Pope-elect Stephen

Pope-elect Stephen (d. 26 March 752) was a Roman priest elected pope in March 752 to succeed Zachary; he died of a stroke a few days later, before being consecrated a bishop.[1][2] Therefore, he is not listed as a pope in the Annuario Pontificio.

In 745, Pope Zachary had made him a cardinal-priest, with the titulus of San Crisogono, the same titulus later held by Cardinal Frederick of Lorraine, who became Pope Stephen IX.

Pope-elect

Stephen
Papacy began23 March 752
Papacy ended26 March 752
PredecessorZachary
SuccessorStephen II
Orders
Created cardinal745
by Zachary
Personal details
Birth nameStephanus
BornRome
Died26 March 752
Rome
Previous postcardinal-priest of San Crisogono (745–52)
Other popes named Stephen

Regnal numbering of popes named Stephen

The regnal numbering of popes named Stephen has changed over the centuries. Regnal numbering was not used for popes until the 10th century, and any numbering attached to earlier popes has been applied retroactively.

Until the 10th century, from 752 to 942, eight men who bore the name Stephen, including this priest Stephen, were elected pope, but only seven reigned as pope. The Annuario Pontificio attaches to its mention of Pope Stephen II a footnote mentioning Pope-elect Stephen: "On the death of Zachary the Roman priest Stephen was elected; but, since he died three days later and before his consecratio, which according to the canon law of the time was the true commencement of his pontificate, his name is not registered in the Liber Pontificalis nor in other lists of the popes."[3]

The first pope to take the name "Stephen" after regnal numbering became customary was called Stephen IX during his lifetime and signed all his documents "Stephanus Papa Nonus", Latin for "Pope Stephen IX".

Later canon law, in force until 1 October 1975,[4] considered that a man became pope at the moment when he accepted his election to the papacy, and this Stephen was then anachronistically called Pope Stephen II. Some writers, but not all, consequently increased the numbering of later Popes of that name, making them Popes Stephen III-X.[5] This Pope-elect Stephen's name was removed from the list of popes in the Annuario Pontificio in 1961.[6]

Divergent usage led to the use of a dual numbering for these popes, so that they are sometimes referred to as Popes Stephen II (III)–IX (X). This practice is found in the Catholic Encyclopedia,[7] the Annuario Pontificio[3] and the Encyclopædia Britannica.[8]

See also

References

  1. ^ Horace Mann, "Pope Stephen II" in Catholic Encyclopedia (New York 2013)
  2. ^ History's great untold stories: larger than life characters & dramatic ... By Joseph Cummins. National Geographic Books. p. 13.
  3. ^ a b Annuario Pontificio 2012 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2012 ISBN 978-88-209-8722-0), p. 11*
  4. ^ On that date, Pope Paul VI changed the law, laying down in his apostolic constitution Romano Pontifici eligendo that (to quote an English version of the document), "88. After his acceptance, the person elected, if he be a bishop, is straightway bishop of Rome, true pope, and head of the episcopal college. He possesses and can exercise full and supreme power over the universal Church. If, however, the elected person does not possess the episcopal character, he is to be immediately ordained a bishop." Pope Paul VI's change of the law was incorporated into the 1983 Code of Canon Law: "Can. 332 §1 The Roman Pontiff acquires full and supreme power in the Church when, together with episcopal consecration, he has been lawfully elected and has accepted the election. Accordingly, if he already has the episcopal character, he receives this power from the moment he accepts election to the supreme pontificate. If he does not have the episcopal character, he is immediately to be ordained Bishop."
  5. ^ For example, see Rev. Joseph Deharbe, S.J., A Full Catechism of the Catholic Religion (translated by Rev. John Fander; 1863), p. 60-61.
  6. ^ Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes (Harper Collins 2013 ISBN 978-0-06228834-9), p. 121
  7. ^ For instance, Pope Stephen II (III)
  8. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. 1973. ISBN 9780852291733.
List of popes

This chronological list of popes corresponds to that given in the Annuario Pontificio under the heading "I Sommi Pontefici Romani" (The Supreme Pontiffs of Rome), excluding those that are explicitly indicated as antipopes. Published every year by the Roman Curia, the Annuario Pontificio attaches no consecutive numbers to the popes, stating that it is impossible to decide which side represented at various times the legitimate succession, in particular regarding Pope Leo VIII, Pope Benedict V and some mid-11th-century popes. The 2001 edition of the Annuario Pontificio introduced "almost 200 corrections to its existing biographies of the popes, from St Peter to John Paul II". The corrections concerned dates, especially in the first two centuries, birthplaces and the family name of one pope.The term pope (Latin: papa, lit. 'father') is used in several Churches to denote their high spiritual leaders (for example Coptic Pope). This title in English usage usually refers to the head of the Catholic Church. The Catholic pope uses various titles by tradition, including Summus Pontifex, Pontifex Maximus, and Servus servorum Dei. Each title has been added by unique historical events and unlike other papal prerogatives, is not incapable of modification.Hermannus Contractus may have been the first historian to number the popes continuously. His list ends in 1049 with Pope Leo IX as number 154. Several changes were made to the list during the 20th century. Antipope Christopher was considered legitimate for a long time. Pope-elect Stephen was considered legitimate under the name Stephen II until the 1961 edition, when his name was erased. Although these changes are no longer controversial, a number of modern lists still include this "first Pope Stephen II". It is probable that this is because they are based on the 1913 edition of the Catholic Encyclopedia, which is in the public domain.

