Pop Warner Little Scholars, commonly known simply as Pop Warner, is a nonprofit organization that provides activities such as American football, for over 425,000 youths aged 5 to 16 years old, in several nations. It is the largest youth football organization in the United States. In the 2010s, concern grew about the dangers of brain injury, including that from a steady diet of sub-concussive hits. There have been proposals to replace tackle football with flag football below certain ages.
|Pop Warner Little Scholars|
Official logo of Pop Warner Little Scholars
|Named after||Pop Warner|
|Founder||Joseph J. Tomlin|
|Division||Age requirements||Weight requirements||End-of-season max|
|Tiny-Mite||5, 6, 7||35–75 lbs||79 lbs.|
|Mitey-Mite||7, 8, 9||45–100 lbs||104 lbs.|
|Jr. Pee Wee||8, 9, 10, (11)||60–115 lbs (60–95 lbs)||119 lbs. (99 lbs)|
|Pee Wee||9, 10, 11, (12)||75–130 lbs (75–110 lbs)||134 lbs. (114 lbs)|
|Junior Varsity||10, 11, 12, (13)||90–155 lbs (90–135 lbs)||159 lbs.|
|Varsity||12, 13, 14, (15)||105–180 lbs (105–160 lbs)||184 lbs. (164 lbs)|
|Unlimited||11, 12, 13, 14||105+ lbs||Unlimited|
The ages in parenthesis in each division allow "older but lighter" players to also qualify.
In the 2010s, there has been much controversy about football and brain health, with a number of studies focusing not just on the occasional concussion, but also on the large number of sub-concussive hits. One game in particular in 2012 resulted in five concussions. In 2015, a family sued Pop Warner over the suicide of a former player who was later found to have chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), claiming that the organization knew or should have known about the risk of head injuries. Several other lawsuits have been filed against Pop Warner for related cases.
A 2018 study found that tackle football before age 12 was correlated with earlier onset of symptoms of CTE, but not with symptom severity. There have also been advocates for flag football only before certain ages.
American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense, which is the team controlling the oval-shaped football, attempts to advance down the field by running with or passing the ball, while the defense, which is the team without control of the ball, aims to stop the offense's advance and aims to take control of the ball for themselves. The offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, and otherwise they turn over the football to the defense; if the offense succeeds in advancing ten yards or more, they are given a new set of four downs. Points are primarily scored by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal. The team with the most points at the end of a game wins.
American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football (known in the U.S. as soccer) and rugby football. The first match of American football was played on November 6, 1869, between two college teams, Rutgers and Princeton, under rules based on the association football rules of the time. During the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby Union code, which allowed carrying the ball. A set of rule changes drawn up from 1880 onward by Walter Camp, the "Father of American Football", established the snap, the line of scrimmage, eleven-player teams, and the concept of downs; later rule changes legalized the forward pass, created the neutral zone, and specified the size and shape of the football. The sport is closely related to Canadian football, which evolved parallel and contemporary to the American game, and most of the features that distinguish American football from rugby and soccer are also present in Canadian football.
American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States. The most popular forms of the game are professional and college football, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually, almost all of them men, with a few exceptions. The National Football League, the most popular American football league, has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world; its championship game, the Super Bowl, ranks among the most-watched club sporting events in the world, and the league has an annual revenue of around US$10 billion.Carl Peterson
Carl D. Peterson (born May 26, 1943) grew up in Long Beach, California, and is an alumnus of University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), where he earned a bachelor's, master's and doctorate of education. He is best known as the former president, general manager, and chief executive officer of the Kansas City Chiefs of the National Football League (NFL). Peterson served in those roles from 1989 to 2009 and hired four head coaches for the Chiefs during his tenure: Marty Schottenheimer, Gunther Cunningham, Dick Vermeil, and Herman Edwards.
Peterson is a consultant with Miami Dolphins’ owner Stephen Ross of FanVision, an in-stadium fan technology device serving 12 NFL teams and two Division I universities. FanVision does all 38 NASCAR races, US Open (tennis), plus a number of major PGA Tournaments. Three BCS Bowl Games also employed FanVision's in-stadium technology in January 2011. Peterson is also a principle and partner with Dick Vermeil Wines, located in Calistoga, California.College football
College football is American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities, colleges, and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities. It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States.
Unlike most other sports in North America, no minor league farm organizations exist in American or Canadian football. Therefore, college football is generally considered to be the second tier of American football in the United States and Canadian football in Canada; one step ahead of high school competition, and one step below professional competition. However, in some areas of the country, college football is more popular than professional football, and for much of the early 20th century, college football was seen as more prestigious than professional football.
