Pope Adrian III

Pope Adrian III or Hadrian III (Latin: Adrianus or Hadrianus; d. July 885) was Pope from 17 May 884 to his death.[1] According to Jean Mabillon, his birth name was Agapitus.[2] He served for little more than a year, during which he worked to help the people of Italy in a very troubled time of famine and war.

Pope Saint

Adrian III
Pope Adrian III
Papacy began17 May 884
Papacy ended8 July 885
PredecessorMarinus I
SuccessorStephen V
Personal details
Birth nameAdrian or Agapitus
BornRome, Papal States
Died8 July 885
Modena, Carolingian Empire
Sainthood
Feast day8 July
Venerated inCatholic Church
Canonized2 June 1891
Rome, Kingdom of Italy
by Pope Leo XIII
Other popes named Adrian

Biography

He was born at Rome. He laboured hard to alleviate the misery of the people of Italy, prey to famine and to continuous war.[3] He is also known to have written a letter condemning the Christians of both Muslim-ruled and Christian-ruled parts of Spain for being too friendly with the Jews in these lands.[4]

He died in July 885 at San Cesario sul Panaro (Modena) not long after embarking on a trip to Worms, in modern Germany. The purpose the journey was to attend an Imperial Diet after being summoned by the Frankish King Charles III, the Fat, to settle the succession to the Holy Roman Empire[5] and discuss the rising power of the Saracens.

His death and subsequent burial in the church of San Silvestro Nonantola Abbey near Modena[6] is commemorated in the sculpted reliefs (c. 1122) that frame the doorway of this church. His relics are found near the high altar, and his tomb at once became a popular place of pilgrimage. His cult was confirmed in 1891, and his feast day is 8 July.[6]

See also

References

  1. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope St. Adrian III" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  2. ^ According to Reginald L. Poole (1917), "The Names and Numbers of Medieval Popes", The English Historical Review, 32 (128), 465–78, at 467, Mabillon has probably confused Adrian III, who succeeded Marinus I, with Agapetus II, who succeeded Marinus II a century later.
  3. ^ Monks of Ramsgate. “Hadrian III”. Book of Saints, 1921. CatholicSaints.Info. 1 September 2013
  4. ^ Bernard S. Bachrach (1977). Early Medieval Jewish Policy in Western Europe (reprint ed.). University of Minnesota Press. p. 190. ISBN 9780816608140.
  5. ^ Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes: The Pontiffs from St. Peter to John Paul II, (HarperCollins, 2000), 143.
  6. ^ a b François Bougard (2002), "Hadrian III", in Philippe Levillain, ed., The Papacy: An Encyclopedia, vol. 2 (New York and London: Routledge), 682.

Further reading

External links

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Marinus I
Pope
884–885
Succeeded by
Stephen V
880s

The 880s decade ran from January 1, 880, to December 31, 889.

== Events ==

=== 880 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Battle of Cephalonia: A Byzantine fleet, under Admiral Nasar, is sent by Emperor Basil I to the Ionian Islands. Nasar defeats the Aghlabids in a night battle near Cephalonia (modern Greece).

May 1 – The Nea Ekklesia is inaugurated in Constantinople, by Patriarch Photius I, setting the model for all later cross-in-square Orthodox churches.

====== Europe ======

February 2 – Battle of Lüneburg Heath: King Louis III is defeated by the Norse Great Heathen Army at Lüneburg Heath. The Saxons are routed in a snowstorm; many drown in the river or are captured during the retreat.

Battle of Thimeon: King Louis III ("the Younger") defeats Vikings (probably Norsemen) from England, near Charleroi, north of the River Sambre. During the battle 5,000 Vikings are killed.

Battle of Fjaler: King Harald Fairhair moves east along the Norwegian coast with his fleet. He defeats his rival Atle Mjove at Fjaler in Sunnfjord, and lands with his longships at Tønsberg.

December – Treaty of Ribemont: Louis the Younger and the kings of the West Frankish Kingdom sign a treaty. The young Frankish monarch, Louis III, is reduced to merely Neustria.

Lambert I, duke of Spoleto, dies while besieging the city of Capua. He is succeeded by his son Guy II.

The oldest known mention is made of the city of Dortmund (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

Fujiwara no Mototsune, Japanese statesman, creates the position of regent (kampaku) for himself. The Fujiwara clan will be able to dominate the government for more than 3 centuries.

