in, reduced their rations to bread and water, and removed the roof of the Palazzo dei Papi di Viterbo.As a result of the length of the election, during which three of the twenty cardinal-electors died and one resigned, Gregory X promulgated the papal bull Ubi periculum on 7 July 1274, during the Second Council of Lyon, establishing the papal conclave, whose rules were based on the tactics employed against the cardinals in Viterbo. The first election held under those rules is sometimes viewed as the first conclave.

1276

Year 1276 (MCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

It is the only Year of Four Popes.

1294 papal conclave

The papal conclave of 1294 (23–24 December) was convoked in Naples after the resignation of Pope Celestine V on 13 December 1294. Celestine V had only months earlier restored the election procedures set forth in the papal bull Ubi periculum of Pope Gregory X, which had been suspended by Pope Adrian V in July 1276. Every papal election since then has been a papal conclave. It was the first papal conclave held during the lifetime of the preceding pontiff, an event not repeated until the papal conclave of 2013 following the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI.

Aldobrandino II d'Este, Marquis of Ferrara

Aldobrandino II d'Este (died 1326) was the marquess of Ferrara from 1308 until his death.

He was the son of Obizzo II d'Este and Jacopina Fieschi, the niece of Pope Adrian V. Aldobrandino became lord of Ferrara at the death of his elder brother Azzo VIII, and renounced the rights to Modena and Reggio. He was succeeded by his sons Obizzo, Rinaldo and Niccolò.

Amerus

Amerus (also Aluredus, Annuerus, Aumerus) was a 13th-century English music theorist who lived in Italy.

Amerus worked under Cardinal Ottobono Fieschi, who later became Pope Adrian V, and wrote his only known work, Practica artis musicae, while in Fieschi's employ. It is thought that he wrote the text in 1271 at Viterbo, where the papal conclave was held.

Practica artis musicae is an instruction treatise for boys, which explains contemporaneous musical notation systems. The bulk of the work is an explanation of the tonary system as it was used in French, English, and Italian churches. The treatise also discusses the composition of polyphony, which is believed to be the first surviving treatise from Italy to use rhythmic notation. Amerus discusses the longa, brevis, and semibrevis, assigning them in groups of two (rather than three). The work is preserved in the Bamberg Codex, among other places.

August 18

August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 135 days remain until the end of the year.

Campanus of Novara

Campanus of Novara (c. 1220 – 1296) was an Italian mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, and physician who is best known for his work on Euclid's Elements. In his writings he refers to himself as Campanus Nouariensis; contemporary documents refer to him as Magister Campanus; and the full style of his name is Magister Campanus Nouariensis. He is also referred to as Campano da Novara, Giovanni Campano or similar. Later authors (from the 16th century on) sometimes applied the forename Johannes Campanus or Iohannes Campanus.His date of birth is uncertain but may have been as early as the first decade of the 13th century and the place of birth was probably Novara in Lombardy. He served as chaplain to Pope Urban IV, Pope Adrian V, Pope Nicholas IV, and Pope Boniface VIII. His contemporary Roger Bacon cited Campanus as one of the two "good" (but not "perfect") mathematicians indicating that Bacon considered Campanus as excellent or one of the greatest mathematicians of their time. A number of benefices were conferred upon him and he was relatively wealthy at the time of his death. He died at Viterbo in 1296. The crater Campanus on the Moon is named after him.

Fieschi family

The Fieschi were a noble merchant family from Genoa, Italy, from whom descend the Fieschi Ravaschieri Princes of Belmonte. The Fieschi family exercised great influence in the Guelf (papal party) politics in medieval Italy. They had close ties with the Angevin kings of Sicily. Later they also established links with French kings. The Fieschi family produced two popes and 72 cardinals.They held the fief of Lavagna under the Holy Roman Emperors. As Counts of Lavagna the Fieschi represented the Emperor of the West in Liguria from the earliest years of the 11th century. In 1010 the investiture of the Fieschi took place at Genoa: the family were created Counts of Lavagna and Imperial Vicars General (i.e. Viceroys) of the whole of Tuscany and of the coast of Genoa. In the words of Henry the Holy, King of Italy since 1004 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1014 and the last of the Ottonian dynasty, 'Ordiniamo il predominato Fieschi vicario generale di essa città con ampio potere.' ('We appoint the pre-eminent Fieschi to be Vicars General of this city-state with broad powers').