It is in college football where a player's performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. The best collegiate players will typically declare for the professional draft after three to four years of collegiate competition, with the NFL holding its annual draft every spring in which 256 players are selected annually. Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as an undrafted free agent.Gary Bender
Gary Nedrow Bender (born September 1, 1940) is a retired American sportscaster and 2008 inductee into the Kansas Sports Hall of Fame. He officially retired, April 13, 2011, from Fox Sports Arizona network after 18 years calling the NBA's Phoenix Suns games.Gerald McCoy
Gerald Keith McCoy Jr. (born February 25, 1988) is an American football defensive tackle for the Tampa Bay Buccaneers of the National Football League (NFL). He played college football at Oklahoma, where he earned consensus All-American honors, and was drafted by the Buccaneers third overall in the 2010 NFL Draft. Since joining the Buccaneers and the NFL, he has been selected to the Pro Bowl six consecutive years. He is also a three time First Team All-Pro.History of American football
The history of American football can be traced to early versions of rugby football and association football. Both games have their origin in varieties of football played in Britain in the mid-19th century, in which a football is kicked at a goal or kicked over a line, which in turn were based on the varieties of English public school football games.
American football resulted from several major divergences from association football and rugby football, most notably the rule changes instituted by Walter Camp, a Yale University and Hopkins School graduate who is considered to be the "Father of American Football". Among these important changes were the introduction of the line of scrimmage, of down-and-distance rules and of the legalization of blocking. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, gameplay developments by college coaches such as Eddie Cochems, Amos Alonzo Stagg, Parke H. Davis, Knute Rockne, and Glenn "Pop" Warner helped take advantage of the newly introduced forward pass. The popularity of college football grew as it became the dominant version of the sport in the United States for the first half of the 20th century. Bowl games, a college football tradition, attracted a national audience for college teams. Boosted by fierce rivalries and colorful traditions, college football still holds widespread appeal in the United States.
The origin of professional football can be traced back to 1892, with William "Pudge" Heffelfinger's $500 contract to play in a game for the Allegheny Athletic Association against the Pittsburgh Athletic Club. In 1920 the American Professional Football Association was formed. This league changed its name to the National Football League (NFL) two years later, and eventually became the major league of American football. Primarily a sport of Midwestern industrial towns in the United States, professional football eventually became a national phenomenon.
The modern era of American football can be considered to have begun after the 1932 NFL Playoff game, which was the first indoor game since 1902 and the first American football game to feature hash marks, forward passes anywhere behind the line of scrimmage, and the movement of the goal posts back to the goal line. Other innovations to occur immediately after 1932 were the introduction of the AP Poll in 1934, the tapering of the ends of the football in 1934, the awarding of the first Heisman Trophy in 1935, the first NFL draft in 1936 and the first televised game in 1939. Another important event was the American football game at the 1932 Summer Olympics, which combined with a similar demonstration game at 1933 World's Fair, led to the first College All-Star Game in 1934, which in turn was an important factor in the growth of professional football in the United States. American football's explosion in popularity during the second half of the 20th century can be traced to the 1958 NFL Championship Game, a contest that has been dubbed the "Greatest Game Ever Played". A rival league to the NFL, the American Football League (AFL), began play in 1960; the pressure it put on the senior league led to a merger between the two leagues and the creation of the Super Bowl, which has become the most watched television event in the United States on an annual basis.Independence, Missouri
Independence is the fifth-largest city in the U.S. state of Missouri. It lies within Jackson County, of which it is the county seat. Independence is a satellite city of Kansas City, Missouri, and is part of the Kansas City metropolitan area. In 2010, it had a total population of 116,830.Independence is known as the "Queen City of the Trails" because it was a point of departure for the California, Oregon, and Santa Fe Trails. Independence was also the hometown of U.S. President Harry S. Truman; the Truman Presidential Library and Museum is located in the city, and Truman and First Lady Bess Truman are buried here. The city is also sacred to many Latter Day Saints, with Joseph Smith's 1831 Temple Lot being located here, as well as the headquarters of several Latter Day Saint factions.Jamar Brittingham
Jamar Brittingham (born February 3, 1984) is an American football running back who currently plays for the Reading Express of the Indoor Football League.LaDainian Tomlinson
LaDainian Tramayne Tomlinson (born June 23, 1979) is a former professional American football player who was a running back in the National Football League (NFL) for eleven seasons. He is widely considered one of the greatest running backs of all time. He played the majority of his career with the San Diego Chargers, who selected him with the fifth overall pick in the 2001 NFL Draft. Tomlinson was invited to five Pro Bowls, was an All-Pro six times, and won consecutive rushing titles in 2006 and 2007. At the time of his retirement, he ranked fifth in career rushing yards (13,684), seventh in all-purpose yards (18,456), second in career rushing touchdowns (145), and third in total touchdowns (162). He currently serves as an analyst on NFL Network. After being elected to the College Football Hall of Fame in 2014, Tomlinson was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in August 2017, his first year of eligibility.
