Jacopo Carucci (May 24, 1494 – January 2, 1557), usually known as Jacopo da Pontormo, Jacopo Pontormo or simply Pontormo, was an Italian Mannerist painter and portraitist from the Florentine School. His work represents a profound stylistic shift from the calm perspectival regularity that characterized the art of the Florentine Renaissance.[1] He is famous for his use of twining poses, coupled with ambiguous perspective; his figures often seem to float in an uncertain environment, unhampered by the forces of gravity.

138 le vite, jacopo pontormo
Jacopo Carucci

May 24, 1494
Pontorme near Empoli, Italy
DiedJanuary 2, 1557 (aged 62)
Florence, Italy
Known forPainting
Notable work
The Deposition from the Cross

Biography and early work

Jacopo Carucci was born at Pontorme, near Empoli, to Bartolomeo di Jacopo di Martino Carrucci and Alessandra di Pasquale di Zanobi. Vasari relates how the orphaned boy, "young, melancholy and lonely", was shuttled around as a young apprentice:

Jacopo had not been many months in Florence before Bernardo Vettori sent him to stay with Leonardo da Vinci, and then with Mariotto Albertinelli, Piero di Cosimo, and finally, in 1512, with Andrea del Sarto, with whom he did not remain long, for after he had done the cartoons for the arch of the Servites, it does not seem that Andrea bore him any good will, whatever the cause may have been.

Jacopo Pontormo 038
Visitation, 1514–16; Fresco; 392 x 337 cm; SS. Annunziata, Florence
Visitation, 1528–29, Church of San Francesco e Michele, Carmignano

Pontormo painted in and around Florence, often supported by Medici patronage. A foray to Rome, largely to see Michelangelo's work, influenced his later style. Haunted faces and elongated bodies are characteristic of his work. An example of Pontormo's early style is a fresco depicting the Visitation of the Virgin and St Elizabeth, with its dancelike, balanced figures, painted from 1514 to 1516.

This early Visitation makes an interesting comparison with his painting of the same subject which was done about a decade later, now housed in the parish church of St. Michael Archangel in Carmignano, about 20 km west of Florence. Placing these two pictures together—one from his early style, and another from his mature period—throws Pontormo's artistic development into sharp relief. In the earlier work, Pontormo is much closer in style to his teacher, Andrea del Sarto, and to the early sixteenth century renaissance artistic principles. For example, the figures stand at just under half the height of the overall picture, and though a bit more crowded than true high renaissance balance would prefer, at least are placed in a classicizing architectural setting at a comfortable distance from the viewer. In the later work, the viewer is brought almost uncomfortably close to the Virgin and St. Elizabeth, who drift toward each other in clouds of drapery. Moreover, the clear architectural setting that is carefully constructed in earlier piece has been completely abandoned in favor of a peculiar nondescript urban setting.

Jacopo Pontormo 032
Joseph in Egypt, 1515–18; Oil on wood; 96 x 109 cm; National Gallery, London

The Joseph canvases (now in the National Gallery in London) offer another example of Pontormo's developing style. Done around the same time as the earlier Visitation, these works (such as Joseph in Egypt, at left) show a much more mannerist leaning. According to Giorgio Vasari, the sitter for the boy seated on a step is his young apprentice, Bronzino.

In the years between the SS Annunziata and San Michele Visitations, Pontormo took part in the fresco decoration of the salon of the Medici country villa at Poggio a Caiano (1519–20), 17 km NNW of Florence. There he painted frescoes in a pastoral genre style, very uncommon for Florentine painters; their subject was the obscure classical myth of Vertumnus and Pomona in a lunette.

Jacopo Pontormo 047
From lunette of Vertumnus and Pomona, 1520–21

In 1522, when the plague broke out in Florence, Pontormo left for the Certosa di Galluzzo, a cloistered Carthusian monastery where the monks followed vows of silence. He painted a series of frescoes, now quite damaged, on the passion and resurrection of Christ.

Main works in Florence

Jacopo Pontormo - Kreuzabnahme Christi
The Deposition from the Cross, 1525–28

The large altarpiece canvas for the Brunelleschi-designed Capponi Chapel in the church of Santa Felicita, Florence, portraying The Deposition from the Cross (1528), is considered by many Pontormo's surviving masterpiece.