A significant number of these popes have been recognized as saints, including 48 out of the first 50 consecutive popes, and others are in the sainthood process. Of the first 31 popes, 28 died as martyrs (see List of murdered popes).

List of shortest-reigning monarchs

A monarch is the person who heads a monarchy, usually reigning for life, or until abdication or deposition. The reign of some monarchs has been notably short. Many of these monarchs acceded to the throne as a result of being first in an order of succession, while other monarchs claimed the throne as a result of some conflict.

The authenticity of some monarchs has been disputed, especially those who reigned during conflict. One factor in such debates is whether the monarch held the throne in a symbolic or nominal capacity. Two examples are

King Louis XIX of France, who succeeded upon the abdication of Charles X only to abdicate in favour of Henry V instead of assuming the throne, and

Emperor Michael II of Russia, who succeeded on the abdication of Nicholas II only to abdicate himself in favor of nobody.

March 26

March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 280 days remain until the end of the year.

Papal name

A papal name or pontificial name is the regnal name taken by a pope. Both the head of the Catholic Church, usually known as the Pope, and the Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic Pope) choose papal names. As of 2013, Pope Francis is the Catholic Pope, and Tawadros II or Theodoros II is the Coptic Pope. This article discusses and lists the names of Catholic Popes; another article has a list of Coptic Orthodox Popes of Alexandria.

While popes in the early centuries retained their birth names after their accession to the papacy, later on popes began to adopt a new name upon their accession. This first started in the sixth century and became customary in the 10th century. Since 1555, every pope has taken a papal name.

The pontificial name is given in Latin by virtue of the Pope's status as Bishop of the Holy See of Rome. The Pope is also given an Italian name by virtue of his Vatican citizenship. However, it is customary when referring to popes to translate the regnal name into all local languages. Thus, for example, Papa Franciscus (Latin, the official language of the Holy See), is Papa Francesco in Italian (the language of the Vatican), Papa Francisco in his native Spanish, and Pope Francis in English.

Papal tombs in old St. Peter's Basilica

The papal tombs in old St. Peter's Basilica were the final resting places of the popes, most which dated from the fifth to sixteenth centuries. The majority of these tombs were destroyed during the sixteenth through seventeenth century demolition of old St. Peter's Basilica, except for one which was destroyed during the Saracen Sack of the church in 846. The remainder were transferred in part to new St. Peter's Basilica, which stands on the site of the original basilica, and a handful of other churches of Rome.

Pope Stephen

Pope Stephen may refer to any of several men who were Pope or who were elected Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. Historically, there have been two regnal numbering systems used when referring to Popes called "Stephen" starting with Pope-elect Stephen. See Pope-elect Stephen for detailed explanation.

Pope Stephen I (died 257), Bishop of Rome from 254–257

Pope-elect Stephen (died 752), also known as Pope Stephen II, elected Pope but died before his consecration

Pope Stephen II (III) (died 757), pope from 752–757

Pope Stephen III (IV) (720–772), pope from 768–772

Pope Stephen IV (V) (died 817), pope from 816–817

Pope Stephen V (VI) (died 891), pope from 885–891

Pope Stephen VI (VII) (died 897), pope from 896–897

Pope Stephen VII (VIII) (died 931), pope from 929–931

Pope Stephen VIII (IX) (died 942), pope from 939–942

Pope Stephen IX (X) (c. 1020–1058), pope from 1057–1058

Pope Stephen II

Pope Stephen II (Latin: Stephanus II (or III); 714-26 April 757 a Roman aristocrat was Pope from 26 March 752 to his death in 757. He succeeded Pope Zachary following the death of Pope-elect Stephen (sometimes called Stephen II). Stephen II marks the historical delineation between the Byzantine Papacy and the Frankish Papacy.

Rome was facing invasion by the Kingdom of the Lombards. Pope Stephen II traveled all the way to Paris to seek assistance against the Lombard threat from Pepin the Short. Pepin had been anointed a first time in 751 in Soissons by Boniface, archbishop of Mainz, but named his price. With the Frankish nobles agreeing to campaign in Lombardy, the Pope consecrated Pepin a second time in a lavish ceremony at the Basilica of St Denis in 754, bestowing upon him the additional title of Patricius Romanorum (Latin for "Patrician of the Romans") in the first recorded crowning of a civil ruler by a Pope. Pepin defeated the Lombards – taking control of northern Italy – and made a gift (called the Donation of Pepin) of the properties formerly constituting the Exarchate of Ravenna to the pope, eventually leading to the establishment of the Papal States.

Pope Stephen III

Pope Stephen III (Latin: Stephanus III; d. 1 February 772) was the Pope from 7 August 768 to his death in 772.