December 22 – Luoyang, eastern Chinese capital of the Dynasty, is captured by rebel leader Huang Chao, during the reign of emperor Xi Zong.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Pope John VIII issues the bull Industriae Tuae, creating an independent ecclesiastical province in Great Moravia, with archbishop Methodius as its head. The Old Church Slavonic is recognized as the fourth liturgical language, besides Latin, Greek and Hebrew.

The first known Christian bishopric in Slovakia is established in the city of Nitra, with Wiching as bishop.

=== 881 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

February 12 – King Charles the Fat, the third son of the late Louis the German, is crowned as Holy Roman Emperor by Pope John VIII at Rome.

August 3 – Battle of Saucourt-en-Vimeu: The West Frankish kings Louis III, and his brother Carloman II, rout Viking raiders (near Abbeville).

====== Britain ======

Battle of the Conwy: King Anarawd of Gwynedd (Wales) initiates a revenge attack on the Mercian armies, and defeats them on the River Conwy.

Anarawd, and his brothers Cadell and Merfyn, begin extensive military campaigns to quell resistance in Powys and Seisyllwg (approximate date).

====== Arabian Empire ======

Zanj Rebellion: Abbasid general Al-Muwaffaq lays siege to the Zanj capital of Mukhtara, using his base on the opposite side of the River Tigris.

====== Asia ======

Bakong, the first temple mountain of sandstone, is constructed by rulers of the Khmer Empire (modern Cambodia) at Angkor.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

St. Cecilia's Church (Cäcilienkirche) is founded as a college for women. It is now kept at the Schnütgen Museum in Cologne.

=== 882 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

January 20 – King Louis the Younger dies in Frankfurt. He leaves his territory to his younger brother, Emperor Charles the Fat, who becomes sole ruler of the East Frankish Kingdom.

April 11 – Battle of Remich: A Frankish army under Bishop Wala of Metz is defeated by Vikings, who are on a raid, near Remich (modern Luxembourg). During the fighting Wala is killed.

Siege of Asselt: Charles the Fat besieges a Viking camp, who have plundered along the Meuse, the Rhine and the Moselle. He defeats their leader Godfrid, and grants him West Frisia.

August 5 – King Carloman II becomes sole ruler of the West Frankish Kingdom, after the accidental death of his brother, Louis III. His power is limited by rebellious nobles in Burgundy.

Oleg of Novgorod takes Kiev, and makes it his capital, starting in Ukraine and Eastern Europe, forming the Kievan Rus', replacing the 19-year-long Christianization of the Rus' Khaganate.

====== Britain ======

King Alfred the Great increases the size of his new navy, and sails out to attack four Viking ships. Two of the ships are captured (before they surrender), and the other crews are killed.

====== Arabian Empire ======

December – Ishaq ibn Kundaj, a Turkic military leader, arrests the Abbasid caliph Al-Mu'tamid, when the latter (and his followers) try to flee into Tulunid territory.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

December 16 – Pope John VIII is assassinated at Rome after a 10-year reign, probably the victim of a political conspiracy. He is succeeded by Marinus I, as the 108th pope of the Catholic Church.

=== 883 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Spring – Viking raiders ravaged Flanders, and sacked the abbey at Saint-Quentin. King Carloman II blocked their passage at Laviers, which had been on the banks of the Somme. Meanwhile, Vikings entered the Rhine, but were turned back by Henry of Franconia (possibly amargrave of Saxony). They over-winter at Duisburg.

King Charles the Fat traveled to Nonantola (Northern Italy), where he met Pope Marinus I. He received complaints of Guy II of Spoleto, who was the official "protector" of Rome and invaded the Papal States. King Charles ordered Guy to appear before a tribunal.

Guy II of Spoleto began a revolt, and assembled an army supported with Arab auxiliaries. King Charles the Fat sent Berengar of Friuli with an expeditionary force to deprive him of Spoleto. An epidemic ravaged Berengar's army and forced them to retire.

Svatopluk I, ruler (knyaz) of Great Moravia, conquers Lower Pannonia (modern Hungary), during the succession strife in the East Frankish Kingdom (approximate date).

The first historic document (written by Regino of Prüm) mentions Duisburg.

====== Arabian Empire ======

The Zanj Rebellion: Abbasid general Al-Muwaffaq brings in Egyptian forces, to help him in his two-year siege of the Zanj capital Mukhtara. He captures the city, and crushes the revolt that has devastated Chaldea (modern Iraq) since 869.