The figures, with their sharply modeled forms and brilliant colors are united in an enormously complex, swirling ovular composition, housed by a shallow, somewhat flattened space. Although commonly known as The Deposition from the Cross, there is no actual cross in the picture. The scene might more properly be called a Lamentation or Bearing the Body of Christ. Those who are lowering (or supporting) Christ appear as anguished as the mourners. Though they are bearing the weight of a full-grown man, they barely seem to be touching the ground; the lower figure in particular balances delicately and implausibly on his front two toes. These two boys have sometimes been interpreted as angels, carrying Christ in his journey to Heaven. In this case, the subject of the picture would be more akin to an Entombment, though the lack of any discernible tomb disrupts that theory, just as the lack of cross poses a problem for the Deposition interpretation. Finally, it has also been noted that the positions of Christ and the Virgin seem to echo those of Michelangelo's Pietà in Rome, though here in the Deposition mother and son have been separated. Thus in addition to elements of a Lamentation and Entombment, this picture carries hints of a Pietà.[2] It has been speculated that the bearded figure in the background at the far right is a self-portrait of Pontormo as Joseph of Arimathea. Another unique feature of this particular Deposition is the empty space occupying the central pictorial plane as all the Biblical personages seem to fall back from this point. It has been suggested that this emptiness may be a physical representation of the Virgin Mary's emotional emptiness at the prospect of losing her son.

Annunciation, fresco

On the wall to the right of the Deposition, Pontormo frescoed an Annunciation scene (at left). As with the Deposition, the artist's primary attention is on the figures themselves rather than their setting. Placed against white walls, the Angel Gabriel and Virgin Mary are presented in an environment that is so simplified as to almost seem stark. The fictive architectural details above each of them, are painted to resemble the gray stone pietra serena that adorns the interior of Santa Felicità, thus uniting their painted space with the viewer's actual space. The startling contrast between the figures and ground makes their brilliant garments almost seem to glow in the light of the window between them, against the stripped-down background, as if the couple miraculously appeared in an extension of the chapel wall. The Annunciation resembles his above mentioned Visitation in the church of San Michele at Carmignano in both the style and swaying postures.

Vasari tells us that the cupola was originally painted with God the Father and Four Patriarchs. The decoration in the dome of the chapel is now lost, but four roundels with the Evangelists still adorn the pendentives, worked on by both Pontormo and his chief pupil Agnolo Bronzino. The two artists collaborated so closely that specialists dispute which roundels each of them painted.

This tumultuous oval of figures took three years for Pontormo to complete. According to Vasari, because Pontormo desired above all to "do things his own way without being bothered by anyone," the artist screened off the chapel so as to prevent interfering opinions. Vasari continues, "And so, having painted it in his own way without any of his friends being able to point anything out to him, it was finally uncovered and seen with astonishment by all of Florence..."[3]

A number of Pontormo's other works have also remained in Florence; the Uffizi Gallery holds his mystical Supper at Emmaus as well as portraits.

Many of Pontormo's well known canvases, such as the early Joseph in Egypt series (c. 1515) and the later Martyrdom of St Maurice and the Theban Legion (c. 1531) depict crowds milling about in extreme contrapposto of greatly varied positions.

His portraits, acutely characterized, show similarly Mannerist proportions.

Lost or damaged works

Jacopo Pontormo - Christ the Judge with the Creation of Eve - WGA18134
Christ and Creation of Eve
Jacopo Pontormo - Study for Deluge (portion of sheet) - WGA18142
Study for Deluge
Jacopo Pontormo - Group of the Dead - WGA18133
Dead in Last Judgment

Many of Pontormo's works have been damaged, including the lunnettes for the cloister in the Carthusian monastery of Galluzo. They now are displayed indoors, although in their damaged state.

Perhaps most tragic is the loss of the unfinished frescoes for the Basilica of San Lorenzo, Florence which consumed the last decade of his life. His frescoes depicted a Last Judgment day composed of an unsettling morass of writhing figures. The remaining drawings, showing a bizarre and mystical ribboning of bodies, had an almost hallucinatory effect. Florentine figure painting had mainly stressed linear and sculptural figures. For example, the Christ in Michelangelo's Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel is a massive painted block, stern in his wrath; by contrast, Pontormo's Jesus in the Last Judgment twists sinuously, as if rippling through the heavens in the dance of ultimate finality. Angels swirl about him in even more serpentine poses. If Pontormo's work from the 1520s seemed to float in a world little touched by gravitational force, the Last Judgment figures seem to have escaped it altogether and flail through a rarefied air.

