Pope Adeodatus II

Pope Adeodatus II (died 17 June 676), also known as Deodatus II,[1] was Pope from 11 April 672 to his death in on 17 June 676.[2] Little is known about him. Most surviving records indicate that Adeodatus was known for his generosity, especially when it came to the poor and to pilgrims. He was preceded by Vitalian and succeeded by Donus, and devoted much of his papacy to improving churches.

Pope Saint

Adeodatus II
Pope Adeodatus II
Papacy began11 April 672
Papacy ended17 June 676
PredecessorVitalian
SuccessorDonus
Personal details
BornRome, Byzantine Empire
Died17 June 676
Rome, Byzantine Empire
Other popes named Adeodatus
Pope Saint Adeodatus II
Pope
BornRome, Byzantine Empire
Died17 June 676
Rome, Byzantine Empire
Venerated inCatholic Church (Other Catholics Only)
Feast????????
AttributesPapal Tiara

Biography

Born in Rome, he became an Order of Saint Benedict monk of the Roman cloister of St Erasmus on the Caelian Hill. He was active in improving monastic discipline and in the repression of Monothelitism and gave Venice the right to choose the doge itself. During his pontificate the basilica of St. Pietro at the eight milestone of Via Portuense. St Erasmus was also reconstructed.[3] Elected as Pope on 11 April 672, Adeodatus II did not get involved in political events and disengaged himself from the events at the time surrounding monothelitism.[4]

Pope Adeodatus II devoted his reign to the restoration of churches in disrepair. He protected the Abbey of St. Peter and St. Paul (known as St. Augustine's Abbey), exempted Marmoutier Abbey, Tours (Abbey of St. Martin of Tours) from the authority of the Holy See, and led improvements to St. Erasmus' monastery. He is sometimes referred to with the title Saint and 26 June is attributed as his feast day, but this is disputed.[4] When his papacy began, Adeodatus II was already an elderly man, and even though he reigned for four years, it is considered that his papacy did not contribute by a large amount to society. Pope Adeodatus II died on 17 June 676.[4]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Some authors omit the number as they refer to Pope Adeodatus I as Pope Deusdedit.
  2. ^ Shahan, Thomas (1907). "Pope St. Adeodatus" in The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  3. ^ Kelly, J N D (2010). A Dictionary of Popes. Oxford University Press. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-19-929581-4.
  4. ^ a b c "Adeodatus II". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 3 August 2015.

References

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Vitalian
Pope
672–676
Succeeded by
Donus
670s

The 670s decade ran from January 1, 670, to December 31, 679.

== Events ==

=== 670 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Arab-Byzantine War: The Arab fleet dominates the Aegean Sea and conquers the strategic islands, Rhodes, Cos and Chios. The southern shore of the Sea of Marmara is taken, providing an excellent base at Cyzicus to begin the blockade of Constantinople by sea.

====== Britain ======

February 15 – King Oswiu of Northumbria dies during a pilgrimage to Rome in the company of bishop Wilfrid. He is succeeded by his son Ecgfrith, while his youngest son Ælfwine becomes king of Deira. Oswiu is buried at Whitby Abbey, alongside Edwin of Northumbria.

====== Arabian Empire ======

Muslim Conquest: Arab forces (10,000 men) under general Uqba ibn Nafi invade the Byzantine Exarchate of Africa. He establishes a military base at Kairouan (Tunisia) for further invasions, and founds the Great Mosque ,also known as the "Mosque of Uqba".

====== Asia ======

Battle of Dafei River: Chinese forces (80,000 men), under general Xue Rengui of the Tang dynasty, are annihilated by the Tibetans, who take over control of the Tarim Basin.

A Goguryeo restoration movement, led by Geom Mojam in northern Korea, places Anseung on the throne. Geom is later murdered, and Anseung flees to neighboring Silla.

Tarumanagara (modern Indonesia) is divided into two kingdoms (Sunda Kingdom and Galuh Kingdom), with the Citarum River as the boundary (approximate date).

A family register, Kogo-nenjaku, is prepared in Japan (approximate date).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Hōryū-ji, a Japanese Buddhist temple, burns to the ground after being hit by lightning; its reconstruction is immediately begun.