The Imperial Houses of Hohenstaufen, Luxembourg and later Habsburg each in turn confirmed the Counts in the rank of Count Palatine.

Males of the Fieschi— all of them styled Conte di Lavagna— played major roles as Guelph partisans in the governance and military history of medieval Genoa, ever in conflict with the Republic and always retaining their connection with their holdings here.

In 1138, in an agreement between the Fieschi and the commune of Genoa, the Fieschi agreed to spend part of the year in the city. They earned great riches from trading and financial activities, and later developed in numerous different branches. Apart from Liguria, they possessed fiefs in Piedmont, Lombardy, Umbria and in the Kingdom of Naples.

Sinibaldo Fieschi, younger brother to Count Opizzo, was elected Pope Innocent IV in 1243. One nephew became Patriarch Opizzo of Antioch and another was elected Pope Adrian V as one of the three popes of 1276.

In the Fieschi conspiracy of 1547, Giovanni Luigi Fieschi and the nobles unsuccessfully attempted to recapture the dogate from Andrea Doria, and the power of the Fieschi was broken.

Isabella Fieschi

Isabella Fieschi (floruit 1356), was a lady of Milan by marriage to Luchino Visconti, lord of Milan.

She was the daughter of the Genuese noble Carlo Fieschi, count of Savignone, and the niece of Pope Adrian V. The marriage was arranged as an alliance between Genoa and Milan and the ceremony took place in Milan in 1331.

Isabella was known for her beauty and her love life, and reportedly had several lovers. In 1347, she made an official visit to Venice. During her visit, she participated in an orgy during which she had sexual intercourse with three men at the same time, among them being Andrea Dandolo, the Doge of Venice, and the nephew of her spouse, Galeazzo II Visconti. When her husband eventually found out about this, he swore to punish her cruelly. When he died shortly thereafter, he was rumoured to have been poisoned by Isabella in self-defence.After the death of Visconti, Isabella was forced to give up her son's rights to power in Milan and was placed under house arrest. In 1356, Isabella managed to escape from Milan. Reportedly, she returned to her family in Savignone.

John Acton (canon lawyer)

John Acton (died 1350) was an English canon lawyer, known for his commentary on the writer on the ecclesiastical Constitutions of two papal legates of the thirteenth century. Sent to Henry III of England, they were Cardinal Otto, i.e. Oddone di Monferrato, and Cardinal Ottobone, i.e. Ottobuono de' Fieschi (the future Pope Adrian V). His name is variously spelt Achedune, De Athona, Athone, and Eaton.

July 1276 papal conclave

The papal conclave of July 1276 (2–11 July) was the second of three conclaves in 1276 and elected Pope Adrian V to succeed Pope Innocent V.

List of papal legates to England

This is a list of papal legates sent by the Holy See to England. The legature was suppressed under Henry VIII, and restored under his daughter Mary I.

1070 - Hubert, signatory of the Accord of Winchester

1095 - Walter of Albano

1115-1120? - Anselm of St Saba

1125 - John of Crema

1126-1130 - William of Corbeil

1132-1136 - William of Corbeil

1138-1139 - Alberic of Ostia

1139-1143 - Henry of Blois, Bishop of Winchester

1149-1159 - Theobald of Bec, Archbishop of Canterbury

1190 - William Longchamp

1213 - Niccolò de Romanis, Bishop of Tusculum

1213-1216 - Pandulf Verraccio, later Bishop of Norwich (as legatus missus/nuncio)

1216-1218 - Guala Bicchieri

1218-1221 - Pandulf Verraccio, later Bishop of Norwich

1237/1240 - Otto da Tonengo

1265-1268 - Ottobuono Fieschi, later Pope Adrian V

1518-1530 - Thomas Wolsey

1536-1557 - Reginald Pole

1557-1558 - William Petow

Pope Adrian

Pope Adrian or Pope Hadrian may refer to:

Pope Adrian I (772–795)

Pope Adrian II (867–872)

Pope Adrian III (884–885)