In his Last Judgment, Pontormo went against pictorial and theological tradition by placing God the Father at the feet of Christ, instead of above him, an idea Vasari found deeply disturbing:

But I have never been able to understand the significance of this scene, although I know that Jacopo had wit enough for himself, and also associated with learned and lettered persons; I mean, what he could have intended to signify in that part where there is Christ on high, raising the dead, and below His feet is God the Father, who is creating Adam and Eve. Besides this, in one of the corners, where are the four Evangelists, nude, with books in their hands, it does not seem to me that in a single place did he give a thought to any order of composition, or measurement, or time, or variety in the heads, or diversity in the flesh-colours, or, in a word, to any rule, proportion or law of perspective, for the whole work is full of nude figures with an order, design, invention, composition, colouring, and painting contrived after his own fashion, and with such melancholy and so little satisfaction for him who beholds the work, that I am determined, since I myself do not understand it, although I am a painter, to leave all who may see it to form their own judgement, for the reason that I believe that I would drive myself mad with it, and would bury myself alive, even as it appears to me that Jacopo in the period of eleven years that he spent upon it sought to bury himself and all who might see the painting, among all those extraordinary figures... Wherefore it appears that in this work he paid no attention to anything save certain parts, and of the other more important parts he took no account whatever. In a word, whereas he had thought in the work to surpass all the paintings in the world of art, he failed by a great measure to equal his own (past) works; whence it is evident that he who seeks to strive beyond his strength and, as it were, to force nature, ruins the good qualities with which he may have been liberally endowed by her.(1)

Critical assessment and legacy

Vasari's Life of Pontormo depicts him as withdrawn and steeped in neurosis while at the center of the artists and patrons of his lifetime. This image of Pontormo has tended to color the popular conception of the artist, as seen in the film of Giovanni Fago, Pontormo, a heretical love. Fago portrays Pontormo as mired in a lonely and ultimately paranoid dedication to his final Last Judgment project, which he often kept shielded from onlookers. Yet as the art historian Elizabeth Pilliod has pointed out, Vasari was in fierce competition with the Pontormo/Bronzino workshop at the time when he was writing his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects. This professional rivalry between the two bottegas could well have provided Vasari with ample motivation for running down the artistic lineage of his opponent for Medici patronage.[4]

Pontormo - Portrait of Maria Salviati de' Medici with Giulia de' Medici - Walters 37596
Portrait of Maria Salviati, the wife of famous military leader Giovanni delle Bande Nere de' Medici, and Giulia, a Medici relative who was left in Maria's care after the murder of the child's father;[5] Walters Art Museum

Perhaps as a result of Vasari's derision, or perhaps because of the vagaries of aesthetic taste, Pontormo's work was quite out of fashion for several centuries. The fact that so much of his work has been lost or severely damaged is testament to this neglect, though he has received renewed attention by contemporary art historians. Indeed, between 1989 and 2002, Pontormo's Portrait of a Halberdier (at right), held the title of the world's most expensive painting by an Old Master.

Regardless as to the veracity of Vasari's account, it is certainly true that Pontormo's artistic idiosyncrasies produced a style that few were able (or willing) to imitate, with the exception of his closest pupil Bronzino. Bronzino's early work is so close to that of his teacher, that the authorship of several paintings from the 1520s and '30s is still under dispute—for example, the four tondi containing the Evangelists in the Capponi Chapel, and the Portrait of a Lady in Red now in Frankfurt.

Pontormo shares some of the mannerism of Rosso Fiorentino and of Parmigianino. In some ways he anticipated the Baroque as well as the tensions of El Greco. His eccentricities also resulted in an original sense of composition. At best, his compositions are cohesive. The figures in the Deposition, for example, appear to sustain each other: removal of any one of them would cause the edifice to collapse. In other works, as in the Joseph canvases, the crowding makes for a confusing pictorial melee. It is in the later drawings that we see a graceful fusion of bodies in a composition which includes the oval frame of Jesus in the Last Judgement.