The diocese of Dorchester-on-Thames in England is replaced by the Diocese of Winchester (approximate date).

=== 671 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Perctarit returns from exile and reclaims his realm, which is being ruled on behalf of Garibald, since his father King Grimoald I died. He deposes the young king, and becomes the new ruler of the Lombard Kingdom in Italy. During his reign Perctarit makes Catholicism the official religion, but does not recognize papal authority. Grimoald is buried in the St. Ambrogio Church (Milan).

====== Britain ======

Battle of Two Rivers: King Ecgfrith of Northumbria defeats the Picts under King Drest VI, in the vicinity of Moncreiffe Island, near Perth (Scotland). After the battle the Picts are reduced to slavery, and subject to the yoke of captivity for the next 14 years.

====== Asia ======

Yijing, Chinese Buddhist monk, travels by boat from Guangzhou, and visits the capital of the partly Buddhist kingdom of Srivijaya in Palembang (Indonesia). He stays for 6 months to study Sanskrit grammar and the Malay language.

June 10 – Emperor Tenji introduces a water clock (clepsydra) called Rokoku. The instrument, which measures time and indicates hours, is placed in the capital of Ōtsu in Japan.

Silla seizes control of the former Baekje capital of Sabi from the Tang Protectorate General to Pacify the East.

=== 672 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Wamba succeeds Recceswinth as king of the Visigoths. After ascending to the throne he faces a revolt from Hilderic, governor of Nîmes, who has himself aspired to the kingship. He is supported by Gumild, bishop of Maguelone. Wamba sends dux Paulus to Septimania (Southern France) to end the hostilities, but on his arrival at Narbonne he proclaims himself king.

====== Britain ======

King Cenwalh of Wessex dies after a 31-year reign, in which he has lost much of his territory to Welsh and Mercian forces. He is succeeded by his widow Seaxburh. His sub-kings divide Wessex amongst themselves (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

January 7 – Emperor Tenji dies after a 10-year reign, in which he has given the Fujiwara clan its name. Following his death, there ensues a succession dispute between Tenji's 14 children (many by different mothers). He is succeeded by his favorite son Kōbun, age 23, who has been first accorded with the title Daijō-daijin.

August 21 – Kōbun is deposed after 8 months, during a brief but violent battle called the Jinshin War. He is succeeded by his uncle Ōama, who becomes the 40th emperor of Japan with support from the Fujiwara family. He takes the name Tenmu, and begins a reign that will continue until 686.

====== Americas ======

As part of the Second Tikal-Calakmul War, B'alaj Chan K'awiil is again forced to abandon Dos Pilas, after it is attacked by an insurgency led by Nuun Ujol Chaak against Calakmul.

==== By topic ====

====== Literature ======

Cædmon, Anglo-Saxon poet, writes a nine-line hymn on the Creation. A onetime illiterate herdsman, he becomes a monk under the rule of Hilda of Whitby, where he will turn various biblical themes into vernacular poetry (approximate date).

====== Religion ======

January 27 – Pope Vitalian dies at Rome after a reign of more than 14 years. He is succeeded by Adeodatus II as the 77th pope.

Máel Ruba, Irish abbot, founds one of the first Christian monasteries in Applecross (Scotland) located in hostile Pictish territory.

Wilfrid, bishop of York, brings stonemasons, plasterers and glaziers from France and Italy to build Ripon Cathedral (England).

=== 673 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Spring – King Chlothar III of Neustria and Burgundy dies after a reign of 16 years, in which he has been a puppet — roi fainéant — of the Neustrian mayor of the palace, Ebroin. He is buried in the Basilica of St. Denis, and succeeded by his brother Theuderic III.

Burgundian nobles, under the leadership of bishop Leodegar and Adalrich, invite Childeric II to become king in Neustria and Burgundy. He invades Theuderic's kingdom and displaces his brother, becoming sole king of the Frankish Kingdom.

September 3 – King Wamba of the Visigoths puts down the revolt by Hilderic, governor of Nîmes and rival for the throne. He captures the rebel leaders, who are brought to trial and, for their crimes, scalped and imprisoned for life.