Pope Adrian IV (1154–1159)

Pope Adrian V (1276)

Pope Adrian VI (1522–1523)Fiction:

Hadrian the Seventh, novel and play featuring a fictional English Pope Hadrian VIIMusic:

Pope Adrian 37th Psychristiatric, concept album by Rudimentary Peni

Pope Gregory X

Pope Gregory X (Latin: Gregorius X; c. 1210 – 10 January 1276), born Teobaldo Visconti, was Pope from 1 September 1271 to his death in 1276 and was a member of the Secular Franciscan Order. He was elected at the conclusion of a papal election that ran from 1268 to 1271, the longest papal election in the history of the Catholic Church.

He convened the Second Council of Lyon and also made new regulations in regards to papal conclaves. Though briefly annulled by Pope Adrian V and Pope John XXI, these regulations remained in force until the 20th century, when they were altered by Pope Paul VI.

Pope Clement XI beatified him in 1713 after the confirmation of his cultus.

Pope Nicholas III

Pope Nicholas III (Latin: Nicolaus III; c. 1225 – 22 August 1280), born Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, was Pope from 25 November 1277 to his death in 1280.

He was a Roman nobleman who had served under eight popes, been made Cardinal-Deacon of St. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano by Pope Innocent IV (1243–54), protector of the Franciscans by Pope Alexander IV (1254–61), inquisitor-general by Pope Urban IV (1261–64), and succeeded Pope John XXI (1276–77) after a six-month vacancy in the Holy See resolved in the papal election of 1277, largely through family influence.

Roger de Leybourne

Sir Roger de Leybourne (1215–1271) was an English soldier, landowner and royal servant during the Second Barons' War.

He was the younger son of another Sir Roger de Leybourne, by his 1st wife, Eleanor, the daughter and heir of Stephen of Thornham. In 1199 when the elder Roger was still a minor his wardship was sold to Thornham for 300 marks. The elder Roger then joined the rebels at the start of the First Barons' War in 1215, being captured in November at the siege of Rochester Castle, paying 250 marks for his release. After the death of the elder Roger some time before 1251 his son William de Leybourne inherited seven Knight's fees in Kent and Oxfordshire, as well as substantial debts, which were only cancelled in 1253 by Henry III.

Roger first came to royal notice in 1252 when he killed Arnulf de Munteny, one of the king's household knights, in a jousting tournament with a sharpened lance, avenging himself of an injury caused by Arnulf in a previous tournament. To atone for his crime he "took the cross" (went on a Pilgrimage), and was pardoned by King Henry III.In 1253 he was given the lands of Roger Connell in Kent, and from then until his death he spent large amounts of time and money acquiring land in that county. In 1257 he served in the army of Lord Edward as part of his campaign in Wales, and became part of an influential group of his supporters. He joined Edward in autumn 1259 when he allied with Simon de Montfort, and was made custodian of Bristol Castle in November. He was part of Edward's retinue in 1260 when he and the Earl of Gloucester attempted to take London, and was one of those pardoned when Edward patched up his relationship with Henry III. In thanks for this service Edward gave him the manor of Elham in Kent, but in 1262 the grant was deemed to be in violation of the conditions of Henry giving the manor to Edward in the first place, and the manor was returned, with the High Sheriff of Kent being ordered to take £1,820 from Leybourne's lands; Leybourne frustrated him by simply removing all the goods from his lands in Kent, Essex and Sussex.

In 1263 he along with other Marcher Lords arrested Peter of Aigueblanche, Bishop of Hereford, and seized Hereford, Gloucester, and Bristol, returning south to assault Windsor Castle. They were joined by Simon de Montfort, beginning the Second Barons' War. They marched into Kent, attacking the Cinque Ports. By August 1263 the Marcher Lords were in negotiations with Edward, having been unnerved by de Montford's plan to ally with the Welsh, and they swore an oath to the king on the 18th. From this point onwards Leybourne was a loyal servant of the king, and swiftly returned to royal favour. In September he was made Steward of the King's Household, Keeper of Kent, Surrey and Sussex, and in December was appointed Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports and made High Sheriff of Kent. In October 1263 he was one of those who sealed the agreement between Henry and Louis IX, and travelled with the king to France at the end of the year.