Anthology of works

Pontormo (Jacopo Carucci) (Italian, Florentine) - Portrait of a Halberdier (Francesco Guardi?) - Google Art Project
Portrait of a Halberdier, 1528–30, oil on canvas, J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles
Agnolo Bronzino 058
Portrait of a Lady in Red, ca. 1532–35, oil on panel, Städelsches Kunstinstitut und Städtische Galerie, Franfurt; variously attributed to Pontormo or Bronzino[6]

Early works (until 1521)

Painting Date Site Link
Leda and the Swan (uncertain attribution) 1512–1513 Uffizi Gallery, Florence
Apollo and Daphne 1513 Bowdoin College Museum of Art, Brunswick, Maine [1]
Holy Conversation 1514 San Luca Chapel, Santissima Annunziata, Florence
Madonna and Child with the Infant St John the Baptist c.1514 Whitfield Fine Art, London [2]
Episode of Hospital Life 1514 Accademia, Florence [3]
Veronica and the Image 1515 Medici Chapel, Santa Maria Novella, Florence
Visitation 1514–16 Santissima Annunziata, Florence [4]
Lady with Basket of Spindles(attributed to Andrea del Sarto) 1516–1517 Uffizi Gallery, Florence
Marriage bedchamber panels for Pier Francesco Borgherini. (Two others by Francesco Bacchiacca)
Joseph reveals himself to his brothers 1516-17 National Gallery, London
Joseph sold to Potiphar 1516-17 National Gallery, London [5]
Joseph's Brothers Beg for Help 1515 National Gallery, London [6]
Pharaoh with his Butler and Baker 1516–1517 National Gallery, London [7]
Joseph in Egypt 1517-18 National Gallery, London [8]
*St. Quentin (Also attributed to Giovanni Maria Pichi) 1517 Pinacoteca comunale, Sansepolcro
Portrait of Furrier 1517–1518 Louvre, Paris [9]
St Jerome & St Francis 1518 Whitfield Fine Art, London [10]
Madonna with Child and Saints 1518 San Michele Visdomini, Florence
Portrait of Musician 1518–1519 Uffizi Gallery, Florence
St Anthony Abbott 1518–1519 Uffizi Gallery, Florence [11]
Portrait of Cosimo the Elder 1518–1519 Uffizi Gallery, Florence [12]
John the Evangelist & the Archangel Gabriel 1519 Church of S. Michele, Empoli
Adoration of the Magi 1519-21 Palazzo Pitti, Florence
Vertumnus and Pomona 1519–1521 Villa Medici, Poggio a Caiano
Study of Man's Head (Drawing) Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City [13]

Mature works (1522–30)

Painting Date Site Link
Mary and Child with Four Saints 1520-30 Metropolitan Museum, New York City
Portrait of two friends c. 1522 Fondazione Giorgio Cini, Venice
Madonna with Child & Two Saints (Bronzino?) c. 1522 Uffizi Gallery, Florence [14]
Holy Family with St John 1522–1524 Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg [15]
Madonna with Child & St John (Attributed to Rosso Fiorentino) 1523–1525 Uffizi Gallery, Florence
Prayer in Gesthemane (copies by Jacopo da Empoli) 1523–25 Certosa di Galluzzo [16]
Walk to Calvary 1523–1525 Certosa di Galluzo [17]
Christ before Pilate 1523–1525 Certosa di Galluzzo [18]
Deposition 1523–1525 Certosa di Galluzzo
Resurrection 1523–1525 Certosa di Galluzzo [19]
Supper in Emmaus 1525 Uffizi Gallery, Florence [20]
Study of a Carthusian Monk (Drawing) 1525 Uffizi Gallery, Florence [21]
Madonna and child & two angels 1525 San Francisco Museum of Art, San Francisco [22]
Portrait of young man in pink 1525–1526, Pinacoteca Communale, Lucca
Tabernacle of San Giuliano, Boldrone, Crucifix with Madonna & St. John, and Sant'Agostino 1525–1526: Accademia, Florence
Birth of St. John Baptist 1526 Uffizi Gallery, Florence
Saint Jerome Penitent 1526–1527 Lower Saxony State Museum, Hanover
Madonna with Child & St John (Bronzino?) 1526–1528 Palazzo Corsini, Florence
Madonna with Child & St John 1527–1528 Uffizi Gallery, Florence [23]
Matthew, Luke, & John (Mark painted by Bronzino) 1525–1526 Santa Felicita, Capponi Chapel, Florence.
Deposition 1526–1528 Santa Felicita, Capponi Chapel, Florence. [24]
Annunciation 1527–1528 Santa Felicita, Capponi Chapel, Florence [25] [26]
Portrait of Francesca Capponi, as St. Mary Magdalen 1527–1528 Whitfield Fine Art, London [27]
Visitation 1528–1529 Church of San Francesco e Michele, Carmignano [28]
Madonna with Child, Saint Anne and Four saints 1528–1529 Louvre Museum, Paris [29]
Portrait of a Halberdier 1528–1530 J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles [30]
Eleven Thousand Martyrs 1529–1530 Palazzo Pitti, Florence
Portrait of a man in a red cap 1530 National Gallery, London