====== Britain ======

King Frithuwold of Surrey flourishes under Mercian domination. The marriage of his daughter Osgyth to King Sighere of Essex breaks down. She desires the religious life, and flees the Essex court to the protection of bishop Bedwinus of North Elmham (Norfolk).

King Domangart mac Domnaill of Dál Riata (Scotland) dies, and is succeeded by his nephew Máel Dúin mac Conaill. He probably submits to King Ecgfrith of Northumbria as his overlord.

July 4 – King Ecgberht I of Kent dies after a reign of nearly 9 years. He is succeeded by his brother Hlothhere.

====== Asia ======

March 20 – Emperor Tenmu assumes the Chrysanthemum throne of Japan at the Palace of Kiyomihara, in Asuka.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Æthelthryth, Anglo-Saxon princess, returns to East Anglia and founds the Abbey of Ely (Cambridgeshire). At about this time a small nunnery is also founded in her name, in Stow Green.

The Council of Hertford is held and convened by Theodore of Tarsus, archbishop of Canterbury. The council makes canons for the English Church.

=== 674 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Siege of Constantinople: The Arab fleet enters the Sea of Marmara and appears before the southern walls of Constantinople, in an attempt to blockade the Byzantine capital.

April – A Muslim expeditionary force disembarks on the Thracian shore (near Hebdomon), and lays siege to the massive Theodosian Walls, on the landward side to the west.

Summer – Abu Ayyub al-Ansari, companion and standard-bearer of Muhammad, is killed during the first attempt of the siege of the city (approximate date).

Winter – Arab forces under Yazid (son of caliph Muawiyah I) retire to Cyzicus (Turkey). For the next 4 years the Arab fleet installs a loose blockade around Constantinople.

====== Europe ======

The Muslim-Arabs attack Crete, killing or enslaving much of the populace during the Muslim conquests (approximate date).

====== Britain ======

King Ecgfrith of Northumbria defeats a coalition led by the Mercians. He annexes the region of Lindsey (Lincolnshire).

King Æscwine succeeds his father Cenfus as ruler of Wessex (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

King Vikramaditya I of Chalukya defeats the Pallavan army in battle, and destroys its capital Kanchi (modern India).

In Korea, Anapji is constructed by order of King Munmu of Silla.

In Japan, Princess Ōku proceeds to the Ise Jingu.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Æthelthryth, former queen of Northumbria, gives large areas of land to bishop Wilfrid to found Hexham Abbey.

The Monkwearmouth monastery is founded by Benedict Biscop in Northumbria.

The first glass windows are placed in English churches (approximate date).

=== 675 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

King Childeric II is murdered by a band of dissatisfied Neustrians, along with his wife Bilichild and 5-year-old son Dagobert, while hunting in the forest of Livry (present-day Lognes) near Chelles.

Theuderic III retakes the throne of his elder brother Childeric II. He inherits the Frankish kingdoms of Neustria and Burgundy.

Clovis III, an illegitimate son of Chlothar III, is proclaimed king of Austrasia by the Austrasian nobles.

====== Britain ======

King Wulfhere of Mercia dies after a 17-year reign, in which he has extended his sway over much of England south of the Humber River, including Essex, Surrey, and part of Wessex north of the Thames. Wulfhere is succeeded by his brother Æthelred.

April 1 – King Hlothhere of Kent re-establishes Kentish supremacy in London.

====== Asia ======

The 25-year-old Wang Bo (王勃) writes Tengwang Ge Xu, to celebrate the Tengwang Pavilion (approximate date).

January 5 – In Japan, a platform to observe the stars for astrologers is erected for the first time.

March 14 – Princess Tōchi and Princess Abe of Japan proceed to Ise Jingū.

March 16 – Emperor Tenmu decrees the end of serfdom. He also orders an end to granting lands to Princes of the Blood, to Princes and to Ministers and Temples.

May 8 – Tenmu issues a decree to distribute the tax-rice for peasants in poverty, as well as a decree regulating fishing and hunting, and ordering a halt to eating the flesh of cattle, horses, dogs, monkeys and barn-yard fowls.