During the second half of the conflict with de Montfort, Leybourne fought at the Battle of Northampton and as a defender at the siege of Rochester Castle, where he was badly wounded. He fought at the Battle of Lewes with the other marcher lords, who were allowed to go free after their defeat on the condition that they return to stand trial at the next Parliament. When they failed to do so, de Montfort sent a military expedition which failed to defeat them. So they remained a thorn in the side of de Montfort throughout the rest of the war.

In December 1264 he was given a safe conduct to visit the king, and then in May 1265 he spoke with Edward, helping organise his escape from Kenilworth Castle on 28 May. Leybourne subsequently fought at the Battle of Evesham, reportedly saving the king's life, and for the two years of conflict after Evesham served as Edward's principal lieutenant. In August 1265 he was made keeper of Westmorland, in October he was given custody of Carlisle Castle, made High Sheriff of Cumberland and trusted with subduing London on behalf of the king. In November he fought the rebels in Kent, and in January 1266 he recaptured Sandwich, serving as Edward's deputy for the capture of the other Cinque Ports. Along with Edward he besieged and captured Winchelsea, fighting off rebels across the Thames in May. He was knighted in September, with the king ordering that he should be received everywhere 'with due honour as the king's knight'. He was also a member of the king's council, and appointed custodian of Nottingham Castle.

During this period he was rewarded by the king with large amounts of land, including the village of Leeds, Kent, where he later built a castle, and areas of Kent, Cumberland and Westmorland. He went on a second pilgrimage in 1269, and was rewarded with 1000 marks from Ottobuono, the papal legate, who later became Pope Adrian V. Rather than going to the Holy Land he travelled to Gascony, where he had been appointed Lieutenant on 29 November 1269, with his aim possibly being to raise men for the crusade. He stayed for long enough to have the city of Libourne named after him, but returned home in December 1270, dying before 7 November 1271.

San Francesco, Viterbo

The Basilica of St. Francis (Italian: Basilica di San Francesco alla Rocca) is a parish church and minor basilica in Viterbo, central Italy. The museological management of the church is run by the Polo Museale del Lazio.

Uberto Coconati

Uberto Coconati (Cocconato, de Coconatis) (died 13 July 1276), a Roman Catholic Cardinal, was born at Asti in the Piedmont region of Italy, a member of the family of the Counts of Cocconato, who were vassals of the Marchese di Monferrato. Thierry de Vaucouleurs calls him "Lombardus nomine, stirpe potens" ('Lombard in name, from a powerful family'). Uberto had a brother named Manuel (Emmanuele). Two of his relatives became Bishop of Asti. He was not connected with the d'Elci of Siena.He had two nephews in holy orders, Bonifacio di Cocconato and Alberto.Nothing is known about his education, beyond the fact that he held the title Master (Magister) when he first appears in the sources. He had an advanced university education, therefore, and, considering his career, it must have been in law. For what it is worth, there was a fellow Piedmontese in the College of Cardinals, the influential Henry of Segusio, "Hostiensis", the most celebrated canon lawyer of his day, who had been a Professor at Bologna and Paris.Nothing is known about Uberto Coconati's ecclesiastical status, except that he was an Apostolic Subdeacon. There is no evidence as to whether he proceeded to the Diaconate, the Priesthood, or the Episcopate.

Viterbo Papacy

With a long history as a vantage point for anti-popes forces threatening Rome, Viterbo became a papal city in 1243. During the later thirteenth century, the ancient Italian city of Viterbo was the site of five papal elections and the residence of seven popes and their Curias, and it remains the location of four papal tombs. These popes resided in the Palazzo dei Papi di Viterbo alongside the Viterbo Cathedral intermittently for two decades, from 1257 to 1281; as a result, the papal palace in Viterbo, with that in Orvieto, are the most extensive thirteenth-century papal palaces to have survived.Shifting political and economic alliances pushed and pulled various popes of that century from Rome, taking refuge in other, not invariably hospitable, Italian city-states like Perugia and Orvieto. The primary cleavage in these divisions was between the Angevin and Hohenstaufen claimants to the title of Holy Roman Emperor, whom the pope could crown.

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