Late works (after 1530)

Painting Date Site Link
Martyrdom of San Maurizio and the Theban Legions (Pontormo & Bronzino) 1531 Uffizi Gallery, Florence
Noli me Tangere (Bronzino?) 1531 Casa Buonarroti, Florence [31]
Portrait of lady in red with puppy, (Bronzino?) 1532–1533 Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt
Venus and Cupid 1532–1534 Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence
Portrait of Alessandro de' Medici c. 1534-1535 Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia [32]
Portrait of Alessandro de' Medici c. 1534-1535 Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago [33]
Adam and Eve 1535 Uffizi Gallery, Florence
Study for the Three Graces (Drawing) 1535 Uffizi Gallery, Florence [34]
Portrait of Maria Salviati de' Medici and Giulia de' Medici (Painting) c. 1539 Walters Art Museum, Baltimore [35]
Portrait of Niccolò Ardinghelli National Gallery, Washington, D.C. [36]
Portrait of Maria Salviati 1543–1545 Uffizi Gallery, Florence
Sacrificial Scene c. 1545 Capodimonte Museum, Naples
My Book (Pontormo's Diary) 1554–1556 National Library, Florence
Portrait of Pontormo (Bronzino) [37]
St. Francis (Drawing) Museum of Fine Arts, Boston [38]
San Lorenzo (Fresco cartoons) [39][40][41]

See also

Lost artworks


  1. ^ "Pontormo: Miraculous Encounters". The Morgan Library & Museum. 4 April 2018. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
  2. ^ One attempt at defining mannerist art is to characterize it as art that follows art rather than art that follows nature, or life. [See for example Sydney Freedberg's notion of the 'quoted' form in "Observations on the Painting of the Maniera" Art Bulletin 47 (1965), pp. 187–97.] Though Freedberg did not classify Pontormo as a strictly maniera painter, if we accept that the Deposition does hold a quotation from Michelangelo's Pietà, then perhaps we can understand better how Pontormo fits in as a mannerist and into his own larger history of sixteenth century art.
  3. ^ Giorgio Vasari, The Lives of the Artists, tr. Julia Conaway Bondanella and Peter Bondanella (Oxford University Press, 1998), p. 409
  4. ^ See "An Introduction to Vasari's Story" in Pontormo, Bronzino, and Allori: A Genealogy of Florentine Art (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001).
  5. ^ "Portrait of Maria Salviati de' Medici with Giulia de' Medici". Walters Art Museum.
  6. ^ Strehlke, C. B., Cropper, E., & Philadelphia Museum of Art. (2004). Pontormo, Bronzino, and the Medici: The Transformation of the Renaissance Portrait in Florence. Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art in association with the Pennsylvania State University Press. p. 108. ISBN 0876331819

Further reading

  • Krystof, Doris. Joseph Carrucci, known as Pontormo 1494–1557. Köln: Konemann, 1988. ISBN 3-8290-0254-8
  • Edelstein, Bruce and Gasparotto, Davide. Miraculous Encounters: Pontormo from Drawing to Painting. 160 pages ISBN 978-1-60606-589-1

Getty Publications Imprint: J. Paul Getty Museum 2018

External links

Annunciation (Pontormo)

The Annunciation is a wall painting by the Italian mannerist artist Jacopo Pontormo, executed in 1527–1528 as part of his commission to decorate the Capponi Chapel in the church of Santa Felicita, Florence.

It is frescoed around the window on the wall adjacent to Pontormo's masterpiece, the famous Deposition from the Cross. Pontormo depicts the Annunciation, the revelation to Mary by the Archangel Gabriel that she would conceive a child to be born the Son of God, in a lively composition, with both figures in an elastic contrapposto.