Some Japanese ministers who oppose Tenmu are banished to an isolated island. A man climbs the hill east of the Palace, curses the emperor and kills himself.

September 16 – A typhoon strikes Japan.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

The abbeys of Abingdon, England and Bath are founded (approximate date).

Aldhelm is made abbot of Malmesbury Abbey.

=== 676 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Summer – Siege of Constantinople: Caliph Muawiyah I sends his son Yazid with Muslim reinforcements to Constantinople. At the same time, the Byzantines have to face a Slavic attack on Thessaloniki and Lombard attacks in Italy.

====== Europe ======

Dagobert II, son of the late king Sigibert III, becomes (partly with the help of bishop Wilfrid) the new ruler of Austrasia, after his predecessor Clovis III is murdered.

====== Britain ======

King Æthelred of Mercia invades Kent, in an attempt to enforce overlordship and diminish Kentish influence in Surrey and London. His armies destroy the Diocese of Rochester (seat of the bishops in West Kent), and ravage the surrounding countryside.

King Æscwine of Wessex dies after a 2-year reign, and is succeeded by Centwine, son of the late king Cynegils. He reasserts the power of his Anglo-Saxon kingdom over the Welsh.

====== Asia ======

Emperor Tenmu of Japan promulgates a decree about taxes from fiefs, and the employment of persons for the service from the outer provinces. Men of distinguished ability are allowed to enter the service, even though they are of the common people, regardless of their ranks.

The broad-based peninsular effort under Silla's leadership, to prevent Chinese domination of Korea, succeeds in forcing Chinese troops to withdraw into Manchuria, in northeast China.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Aldhelm, Anglo-Saxon scholar-poet, founds Malmesbury Abbey on the site of the hermitage of his old tutor Máel Dub.

Æthelred of Mercia founds the monastery at Breedon on the Hill on the site of The Bulwarks, an Iron Age hill fort.

June 17 – Pope Adeodatus II dies at Rome after a reign of 4 years. He is succeeded by Donus as the 78th pope.

Cuthbert of Lindisfarne retires to a hermitage near Holburn, at a place now known as St. Cuthbert's Cave.

=== 677 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

The Onogur Bulgars are scattered by the Khazars, who then establish a great Steppe empire, centered on the Lower Volga. The Onogurs depart to the Pannonian Plain.

Warinus, Frankish nobleman, is stoned to death near Arras, because of a feud between his brother, Leodegar (bishop of Autun), and Ebroin, the Mayor of the Palace of Neustria.

25–27 July: Climax of the Siege of Thessalonica: Slavic forces launch a large-scale assault on the city walls, but are repelled.

====== Asia ======

Tang China declares the deposed Bojang of Goguryeo "King of Joseon", placing him in charge of the Liaodong area under the Protectorate General to Pacify the East.

====== Americas ======

At Pulil, the army of Calakmul vanquishes the insurgency led by Nuun Ujol Chaak, meaning B'alaj Chan K'awiil is able to return to rule Dos Pilas, from his exile in the kingdom of Hix Witz.

=== 678 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

July 27 – Siege of Thessalonica (676–678) ends when Sclaveni withdraw.

Autumn – Siege of Constantinople: Emperor Constantine IV confronts the Arab besiegers in a head-on engagement. The Byzantine fleet, equipped with Greek fire, destroys the Muslim fleet at Sillyon., ending the Arab threat to Europe, and forcing Yazid (a son of caliph Muawiyah I) to lift the siege on land and sea. The victory also frees up forces that are sent to raise the two-year siege of Thessalonica by the local Slavic tribes.

====== Britain ======

King Æthelred of Mercia defeats the Northumbrian forces under King Ecgfrith, in a battle near the River Trent. Archbishop Theodore helps to resolve differences between the two, Æthelred agreeing to pay a weregild to avoid any resumption of hostilities (approximate date).

====== Japan ======

April 27 – Emperor Tenmu holds divination for the purpose of proceeding to the Abstinence Palace.

May 3 – Princess Tōchi suddenly takes ill and dies within the palace. Tenmu, her father, is unable to sacrifice to the Gods of Heaven and Earth.