Tomlinson played college football for Texas Christian University (TCU), earned consensus All-America honors, and won the Doak Walker Award as the best college running back. He spent nine seasons with the Chargers. During the 2006 NFL season, he set several NFL touchdown scoring records and received numerous honors and awards including the NFL's Most Valuable Player Award and the Associated Press's Offensive Player of the Year Award. In 2010, he signed as a free agent with the New York Jets, playing for two seasons before retiring after 2011.
Tomlinson is often referred to by his initials, L.T. An effective passer on halfback option plays, Tomlinson threw seven touchdown passes and ranks second behind Walter Payton (8) for non-quarterbacks since the AFL–NFL merger in 1970. He was named to the NFL's 2000s All-Decade Team as one of the top running backs of the 2000s.List of ESPN Radio affiliates
This listing of radio stations that are branded as ESPN Radio is an incomplete sampling of major markets in 2011. The full list of "full-time" affiliates (not all of which are branded "ESPN Radio") can be found here .
Note: All stations with a blue check mark () are ESPN owned and operated stationsList of sports team names and mascots derived from indigenous peoples
While the history of colonization and marginalization is not unique to the Americas, the practice of deriving sports team names, imagery, and mascots from indigenous peoples of North America is a significant phenomenon in the United States and Canada. The popularity of the American Indian in global culture has led to a number of teams in Europe also adopting team names derived from Native Americans. In Asia, Africa, Australia and South America, the adoption of indigenous names generally indicates that the team members are themselves indigenous. While there are team names in North America derived from other ethnic groups, such as the Boston Celtics, the New York Yankees, the University of Notre Dame "Fighting Irish" and the Minnesota Vikings, these are names selected by immigrant/settler groups to represent themselves.
The rise of indigenous rights movements has led to controversy regarding the continuation of practices rooted in colonialism. Such practices maintain the power relationship between the dominant culture and the indigenous culture, and can be seen as a form of cultural imperialism. Such practices are seen as particularly harmful in schools and universities, which have the a stated purpose of promoting ethnic diversity and inclusion. In recognition of the responsibility of higher education to eliminate behaviors that creates a hostile environment for education, in 2005 the NCAA initiated a policy against "hostile and abusive" names and mascots that led to the change of many derived from Native American culture, with the exception of those that established an agreement with particular tribes for the use of their specific names. Other schools retain their names because they were founded for the education of Native Americans, and continue to have a significant number of indigenous students.
The trend towards the elimination of indigenous names and mascots in local schools has been steady, with two thirds having been eliminated over the past 50 years according to the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI). In a few states with significant Native American populations, change has been mandated by law, such in Wisconsin, Oregon, and Washington.Little League International has updated its 2019 rulebook to include a statement prohibiting "the use of team names, mascots, nicknames or logos that are racially insensitive, derogatory or discriminatory in nature." This decision has been applauded by the National Congress of American Indians.Modern history of American football
The modern history of American football can be considered to have begun after the 1932 NFL Playoff game, which was the first American football game to feature hash marks, the legalization of the forward pass anywhere behind the line of scrimmage, and the movement of the goal posts back to the goal line; it was also the first indoor game since 1902. Other innovations to occur in the years after 1932 were the introduction of the AP Poll in 1934, the tapering of the ends of the football in 1934, the awarding of the first Heisman Trophy in 1935, the first NFL draft in 1936 and the first televised game in 1939. Another important event was the American football game at the 1932 Summer Olympics, which combined with a similar demonstration game at the 1933 World's Fair, led to the first College All-Star Game in 1934, which in turn was an important factor in the growth of professional football in the United States. American football's explosion in popularity during the second half of the 20th century can be traced to the 1958 NFL Championship Game, a contest that has been dubbed the "Greatest Game Ever Played". A rival league to the NFL, the American Football League (AFL), began play in 1960. In 1966, the NFL initiated the AFL–NFL merger between the two leagues. The merger lead to the creation of the Super Bowl, which has become the most watched television event in the United States on an annual basis.Nate Allen (safety)