Stephen was a Benedictine monk who worked in the Lateran Palace during the tenure of Pope Zachary. In the midst of a tumultuous contest by rival factions to name a successor to Pope Paul I, Stephen was elected with the support of the Roman officials. He summoned the Lateran Council of 769 which sought to limit the influence of the nobles in papal elections. The Council also opposed iconoclasm.

Pope Zachary

Pope Zachary (Latin: Zacharias; 679 – March 752) reigned from 3 December or 5 December 741 to his death in 752. A Greek from Santa Severina, Calabria, he was the last pope of the Byzantine Papacy. Most probably he was a deacon of the Roman Church and as such signed the decrees of the Roman council of 732, and succeeded Gregory III on 5 December 741.Zachary built the original church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva, forbade the traffic of slaves in Rome, and negotiated peace with the Lombards. In response to an inquiry forwarded by Pepin the Short, Zachary rendered the opinion that it was better that he should be king who had the royal power than he who had not. Shortly thereafter, the Frankish nobles decided to abandon the Merovingian Childeric III in favor of Pepin, who then reigned as King of the Franks from 751 to 768.

Historians such as J.P. Kirsch and Peter Partner have viewed Pope Zachary as a capable administrator and a skillful and subtle diplomat in a dangerous time.

Stephen

Stephen or Steven is a common English first name. It is particularly significant to Christians, as it belonged to Saint Stephen (Greek Στέφανος Stéphanos), an early disciple and deacon who, according to the Book of Acts, was stoned to death; he is widely regarded as the first martyr (or "protomartyr") of the Christian Church. The name "Stephen" (and its common variant "Steven") is derived from Greek Στέφανος (Stéphanos), a first name from the Greek word στέφανος (stéphanos), meaning "wreath, crown" and by extension "reward, honor, renown, fame", from the verb στέφειν (stéphein), "to encircle, to wreathe". In Ancient Greece, crowning wreaths (such as laurel wreaths) were given to the winners of contests. Originally, as the verb suggests, the noun had a more general meaning of any "circle"—including a circle of people, a circling wall around a city, and, in its earliest recorded use, the circle of a fight, which is found in the Iliad of Homer.The name, in both the forms Stephen and Steven, is commonly shortened to Steve or Stevie. In English, the female version of the name is "Stephanie". Many surnames are derived from the first name, including Stephens, Stevens, Stephenson, and Stevenson, all of which mean "Stephen's (son)". In modern times especially the name has sometimes been given with intentionally nonstandard spelling, such as Stevan or Stevon. A common variant of the name used in English is Stephan ; related names that have found some currency or significance in English include Stefan (pronounced or in English), Esteban (often pronounced ), and the Shakespearean Stephano . Like all biblical names, Stephen has forms in almost all major world languages. Some of these include:

Esteban (Spanish; Spanish pronunciation: [esˈteβan]);

Estêvão (Portuguese);

Esteve (Catalan);

Estève (Occitan);

Étienne (French);

Istifanus (Arabic);

István (Hungarian);

Setefane (Sotho);

Shtjefni (Albanian);

Sītífán (Mandarin Chinese);

Stefan (German, Dutch, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Ukrainian, Bulgarian, and Serbian; German pronunciation: [ˈʃteːfan]);

Stefán (Icelandic);

Степан/Stepan (Russian, Ukrainian);

Ștefan (Romanian);

Štefan (Slovak and Slovenian);

Stefana (Malagasy);

Stefano (Italian and Swahili);

Stefanos (modern Greek, modern Hebrew, and Estonian);

Stefans (Latvian and

Afrikaans);

Steffan (Welsh);

Stepan (Armenian);

Štěpán (Czech);

Stepane (Georgian);

Steponas (Lithuanian);

Stiofán (Irish);

Sutepano (Japanese);

Szczepan (Polish); and

Tapani (Finnish).

In the United Kingdom, it peaked during the 1950s and 1960s as one of the top ten male first names (ranking third in 1954) but had fallen to twentieth by 1984 and had fallen out of the top one hundred by 2002. The name was ranked 201 in the United States in 2009, according to the Social Security Administration. The name reached its peak popularity in 1951 but remained very common through the mid-1990s, when popularity started to decrease in the United States.

Stephen II

Stephen II may refer to:

Stephen II of Iberia (died c. 650), prince of Iberia (Kartli, eastern Georgia)

Pope-elect Stephen (died 752), considered (from the 16th century to 1960) a valid pope under the name Stephen II

Pope Stephen II (died 757), his successor, called Stephen III until 1961

Stephen II of Troyes (died in 1047)

Stephen II of Croatia (died in 1091), King of Croatia

Stephen II of Hungary (1101–1131), King of Hungary and Croatia

Stephen II, Ban of Bosnia (died 1353), of the House of Kotromanić

Stephen II, Duke of Bavaria (1319–75)

Stephen II of Moldavia (died 1447), Prince (Voivode) of Moldavia

1st–4th centuries
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
5th–8th centuries
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
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9th–12th centuries
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13th–16th centuries
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21st century
History of the papacy

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