May 10 – Tōchi is buried at a place which could be Akō (Hyōgo Prefecture). Tenmu is graciously pleased to raise lament for her.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Wilfrid, bishop of York, is at the height of his power and owns vast estates throughout Northumbria. After his refusal to agree to a division of his see, Ecgfrith and Theodore, archbishop of Canterbury, have him banished from Northumbria.

April 11 – Pope Donus dies at Rome, after a reign of 1 year and 160 days. He is succeeded by Agatho I, who becomes the 79th pope. He is the first pope to stop paying tribute to Emperor Constantine IV upon election.

In Japan, the national worshiping to the Gods of Heaven and Earth is planned. Tenmu tries to select his daughter Tōchi as a Saiō to make her serve the Gods. However, Tōchi suddenly takes ill and dies.

The Beomeosa temple complex in Geumjeong-gu (modern South Korea) is constructed, during the reign of King Munmu of Silla.

=== 679 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Emperor Constantine IV signs a peace treaty, of a nominal 30-year duration, with caliph Muawiyah I of the Umayyad Caliphate. Constantine pays an annual tribute of 3,000 (nomismata) pounds of gold, 50 horses and 50 slaves. The Arab garrisons are withdrawn from their bases on the Byzantine coastlands, including Crete & Cyzicus.

====== Europe ======

December 23 – King Dagobert II is murdered in a hunting accident, near Stenay-sur-Meuse (Ardennes), probably on orders from Pepin of Herstal, the mayor of the palace of Austrasia. He is succeeded by Theuderic III, who becomes sole ruler of the Frankish Kingdom.

====== Britain ======

King Æthelred of Mercia marries Princess Osthryth, sister of King Ecgfrith of Northumbria (approximate date).

====== Americas ======

Nuun Ujol Chaak, an ajaw of the Maya city of Tikal, is by this year deceased, after his final defeat at the hands of B'alaj Chan K'awiil, during the Second Tikal-Calakmul War.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Adomnán, clerical lawyer, becomes abbot of the monastery of Iona Abbey, located on the Isle of Iona (modern Scotland).

October 2 – Leodegar, bishop of Autun, is tortured and executed by Neustrian nobles at Fécamp (Normandy)

672

Year 672 (DCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 672 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

676

Year 676 (DCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 676 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Adeodatus

Adeodatus may refer to:

Pope Adeodatus I (also known as Pope Deusdedit I), pope from 614-618

Pope Adeodatus II (sometimes referred to as Pope Adeodatus I), pope from 672-676

Deodatus of Nevers (Adeodatus, Adéodat)

The son of Augustine of Hippo

Byzantine Papacy

The Byzantine Papacy was a period of Byzantine domination of the Roman papacy from 537 to 752, when popes required the approval of the Byzantine Emperor for episcopal consecration, and many popes were chosen from the apocrisiarii (liaisons from the pope to the emperor) or the inhabitants of Byzantine-ruled Greece, Syria, or Sicily. Justinian I conquered the Italian peninsula in the Gothic War (535–554) and appointed the next three popes, a practice that would be continued by his successors and later be delegated to the Exarchate of Ravenna.

With the exception of Pope Martin I, no pope during this period questioned the authority of the Byzantine monarch to confirm the election of the bishop of Rome before consecration could occur; however, theological conflicts were common between pope and emperor in the areas such as monothelitism and iconoclasm.

Greek-speakers from Greece, Syria, and Sicily replaced members of the powerful Roman nobles in the papal chair during this period. Rome under the Greek popes constituted a "melting pot" of Western and Eastern Christian traditions, reflected in art as well as liturgy.

List of canonised popes

This article lists the Popes who have been canonised or recognised as Saints in the Roman Catholic Church they had led. A total of 83 (out of 266) Popes have been recognised universally as canonised saints, including all of the first 35 Popes (31 of whom were martyrs) and 52 of the first 54. If Pope Liberius is numbered amongst the Saints as in Eastern Christianity, all of the first 49 Popes become recognised as Saints, of whom 31 are Martyr-Saints, and 53 of the first 54 Pontiffs would be acknowledged as Saints. In addition, 13 other Popes are in the process of becoming canonised Saints: as of December 2018, two are recognised as being Servants of God, two are recognised as being Venerable, and nine have been declared Blessed or Beati, making a total of 95 (97 if Pope Liberius and Pope Adeodatus II are recognised to be Saints) of the 266 Roman Pontiffs being recognised and venerated for their heroic virtues and inestimable contributions to the Church.