September 11 – Yazaman al-Khadim, Abbasid governor of Tarsus, routs a Byzantine army under general Kesta Styppiotes, in a night attack. According to Arab chroniclers, 70,000 out of 100,000 Byzantine troops are killed.

=== 884 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

March 1 – Diego Rodríguez Porcelos, count of Castile, founds and repopulates (repoblación) Burgos and Ubierna (Northern Spain), under the mandate of King Alfonso III of Asturias.

Summer – King Carloman II reverts to the former fall-back of 'pay and pray', buying (with Danegeld) a truce at Amiens, while he raises 12,000 lbs of silver for the Vikings to depart.

December 12 – Carloman II dies after a hunting accident. He is succeeded by his cousin, Emperor Charles the Fat, who for the last time reunites the Frankish Empire.

====== Britain ======

King Æthelred II of Mercia marries Princess Æthelflæd, daughter of King Alfred the Great. He accepts Wessex overlordship, and demotes himself to become "Lord of the Mercians".

====== Arabian Empire ======

January 6 – Hasan ibn Zayd, founder of the Zaydid Dynasty, dies after a 20-year reign at Amul. He is succeeded by his brother Muhammad, as emir of Tabaristan.

May 10 – Ahmad ibn Tulun, founder of the Tulunid Dynasty, dies after a 15-year reign. He is succeeded by his son Khumarawayh, as ruler of Egypt and Syria.

Fall – The Arabs sack in two raids (September and November) the abbey of Monte Cassino. The bulk of the monastic community flee to Teano (Campania).

====== Asia ======

March 4 – Emperor Yōzei is forced to abdicate the throne by Fujiwara no Mototsune, chancellor (kampaku) of the Japanese royal court. He is succeeded by his great-uncle Kōkō.

The Huang Chao rebellion is suppressed by forces of Emperor Xi Zong, with the help of the Shatuo Turks. Chinese warlords rule the country, instead of the imperial government.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

May 15 – Pope Marinus II dies at Rome, after a reign of less than 1½ years. He is succeeded by Adrian III (also referred to as Hadrian III), as the 109th pope of the Catholic Church.

=== 885 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Summer – Emperor Charles the Fat summons a meeting of officials at Lobith (modern Netherlands), and accuses Hugh, an illegitimate son of former king Lothair II, and his vassal Godfrid (the Sea King), of plotting against him. Hugh is blinded, and exiled to the Abbey of Saint Gall (modern Switzerland). Godfrid is killed by a group of Frisian and Saxon nobles, at the connivance of Henry of Franconia. The local count, Gerolf, takes over the West Frisian coastline from the Danish, after the murder.

Summer – Charles the Fat designates his illegitimate son Bernard as his heir, ignoring the claims of his nephew, Arnulf of Carinthia (illegitimate son of Carloman of Bavaria), and Charles the Simple (5-year-old son of King Louis the Stammerer). The Frankish bishops protest, so Charles summons Pope Adrian III to an assembly in Worms, to resolve the issue. Adrian leaves Rome in the hands of Bishop John of Pavia. He heads to Germany, but dies on the way — just after crossing the River Po.

November 25 – Siege of Paris: Viking forces, under the Norse chieftains Sigfred and Sinric, sail up the River Seine for eastern France, with a fleet of 300 longships (10,000 men). They appear before Paris, and offer to spare the city if they are allowed free passage, by paying them tribute (Danegeld). Their request is denied, and the Vikings begin the siege by attacking the northeast tower with ballistae, mangonels and catapults. All Viking attacks are repulsed by Odo, Count of Paris, who defends the city with a small garrison (about 200 men). Sigfred decides to withdraw, and builds a camp on the right side of the river bank. Meanwhile he mines the city, and scours the countryside for provisions.

====== Britain ======

King Alfred the Great summons Asser, a relative of Bishop Nobis of St. David's, to the English court. He agrees to spend six months of the year in the king's service. Asser helps to negotiate the recognition of Alfred, as overlord of the Welsh kings.

Danish Vikings embark in Kent, and besiege Rochester. By improving the defences of the major towns, the city holds out long enough for Alfred the Great to organize an army. He forces the Vikings to flee back across the Channel, to the Continent.