Agnolo di Cosimo (Italian: [ˈaɲɲolo di ˈkɔːzimo]; November 17, 1503 – November 23, 1572), usually known as Bronzino ("Il Bronzino" [il bronˈdziːno] in Italian), or Agnolo Bronzino, was an Italian Mannerist painter, born in Florence. His sobriquet, Bronzino, may refer to his relatively dark skin or reddish hair.He lived all his life in Florence, and from his late 30s was kept busy as the court painter of Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. He was mainly a portraitist but also painted many religious subjects, and a few allegorical subjects, which include what is probably his best known work, Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time, c. 1544–45, now in London. Many portraits of the Medicis exist in several versions with varying degrees of participation by Bronzino himself, as Cosimo was a pioneer of the copied portrait sent as a diplomatic gift.

He trained with Pontormo, the leading Florentine painter of the first generation of Mannerism, and his style was greatly influenced by him, but his elegant and somewhat elongated figures always appear calm and somewhat reserved, lacking the agitation and emotion of those by his teacher. They have often been found cold and artificial, and his reputation suffered from the general critical disfavour attached to Mannerism in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Recent decades have been more appreciative of his art.

Capponi Chapel

The Barbadori Chapel, later Capponi Chapel, is a chapel in the church of Santa Felicita in Florence, central Italy. It was designed by Filippo Brunelleschi, and was later decorated by a cycle of works by the Mannerist painter Pontormo.

Carmignano Visitation

The Carmignano Visitation is a c.1528-1530 oil on panel painting of the Visitation by Pontormo, now in the propositura dei Santi Michele e Francesco in Carmignano (PO, Italy).

Unmentioned in Vasari's Lives of the Artists, the painting is usually attributed to the years just after Pontormo's work on the Capponi Chapel. Originally on the Pinadori family altar, it has remained in the church for which it was painted for almost its whole existence. A preparatory drawing for it is now in the Uffizi, with the squaring for its transfer to the panel. Its rhombus composition is based on that of Four Witches, a 1497 print by Dürer.

It inspired Bill Viola's video work The Greeting (1995), which for a time was exhibited in a room next to the painting. The painting has appeared in the temporary exhibitions Pontormo e Rosso Fiorentino. Divergenti vie della maniera (Palazzo Strozzi, Florence, 2014) and Bill Viola. Rinascimento elettronico (Palazzo Strozzi, Florence, 2017).

Florence Charterhouse

Florence Charterhouse (Certosa di Firenze or Certosa del Galluzzo) is a charterhouse, or Carthusian monastery, located in the Florence suburb of Galluzzo, in central Italy. The building is a walled complex located on Monte Acuto, at the point of confluence of the Ema and Greve rivers.

The charterhouse was founded in 1341 by the Florentine noble Niccolò Acciaioli, Grand Seneschal of the Kingdom of Naples, but continued to expand over the centuries as the recipient of numerous donations.

In 1958 the monastery was taken over by Cistercian monks.

The chapter house now holds lunettes from the cloister, frescoed by Pontormo, damaged by exposure to the elements.

The charterhouse inspired Le Corbusier for his urban projects.The monastery houses the Società Internazionale per lo Studio del Medioevo Latino, an Italian non-profit cultural institute.

Giulia de' Medici

Giulia Romola di Alessandro de' Medici (c. 1535 – c. 1588) was the illegitimate, possibly biracial, daughter of Alessandro de' Medici, Duke of Florence and his mistress Taddea Malaspina.

Following her father's assassination, she was reared at the court of Cosimo I de' Medici and married advantageously twice.

Madonna with Child and Saints (Pontormo)

The Madonna with Child and Saints, also known as Pala Pucci, is a painting by the Italian late Renaissance painter Jacopo Pontormo, executed in 1516. It is housed in the church of San Michele Visdomini in Florence.

It portrays numerous figures. Saint Joseph, on the left, is holding Jesus (a role usually fulfilled by the Madonna). The presence of Saint Joseph is explained by the fact that the Gospel of James deals with Christ's childhood and praises Joseph's paternal cares. Saint Francis is connected to name of the committant and the devotion of his order towards Jesus.