Nathaniel Ray Allen (born November 30, 1987) is an American football safety who is currently a free agent. He was drafted by the Philadelphia Eagles in the second round of the 2010 NFL Draft. He played college football at South Florida. He has also played for the Oakland Raiders.Panini Group
Panini is an Italian company headquartered in Modena, Italy, named after the Panini brothers who founded it in 1961. The company produces books, comics, magazines, stickers, trading cards and other items through its collectibles and publishing subsidiaries. Panini distributes its own products, and products of third party providers. Panini maintains a Licensing Division to buy and resell licences and provide agency for individuals and newspapers seeking to purchase rights and comic licences. Through Panini Digital the company uses voice-activated software to capture football statistics, which is then sold to agents, teams, media outlets and video game manufactures.New Media operates Panini's on-line applications, and generates income through content and data sales. Forming a partnership with FIFA in 1970, Panini published its first FIFA World Cup sticker album for the 1970 World Cup. Since then, collecting and trading stickers has become part of the World Cup experience, especially for the younger generation. In 2017, a complete 1970 World Cup Panini sticker album signed by Pelé sold for a record £10,450.Pop Warner
Glenn Scobey Warner (April 5, 1871 – September 7, 1954), most commonly known as Pop Warner, was an American college football coach at various institutions who is responsible for several key aspects of the modern game. Included among his innovations are the single and double wing formations (precursors of the modern spread and shotgun formations), the three point stance and the body blocking technique. Fellow pioneer coach Amos Alonzo Stagg called Warner "one of the excellent creators". He was inducted as a coach into the College Football Hall of Fame as part of its inaugural class in 1951. He also contributed to a junior football program which became known as Pop Warner Little Scholars, a popular youth American football organization.In the early 1900s, he created a premier football program at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School—a federally-funded, off-reservation Indian boarding school. He also coached teams to four national championships: Pittsburgh in 1915, 1916, and 1918 and Stanford in 1926. In all, he was head coach at the University of Georgia (1895–1896), Iowa Agricultural College and Model Farm (1895–1899), Cornell University (1897–1898 and 1904–1906), Carlisle (1899–1903 and 1907–1914), Pittsburgh (1915–1923), Stanford (1924–1932) and Temple University (1933–1938), compiling a career college football record of 319–106–32. Predating Bear Bryant, Eddie Robinson, and Joe Paterno, he once had the most wins of any coach in college football history.Pop Warner (disambiguation)
Pop Warner refers to
Glenn Scobey "Pop" Warner, an early 20th-century American college football coach
Pop Warner Little Scholars, a non-profit organization named after the coach that offers youth American football and cheerleading and dance programs
Ron Warner (baseball), manager of the Memphis Redbirds, a AAA minor league professional baseball team in the Pacific Coast League
Pop Warner TrophyReverse (American football)
A reverse (sometimes referred to as an end reverse or criss cross) is a relatively common trick play in American football that involves one or more abrupt changes in the lateral flow of a rushing play.SciStarter
SciStarter recruits, trains, and equips people for citizen science research projects in need of their help. It was founded by Darlene Cavalier and is a research affiliate of Arizona State University's School for the Future of Innovation in Society. SciStarter is a collection of smart web tools and an event-based organization that connects people to more than 1,200 registered and vetted citizen science projects, events, and tools. New tools, developed by SciStarter with support from the National Science Foundation, enable citizen scientists to find, join, and track their contributions across projects and platforms. The organization's primary goal is to break down barriers preventing non-scientists from fully engaging in scientific research.Troy Vincent
Troy Darnell Vincent (born June 8, 1970) is a former American football cornerback for the Miami Dolphins, Philadelphia Eagles, Buffalo Bills and Washington Redskins of the National Football League (NFL). He was drafted by the Dolphins with the 7th overall pick in the 1992 NFL Draft. He played college football for Wisconsin, and has been named as a first-time nominee to the 2017 College Football Hall of Fame. On September 28, 2011, Vincent was named as one of the Preliminary Nominees for the Pro Football Hall of Fame Class of 2012 in his first year of eligibility, and each year since.He was previously inducted into the Sports Hall of Fame for the Philadelphia Eagles and was entered into the Hall of Fame for the State of Pennsylvania, the University of Wisconsin and Pennsbury High, his high school alma mater.
Vincent is currently Executive Vice President of Football Operations for the NFL.
Gridiron football concepts
|Levels of play|