Kings Hyfaidd of Dyfed, Elisedd of Brycheiniog and Hywel of Glywysing, being harassed by the armies of King Anarawd, seek the protection of Alfred the Great, and submit to his overlordship. Anarawd seeks an alliance with King Guthred of York.

====== Arabian Empire ======

Battle of Tawahin: Muslim forces (4,000 men) of the Abbasid Caliphate, under Al-Mu'tadid, are defeated near Ramlah (modern Israel) by Khumarawayh, ruler of the Tulunid Dynasty. This ends the Abbasid attempt to recover Syria from the Tulunids. A large part of the Abbasid army is captured, and transported to Egypt. Khumarawayh aims for reconciliation with the caliphal government, and allows the soldiers who want to return to modern-day Iraq to depart without ransom, while offering the rest the opportunity to settle in Egypt.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

July – Pope Adrian III dies after a 1½ reign near Modena (Lombardy), while en route to an Imperial Diet, summoned by Charles the Fat at Worms. He is succeeded by Stephen V, as the 110th pope of the Catholic Church.

=== 886 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

August 29 – Emperor Basil I (the Macedonian) dies from a fever, contracted after a hunting accident. He is succeeded by the 19-year-old Leo VI, a son of former emperor Michael III, as sole ruler (basileus) of the Byzantine Empire. After his coronation Leo reburies, with great ceremony, the remains of his father in the imperial mausoleum, within the Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople.

====== Europe ======

October – Siege of Paris: Count Odo slips through Viking-controlled territory, to ask King Charles the Fat for support. He returns with a relief force, and reaches safety within the walls. Charles arrives later with a large army, and establishes a camp at Montmartre. After negotiations he promises the Vikings tribute (Danegeld), and allows them to sail up the River Seine, to over-winter in Burgundy.

====== Britain ======

King Alfred the Great of Wessex recaptures London from the Danish Vikings, and renames it Lundenburh. Slightly upstream from London Bridge, he builds a small harbor called Queenhithe. Alfred hands the town over to his son-in-law Æthelred, lord of Mercia. A street system is planned out in the town, with boundaries of 1,100 yards from east to west, and around 330 yards from north to south.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

December – Emperor Leo VI dismisses Patriarch Photius I, who has been his tutor, and replaces him with his own brother Stephen I.

The Glagolitic alphabet, devised by Cyril and Methodius, missionaries from Constantinople, is adopted in the Bulgarian Empire.

Boris I, ruler (khan) of the Bulgarian Empire, establishes the Preslav and Ohrid Literary Schools.

=== 887 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

November 17 – East Frankish magnates revolt against the inept emperor Charles III (the Fat) in an assembly at Frankfurt, and depose him. His nephew Arnulf of Carinthia, the illegitimate son of former king Carloman of Bavaria, is elected ruler of the East Frankish Kingdom. Charles yields his throne without a struggle, and retires to Neidingen.

December 26 – In an assembly at Pavia (Northern Italy), the lords of Lombardia elect Berengar I, a grandson of former emperor Louis the Pious (through his daughter Gisela), as king of Italy. He is crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy. After the deposition of Charles the Fat, the nobility chooses Ranulf II as duke (or 'king') of Aquitaine.

====== Japan ======

August 26 – Emperor Kōkō abdicates the throne and soon dies, after a 3-year reign. He is succeeded by his 20-year-old son Uda, as the 59th emperor of Japan.

====== Arabian Empire ======

The city of Toledo rises against the Umayyad Dynasty, in Al-Andalus (modern Spain).

=== 888 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

January 13 – Emperor Charles III (the Fat) dies at Neidingen, after having suffered repeat bouts of an illness that may have been epilepsy. The Frankish Empire is split again, and falls apart into separate kingdoms. Count Odo, the hero of the Siege of Paris, is elected king of the West Frankish Kingdom, and crowned at Compiègne by Walter, archbishop of Sens. Other Frankish noblemen support the 8-year-old Charles the Simple (the posthumous son of the late king Louis the Stammerer).

October – Alan I (the Great), count of Vannes, and his rival Judicael, unite their forces to defeat the Vikings at Questembert (or 889). Judicael is killed, in a notable victory for the Bretons, with 15,000 Vikings crushed, some few 400 escaping to their ships. In command of a 'united' Breton force, Alan is able to drive the Vikings back to the Loire River. Alan becomes sole ruler of Brittany, and over the Frankish counties of Rennes, Nantes, Coutances and Avranches.