Mannerism, also known as Late Renaissance, is a style in European art that emerged in the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520, spreading by about 1530 and lasting until about the end of the 16th century in Italy, when the Baroque style largely replaced it. Northern Mannerism continued into the early 17th century.Stylistically, Mannerism encompasses a variety of approaches influenced by, and reacting to, the harmonious ideals associated with artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and early Michelangelo. Where High Renaissance art emphasizes proportion, balance, and ideal beauty, Mannerism exaggerates such qualities, often resulting in compositions that are asymmetrical or unnaturally elegant. The style is notable for its intellectual sophistication as well as its artificial (as opposed to naturalistic) qualities. It favors compositional tension and instability rather than the balance and clarity of earlier Renaissance painting. Mannerism in literature and music is notable for its highly florid style and intellectual sophistication.The definition of Mannerism and the phases within it continue to be a subject of debate among art historians. For example, some scholars have applied the label to certain early modern forms of literature (especially poetry) and music of the 16th and 17th centuries. The term is also used to refer to some late Gothic painters working in northern Europe from about 1500 to 1530, especially the Antwerp Mannerists—a group unrelated to the Italian movement. Mannerism has also been applied by analogy to the Silver Age of Latin literature.

Maria Salviati

Maria Salviati (17 July 1499 – 29 December 1543) was an Italian noblewoman, the daughter of Lucrezia di Lorenzo de' Medici and Jacopo Salviati. She married Giovanni dalle Bande Nere and was the mother of Cosimo I de Medici. Her husband died 30 November 1526, leaving her a widow at the age of 27. Salviati never remarried; after her husband's death she adopted the somber garb of a novice, which is how she is remembered today as numerous late portraits show her attired in black and white.

Pedro Machuca

Pedro Machuca (born Toledo, Spain ca. 1490; died 1550) is mainly remembered as the Spanish architect responsible for the design of the Palace of Charles V (begun 1528) adjacent to the Alcazar in Granada. The significance of this work is that it represents likely the first major classic Renaissance style building in Spain. Culturally, it represents the urge by the conquering Christians to challenge the hegemony of Moorish architecture in the recently (1492) acquired province of Granada.

The details of his life are poorly known. Born in Toledo, he is said to have been a pupil or friends with Michelangelo and Pontormo. Returning to Spain in 1520, he worked as a painter in the Royal Chapel of Granada, as well as in Jaén, Toledo, and Uclés.

Pontormo – Un amore eretico

Pontormo – Un amore eretico is a 2004 film by Italian director Giovanni Fago.

Portrait of Bia de' Medici

The Portrait of Bia de' Medici is an oil-tempera on wood painting by Agnolo Bronzino, dating to around 1542 and now in the Uffizi in Florence. For a long time it was displayed in the Tribuna at the heart of the museum, but since 2012 it has been moved to the 'sale rosse' of the Nuovi Uffizi. A second portrait, by Pontormo, has also been argued to show Bia de' Medici, but this identification is disputed.

Sacrificial Scene

Sacrificial Scene is a grisaille tempera on canvas painting by Pontormo, produced around 1520 and now in the National Museum of Capodimonte in Naples. It was probably originally produced as part of the decoration of an interior in honour of Cosimo de' Medici.

The canvas was later mounted on panel, probably to be part of a mobile apparatus. It first appeared in the Farnese collection inventories in 1644 and was moved to Naples with the rest of the collection late in the 18th century, where it was displayed in Room 10 of the Capodimonte Museum.

Santissima Annunziata, Florence

The Basilica della Santissima Annunziata (Basilica of the Most Holy Annunciation) is a Renaissance-style, Roman Catholic minor basilica in Florence, region of Tuscany, Italy. This is considered the mother church of the Servite Order. It is located at the northeastern side of the Piazza Santissima Annunziata near the city center.

St. Quentin (Pontormo)

St. Quentin is a painting attributed to the Italian Renaissance master Jacopo Pontormo. According to Giorgio Vasari's Vite, one of Pontormo's pupils, Gianmaria Pichi, was commissioned by his hometown of Sansepolcro a processional standard with the figure of St. Quentin; Pontormo decided to collaborate on the work, at the extent that he finished to complete most of it. The saint's posture resembles that of the Dying Slave by Michelangelo: the fact that Pontormo was friend of the latter confirms the attribution.

The position of the nails in St. Quentin's body is directly inspired to Jacopo da Varagine's Legenda Aurea.