The most recently reigning Pope to have been canonised was Pope John Paul II, whose cause for canonisation was opened in May 2005. John Paul II was beatified on May 1, 2011, by Pope Benedict XVI and later canonised, along with Pope John XXIII, by Pope Francis on April 27, 2014. Pope Francis also canonised Pope Paul VI on October 14, 2018.

List of popes

This chronological list of popes corresponds to that given in the Annuario Pontificio under the heading "I Sommi Pontefici Romani" (The Supreme Pontiffs of Rome), excluding those that are explicitly indicated as antipopes. Published every year by the Roman Curia, the Annuario Pontificio attaches no consecutive numbers to the popes, stating that it is impossible to decide which side represented at various times the legitimate succession, in particular regarding Pope Leo VIII, Pope Benedict V and some mid-11th-century popes. The 2001 edition of the Annuario Pontificio introduced "almost 200 corrections to its existing biographies of the popes, from St Peter to John Paul II". The corrections concerned dates, especially in the first two centuries, birthplaces and the family name of one pope.The term pope (Latin: papa, lit. 'father') is used in several Churches to denote their high spiritual leaders (for example Coptic Pope). This title in English usage usually refers to the head of the Catholic Church. The Catholic pope uses various titles by tradition, including Summus Pontifex, Pontifex Maximus, and Servus servorum Dei. Each title has been added by unique historical events and unlike other papal prerogatives, is not incapable of modification.Hermannus Contractus may have been the first historian to number the popes continuously. His list ends in 1049 with Pope Leo IX as number 154. Several changes were made to the list during the 20th century. Antipope Christopher was considered legitimate for a long time. Pope-elect Stephen was considered legitimate under the name Stephen II until the 1961 edition, when his name was erased. Although these changes are no longer controversial, a number of modern lists still include this "first Pope Stephen II". It is probable that this is because they are based on the 1913 edition of the Catholic Encyclopedia, which is in the public domain.

A significant number of these popes have been recognized as saints, including 48 out of the first 50 consecutive popes, and others are in the sainthood process. Of the first 31 popes, 28 died as martyrs (see List of murdered popes).

List of popes by country

This page is a list of popes by country of origin. They are listed in chronological order within each section.

As the office of pope has existed for almost two millennia, many of the countries of origin of popes no longer exist, and so they are grouped under their modern equivalents. Popes from Italy are in a separate section, given the very large number of popes from that peninsula.

Papal mint

The Papal Mint is the pope's institute for the production of hard cash. Papal Mint also refers to the buildings in Avignon, Rome, and elsewhere that used to house the mint. (The Italian word for mint is Zecca).

Pope Adeodatus

Pope Adeodatus can refer to:

Pope Adeodatus I (615 to 618)

Pope Adeodatus II (672 to 676)

Pope Sergius I

Pope Sergius I (c. 650 – 8 September 701) was Pope from December 15, 687, to his death in 701. He was elected at a time when two rivals, the Archdeacon Paschal and the Archpriest Theodore, were locked in dispute about which of them should become pope.

His papacy was dominated by his response to the Quinisext Council, whose canons he refused to accept. Thereupon the Byzantine Emperor Justinian II ordered Sergius' abduction (as his predecessor Constans II had done with Pope Martin I), but the Roman people and the Italian militia of the Exarch of Ravenna refused to allow the exarch to remove Sergius to Constantinople.

1st–4th centuries
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
5th–8th centuries
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
9th–12th centuries
Papal selection before 1059
Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
13th–16th centuries
Viterbo (1257–1281)
Orvieto (1262–1297)
Perugia (1228–1304)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
Western Schism (1378–1417)
Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)
Reformation Papacy (1534–1585)
Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)
17th–20th centuries
Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848)
Roman Question (1870–1929)
Vatican City (1929–present)
21st century
History of the papacy
Virgin Mary
Apostles
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Church
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See also

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