October – Battle of Milazzo: the Aghlabids score a crushing victory over a Byzantine fleet off Sicily.

Winter – King Arnulf of Carinthia leads an East Frankish expedition into Italy, after he is recognized as overlord of France and Burgundy. Arnulf descends with an army over the Brenner Pass, and meets King Berengar I at a peace conference at Trento. Berengar grants him two counties in the Val d'Adige (Northern Italy), and does homage to Arnulf as overlord. In turn, Arnulf confirms Berengar as king of Lombardia, and returns to Germany.

====== = Britain = ======

Lord Æthelred II of the Mercians is struck down with a debilitating illness. His wife, Princess Æthelflæd (a daughter of Alfred the Great) of Wessex, joins him as joint ruler of Mercia (approximate date).

====== = Al-Andalus = ======

Al-Mundhir, Moorish emir of Córdoba, dies after a two-year reign (possibly murdered by his brother Abdullah ibn Muhammad al-Umawi, who succeeds him as ruler of the Emirate of Córdoba).

====== China ======

April 20 – Emperor Xi Zong (Li Xuan) dies of illness at Chang'an, after a 14-year reign. He is succeeded by his 21-year-old brother Zhao Zong, as ruler of the Tang Dynasty.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Shaftesbury Abbey is founded by King Alfred the Great in Dorset. He installs his daughter Æthelgifu as first abbess (approximate date).

=== 889 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Guy III, duke of Spoleto, defeats the Lombard king Berengar I at the Trebbia River, and is acclaimed as king of Italy at an assembly in Pavia. After confirming some privileges to the Catholic Church, he is crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy, by Pope Stephen V. Berengar is forced to retreat to Verona; Guy does not pursue him into Friuli, because of the (possible) wrath of King Arnulf of Carinthia.

Boris I, ruler (khan) of the Bulgarian Empire, abdicates the throne after a 37-year reign, and retires to a monastery. He is succeeded by his eldest son Vladimir, as monarch of Bulgaria. Vladimir falls under the influence of the old boyars; many remain anti-Christian and anti-Byzantine. He attempts to restore the former Frankish alliance, and to reestablish paganism.

Arnulf of Carinthia has his illegitimate son Zwentibold recognized, as heir of the East Frankish Kingdom. He supports the claim of Louis the Blind as king of Provence, after receiving a personal appeal from Louis's mother, Ermengard, who comes to see Arnulf at Forchheim (Northern Bavaria). Arnulf grants the town of Osnabrück trade and coinage privileges.

A ship carrying about twenty Arab freebooters, from Pechina in Al-Andalus (modern Spain), sets anchor in the Gulf of Saint-Tropez in Provence. They establish a fortified base at Fraxinet (modern-day La Garde-Freinet). After raiding the surrounding area, the Muslim colony is bolstered by contingents of Saracen adventurers.

The Magyars, an Ugric tribe from the steppe of Central Asia, move west under the leadership of Árpád. They are pushed by their rivals, the Pechenegs, into the Balkan Peninsula, and become entangled in a war between Bulgaria and the Byzantine Empire. The Magyars head north and settle in Great Moravia.

In Italy, Forlì becomes a republic for the first time. The city is allied with the Ghibelline faction, in the medieval struggles between the Guelphs and Ghibellines.

In Portugal, the count of Coimbra, Hermenegildo Gutiérrez, reconquers Coimbra, which was temporarily lost after the first conquest of 878.

====== Britain ======

Kings Eochaid and Giric of Alba and Strathclyde (modern Scotland) are deposed by Viking invaders. They are succeeded by Donald II, the son of the late Constantine I, who becomes king of Scotland.

Lord Æthelred II and Lady Æthelflæd (a daughter of king Alfred the Great) of the Mercians begin their policy of fortifying Mercian cities as defensive burghs, starting with Worcester (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

The Unified Silla kingdom (modern Korea) under King Jinseong seeks to collect taxes by force from peasants, setting off massive peasant rebellions (approximate date).

Indravarman I, ruler of the Khmer Empire (modern Cambodia), dies and is succeeded by his son Yasovarman I, called the Leper King (or 890).

April – The Japanese era Ninna ends and Kanpyō begins, lasting until 898.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Bongwon Temple, located in Seoul (modern South Korea), is founded by the Korean Buddhist master Doseon.