The Deposition from the Cross (Pontormo)

The Deposition from the Cross is an altarpiece, completed in 1528, depicting the Deposition of Christ by the Italian Renaissance painter Jacopo Pontormo. It is broadly considered to be the artist's surviving masterpiece. Painted in oil on wood, the painting is located above the altar of the Capponi Chapel of the church of Santa Felicita in Florence.

The Entombment (disambiguation)

The Entombment usually refers to the entombment, or burial, of Jesus.

The Entombment may also refer to these works of art:

The Entombment (Bouts), a glue-size painting on linen attributed to Dirk Bouts

The Entombment (Delacroix), a copy of Titian's earlier work on the subject by Eugene Delacroix

The Entombment (Michelangelo), an unfinished painting of the placing of the body of Jesus in the garden tomb

The Entombment (Pontormo) or The Deposition from the Cross, an altarpiece by Jacopo Pontormo, completed in 1528

The Entombment (Titian, 1525)

The Entombment (Titian, 1559)

The Entombment of Christ (Caravaggio)

The Deposition (Raphael) or The Entombment, an oil painting by Raphael

Valentina Fago

Valentina Fago (born 22 April 1971 in Bologna) is an Italian actress.

Actress in theatre with Luca Ronconi, Stanislas Nordey, Thierry Salmon, Denis Marleau among many others. She acts also in cinema in Pontormo - un amore eretico (direction: Giovanni Fago) and in il ponte (direction: Stefano Missio). She lives in Paris where she teaches theatrical practice.

Vertumnus and Pomona (Pontormo)

The fresco decoration of Vertumnus and Pomona in the Medici country villa at Poggio a Caiano (near Montalbano) was painted by Jacopo Pontormo. The villa is set among orchards and gardens, and in summer, served as a retreat from the heat in Florence.

The fresco surrounds a lunette, high in a barrel-vaulted central hall. The allegorical figures over the doors and the facing fresco depicting Julius Caesar, begun by Pontormo’s mentor, Andrea del Sarto, were completed decades later by Alessandro Allori. Pontormo initially received the commission from Ottaviano de' Medici and Cardinal Giulio de' Medici, the future Clement VII, and Giovanni de’ Medici (later pope as Leo X).

The painting depicts peasants, including a naked youth, picking fruit or lounging beneath trees in a walled framework. Putti garland the window. The stated theme is the classical myth of Vertumnus and Pomona taken from a story in Ovid's Metamorphoses. The myth is that of Pomona, a beautiful but aloof wood-nymph, shown with a sickle at right lower corner, who sheltered herself inside her orchard, dedicating herself to its cultivation while spurning all suitors. Vertumnus, either a demigod of seasons or a satyr, becomes taken with the nymph's beauty, but she ignores and rebuffs all his advances to enter her realm and remains a maiden. The mutable Vertumnus gains access to the orchard disguised or transformed into an old woman (depicted as an old man with a basket, however, in this fresco). Once inside, the myth relates that the disguised Vertumnus convinces Pomona, by means of allusive stories, to "carpe diem" and choose the handsome youth Vertumnus, who finally reveals his true form.

One interpretation of this fresco is that the allegory delicately counterposes the turns in the myth using a mirror fashion in each hemi-lunette by depicting a contrast of the elder-faced Vertumnus with the rapt Pomona, the youth with a basket and a turning maiden, and finally, the naked man aloft on the fence picking fruit from the same tree from which, at a distance, the maiden trims a branch while clothed in a red dress that suggests arousal. This is an elaborately seductive interpretation for this fresco that was created for a family closely associated with the papacy.

The imagery is an apt choice for this rural farm, however. It lacks the usual melancholy of Pontormo's religious canvases, and thus, is unique among his works. In some ways, this painting is aberrant in the prevailing current of Florentine painting of its time. Florentine painting, if not portraiture, often was intellectual, academic, and focused on allegory, mythology, or religious themes. Genre topics and still life studies were rare for the high-minded Florentines. In addition, nearly all Italian painting until that time depicted indoor settings or included urban landscapes, and if not, the landscape was unmemorable sfumato dissipating in the distance.

The summer season evoked by the fruit and the reposing figures in the fresco is powerful as well as soothing. The theme of the relaxed near-genre scene gently suggests fertility.

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