884

Year 884 (DCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

885

Year 885 (DCCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Adrian

Adrian is a form of the Latin given name Adrianus or Hadrianus. Its ultimate origin is most likely via the former river Adria from the Venetic and Illyrian word adur, meaning 'sea' or 'water'. The Adria was until the 8th century BC the main channel of the Po River into the Adriatic Sea but ceased to exist before the 1st century BC. Hecataeus of Miletus (c.550 - c.476 BC) asserted that both the Etruscan harbor city of Adria and the Adriatic Sea had been named after it. Emperor Hadrian's family was named after the city or region of Adria/Hadria, now Atri, in Picenum, which most likely started as an Etruscan or Greek colony of the older harbor city of the same name.Several saints and six popes have borne this name, including the only English pope, Adrian IV, and the only Dutch pope, Adrian VI. As an English name, it has been in use since the Middle Ages, although it did not become common until modern times.

Bernard (son of Charles the Fat)

Bernard or Bernhard (c. 870 – 891/2) was the only child of Emperor Charles the Fat. He was born of an unknown concubine and was thus considered illegitimate. Charles tried to make him his heir, but failed in two attempts.

Charles tried to have Bernard recognised as his heir in 885, but met the opposition of several bishops. He had the support of Pope Adrian III, whom he invited to an assembly in Worms in October 885, but who died on the way, just after crossing the river Po. Hadrian was going to depose the obstructing bishops, as Charles doubted he could do this himself, and legitimise Bernard. Based on the unfavouring attitude of the chronicler of the Mainz continuation of the Annales Fuldenses, the chief of Charles' opponents in the matter was probably Liutbert, Archbishop of Mainz. Because Charles had called together the "bishops and counts of Gaul" as well as the pope to meet him at Worms, it seems likely that he planned to make Bernard King of Lotharingia. Notker the Stammerer, who considered Bernard as a possible heir, wrote in his Deeds of Charlemagne: "I will not tell you [Charles the Fat] of this [the Viking sack of the Abbey of Prüm] until I see your little son Bernard with a sword girt to his thigh." Perhaps Notker was awaiting Bernard's kingship, when Prüm would be avenged.

After the failure of his first attempt, Charles set about to try again, apparently having given up on having any legitimate children with his wife, Richardis. He had the term proles (offspring) inserted into his charters as it had not been in previous years, probably because he desired to legitimise Bernard. In early 886, Charles met the new Pope, Stephen V, and probably negotiated for the recognition of his son as his heir. When Stephen cancelled a planned meeting at Waiblingen on 30 April 887, Charles probably abandoned his plans for Bernard and instead adopted Louis of Provence as his son at Kirchen in May. It is possible, however, that the agreement with Louis was only designed to engender support for Bernard's subkingship in Lotharingia.

After his father's death, Bernard became the focus of revolt for some Alemannian magnates. In 890, he rebelled against Arnulf of Carinthia and prevented the king from going into Italy as requested by Pope Stephen V. Bernard had the support of Count Ulrich of the Linzgau and Argengau and Bernard, Abbot of Saint Gall. Probably, he fled Alemannia for Italy and the protection of Arnulf's rival, King Guy, as recorded by the late medieval historian Gobelinus, who may have had a lost Carolingian work as his source. By the winter of 891/2, Bernard had returned to Alemannia. The revolt was finally put down by Solomon III, Bishop of Constance, and Hatto, Abbot of Reichenau. Arnulf entered Alemannia in the summer to redistribute lands. Bernard was killed by Rudolf, Duke of Rhaetia, and only then did the unrest in Alemannia cease.These events are not mentioned in the main East Frankish source, the Annals of Fulda, rather they come from brief notices in the Annales Alamannici and Annales Laubacenses, which record that in 890, "Bernard, Charles's son, barely escaped the net", and in 891 (which possibly should be 892), he "was killed by Rudolf", without specifying who Rudolf was.

Catacomb of Priscilla

The Catacomb of Priscilla is an archaeological site on the Via Salaria in Rome, Italy, situated in what was a quarry in Roman times. This quarry was used for Christian burials from the late 2nd century through the 4th century. This catacomb, according to tradition, is named after the wife of the Consul Manius Acilius Glabrio; he is said to have become a Christian and was killed on the orders of Domitian. Some of the walls and ceilings display fine decorations illustrating Biblical scenes.

The modern entrance to the catacomb is on the Via Salaria through the cloister of the monastery of the Benedictines of Priscilla. The Catacombs of Priscilla are divided into three principal areas: an arenarium, a cryptoporticus from a large Roman villa, and the underground burial area of the ancient Roman family, the Acilius Glabrio.

Liber Pontificalis

The Liber Pontificalis (Latin for 'pontifical book' or Book of the Popes) is a book of biographies of popes from Saint Peter until the 15th century. The original publication of the Liber Pontificalis stopped with Pope Adrian II (867–872) or Pope Stephen V (885–891), but it was later supplemented in a different style until Pope Eugene IV (1431–1447) and then Pope Pius II (1458–1464). Although quoted virtually uncritically from the 8th to 18th centuries, the Liber Pontificalis has undergone intense modern scholarly scrutiny. The work of the French priest Louis Duchesne (who compiled the major scholarly edition), and of others has highlighted some of the underlying redactional motivations of different sections, though such interests are so disparate and varied as to render improbable one popularizer's claim that it is an "unofficial instrument of pontifical propaganda."The title Liber Pontificalis goes back to the 12th century, although it only became current in the 15th century, and the canonical title of the work since the edition of Duchesne in the 19th century. In the earliest extant manuscripts it is referred to as Liber episcopalis in quo continentur acta beatorum pontificum Urbis Romae ('episcopal book in which are contained the acts of the blessed pontiffs of the city of Rome') and later the Gesta or Chronica pontificum.

List of canonised popes

This article lists the Popes who have been canonised or recognised as Saints in the Roman Catholic Church they had led. A total of 83 (out of 266) Popes have been recognised universally as canonised saints, including all of the first 35 Popes (31 of whom were martyrs) and 52 of the first 54. If Pope Liberius is numbered amongst the Saints as in Eastern Christianity, all of the first 49 Popes become recognised as Saints, of whom 31 are Martyr-Saints, and 53 of the first 54 Pontiffs would be acknowledged as Saints. In addition, 13 other Popes are in the process of becoming canonised Saints: as of December 2018, two are recognised as being Servants of God, two are recognised as being Venerable, and nine have been declared Blessed or Beati, making a total of 95 (97 if Pope Liberius and Pope Adeodatus II are recognised to be Saints) of the 266 Roman Pontiffs being recognised and venerated for their heroic virtues and inestimable contributions to the Church.

The most recently reigning Pope to have been canonised was Pope John Paul II, whose cause for canonisation was opened in May 2005. John Paul II was beatified on May 1, 2011, by Pope Benedict XVI and later canonised, along with Pope John XXIII, by Pope Francis on April 27, 2014. Pope Francis also canonised Pope Paul VI on October 14, 2018.

List of canonizations

On 22 January 1588, with the Apostolic Constitution Immensa Aeterni Dei, Pope Sixtus V created the Sacred Congregation of Rites to regulate divine worship and to deal with the causes of saints.

List of popes by country

This page is a list of popes by country of origin. They are listed in chronological order within each section.

As the office of pope has existed for almost two millennia, many of the countries of origin of popes no longer exist, and so they are grouped under their modern equivalents. Popes from Italy are in a separate section, given the very large number of popes from that peninsula.

List of saints

This is an incomplete list of Christian saints in alphabetical order by Christian name, but, where known and given, a surname, location, or personal attribute (included as part of the name) may affect the ordering.

One list says there are 810 canonized Roman Catholic saints (who have been through the formal institutional process of canonization), although some give numbers in the thousands. (Pope John Paul II alone canonized 110 individuals, plus many group canonizations such as 110 martyr saints of China, 103 Korean martyrs, 117 Vietnamese martyrs, Mexican Martyrs, Spanish martyrs and French revolutionary martyrs.) Among the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Communions, the numbers may be even higher, since there is no fixed process of "canonization" and each individual jurisdiction within the two Orthodox communions independently maintains parallel lists of saints that have only partial overlap. Note that 78 popes are considered saints.The Anglican Communion recognizes pre-Reformation saints, as does the United Methodist Church. Persons who have led lives of celebrated sanctity or missionary zeal are included in the Calendar of the Prayer Book "without thereby enrolling or commending such persons as saints of the Church". Similarly, any individuals commemorated in the Lutheran calendar of saints will be listed as well.

Wikipedia contains calendars of saints for particular denominations, listed by the day of the year on which they are traditionally venerated, as well as a chronological list of saints and blesseds, listed by their date of death.

Pope Adrian

Pope Adrian or Pope Hadrian may refer to:

Pope Adrian I (772–795)

Pope Adrian II (867–872)

Pope Adrian III (884–885)

Pope Adrian IV (1154–1159)

Pope Adrian V (1276)

Pope Adrian VI (1522–1523)Fiction:

Hadrian the Seventh, novel and play featuring a fictional English Pope Hadrian VIIMusic:

Pope Adrian 37th Psychristiatric, concept album by Rudimentary Peni

Pope Stephen V

Pope Stephen V (Latin: Stephanus V; died 14 September 891) was Pope from September 885 to his death in 891. He succeeded Pope Adrian III, and was in turn succeeded by Pope Formosus. In his dealings with Constantinople in the matter of Photius, as also in his relations with the young Slavic Orthodox church, he pursued the policy of Pope Nicholas I.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Reggio Emilia-Guastalla

You may be looking for the archdiocese of Reggio Calabria-Bova

The Diocese of Reggio Emilia-Guastalla is a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical territory in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. It has existed in its current form since 1986. In that year the historical Diocese of Reggio Emilia was united with the Diocese of Guastalla. The diocese is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Modena-Nonantola.Originally the diocese was part of the ecclesiastical province of Milan, then it was suffragan to the Archbishop of Ravenna. Because of the schism of the Antipope Clement III, Pope Paschal II released the dioceses of Emilia, including Reggio, from obedience to the church of Ravenna, and made them directly subject to the Holy See (Rome), but twelve years later Pope Gelasius II restored the previous status. In 1582 the diocese of Bologna was raised to the status of a metropolitan archbishopric. Reggio was made a suffragan of the archdiocese of Bologna, by Pope Gregory XIII in the bull Universi orbis of 10 December 1582. Modena was raised to the status of an archdiocese and its bishop to the status of a Metropolitan Archbishop by Pope Pius IX in his bull of 22 August 1855, entitled Vel ab antiquis. Reggio became one of its suffragans.

Saint-Adrien-d'Irlande, Quebec

Saint-Adrien-d'Irlande is a municipality in the Municipalité régionale de comté des Appalaches in Quebec, Canada. It is part of the Chaudière-Appalaches region and the population is 415 as of 2009.

Until 1982, Saint-Adrien-d'Irlande was known as Ireland-Partie-Nord, to differentiate from the south part, today's Irlande. Then it took the name of the parish, which was named after Pope Adrian III.

Saint Adrian

Adrian of Nicomedia (died 306), Herculian Guard of the Roman Emperor Galerius Maximian

Adrian of Canterbury (died 710), scholar and the Abbot of St Augustine's Abbey in Canterbury

Adrian of Corinth (died 251), early Christian saint and martyr

Pope Adrian III (died 885)

Adrian of May (died 875), Scottish saint and martyr from the Isle of May, martyred by Vikings

Adrian of Poshekhon (died 1550), Russian Orthodox saint, hegumen of Dormition monastery in Yaroslavl region

Adrian of Monza, Russian Orthodox saint, see May 5 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)

Adrian of Ondrusov (died 1547), Russian Orthodox saint and wonder-worker

San Adrian (tunnel) and hermitage, a landmark in the Way of St. James

Sant'Adriano III Papa, Spilamberto

Sant'Adriano III Papa is a Roman Catholic parish church located in Spilamberto, province of Modena, region of Emilia-Romagna, Italy.

Sept-Fons Abbey

Sept-Fons Abbey, Notre-Dame de Sept-Fons or Notre-Dame de Saint-Lieu Sept-Fons is a Trappist monastery at Diou in Bourbonnais in the diocese of Moulins in France. Around ninety monks currently live in the monastery, many of whom are novices sent from monasteries around the world.

1st–4th centuries
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
5th–8th centuries
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
9th–12th centuries
Papal selection before 1059
Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
13th–16th centuries
Viterbo (1257–1281)
Orvieto (1262–1297)
Perugia (1228–1304)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
Western Schism (1378–1417)
Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)
Reformation Papacy (1534–1585)
Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)
17th–20th centuries
Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848)
Roman Question (1870–1929)
Vatican City (1929–present)
21st century
History of the papacy
Virgin Mary
Apostles
Archangels
Confessors
Disciples
Doctors
Evangelists
Church
Fathers
Martyrs
Patriarchs
Popes
Prophets
Virgins
See also

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