The Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City (Italian: Pontificia Commissione per lo Stato della Città del Vaticano, Latin: Pontificia Commissio pro Civitate Vaticana) is the legislative body of Vatican City. It consists of President of the Governatorate of Vatican City State, who is also President of the Pontifical Commission, and six other cardinals appointed by the pope for five-year terms.
Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City
|Appointment by the Pope|
|11 July 2018|
|Palace of the Governorate|
The Pontifical Commission was created in 1939 by Pius XII. Laws and regulations proposed by the Commission must be submitted to the pope through the Secretariat of State prior to being made public and taking effect. Laws, regulations, and instructions enacted by the Commission are published in the Acta Apostolicae Sedis.
In addition to his legislative role, the President of the Governatorate of Vatican City State, who since 1 October 2011 has been Cardinal Giuseppe Bertello, has been delegated executive authority for the Vatican City State by the pope.
The Commission is headed by the President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State. As a senior member of the Roman Curia, the President is normally a cardinal of the Catholic Church. He also serves as the head of government of Vatican City, the President of the Governorate of Vatican City State, an office which is distinct from the former title of Governor of Vatican City. In addition to his legislative role, the President is delegated executive authority for Vatican City by the Pope. Administrations and departments of Vatican City's government, including the Corpo della Gendarmeria, the Vatican Observatory, the Vatican Museums, and the Department of Pontifical Villas, which administers Castel Gandolfo, report to the Governorate.
The functions of the Governorate include:
During a sede vacante, the term of the president ends, as do most other offices in the Curia. However, the holder of the office prior to the death or resignation of the pope becomes a member of a Commission, with the former Cardinal Secretary of State and the Chamberlain of the Holy Roman Church, that handles some of the functions of the head of state until a new pope can be chosen.
Since 2011, the president and the members are:
Agostino Casaroli (24 November 1914 – 9 June 1998) was an Italian Catholic priest and diplomat for the Holy See, who became Cardinal Secretary of State. He was the most important figure behind the Vatican's efforts to deal with the persecution of the Church in the nations of the Soviet bloc after the Second Vatican Council.Amleto Giovanni Cicognani
Amleto Giovanni Cicognani (24 February 1883 – 17 December 1973) was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Vatican Secretary of State from 1961 to 1969, and Dean of the College of Cardinals from 1972 until his death. Cicognani was elevated to the cardinalate in 1958. His brother, Gaetano Cicognani, was also a cardinal. To date they are the last pair of brothers to serve together in the College of Cardinals.Cardinal Secretary of State
The Secretary of State of His Holiness The Pope, commonly known as the Cardinal Secretary of State, presides over the Holy See Secretariat of State, which is the oldest and most important dicastery of the Roman Curia. The Secretariat of State performs all the political and diplomatic functions of the Holy See and the Vatican City. The Secretary of State is sometimes described as the prime minister of the Holy See, even though the nominal head of government of Vatican City is the President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State.
The Secretary of State is currently Cardinal Pietro Parolin.Castra Nova (Mauretania)
Castra Nova was a Roman-era city and diocese in Mauretania, Africa Proconsulare. The town is identified with the stone ruins at Mohammadia, Mascara in modern Algeria. It is now a Roman Catholic titular see.Edmund Szoka
Edmund Casimir Szoka (September 14, 1927 – August 20, 2014) was an American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He was President Emeritus of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State and President Emeritus of the Governatorate of Vatican City State, having previously served as Bishop of Gaylord from 1971 to 1981 and Archbishop of Detroit from 1981 to 1990. Szoka was elevated to the cardinalate in 1988.Fundamental Law of Vatican City State
The Fundamental Law of Vatican City State, promulgated by Pope John Paul II on 26 November 2000, is the main governing document of the Vatican's civil entities. It obtained the force of law of 22 February 2001, Feast of the Chair of St. Peter, Apostle, and replaced in its entirety law N. I (the Fundamental Law of Vatican City of 7 June 1929). All the norms in force in Vatican City State which were not in agreement with the new Law were abrogated and the original of the Fundamental Law, bearing the Seal of Vatican City State, was deposited in the Archive of the Laws of Vatican City State and the corresponding text was published in the Supplement to the Acta Apostolicae Sedis. The law consists of 20 Articles.Giovanni Lajolo
Giovanni Lajolo (born 3 January 1935 in Novara, Italy) is a Cardinal and former President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State and President of the Governatorate of Vatican City State.Giuseppe Bertello
Giuseppe Bertello (born 1 October 1942) is a Catholic prelate and cardinal currently serving as the President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State and President of the Governorate of Vatican City State.Governor's Palace, Vatican
The Governor's Palace (Italian: Palazzo del Governatorato in Vaticano) is the seat of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State. The palace is located in the Vatican Gardens behind St. Peter's Basilica.Governor of Vatican City
The post of Governor of Vatican City (Governatore dello Stato della Città del Vaticano in Italian) was held by Marchese Camillo Serafini from the foundation of the state in 1929 until his death in 1952. No successor was appointed, and the post itself was not mentioned in the Fundamental Law of Vatican City State issued by Pope John Paul II on 26 November 2000, which entered into force on 22 February 2001.
Even during the lifetime of Marchese Serafini, the powers of the Governor were limited by Pope Pius XII in 1939 by the establishment of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State—consisting of a number of cardinals, originally three, but later increased to seven. The President of this Commission has exercised since 1952 the functions that were previously attributed to the Governor. Since 2001, he is also given the title of President of the Governorate of the State of Vatican City.Jean-Marie Villot
Jean-Marie Villot (11 October 1905 – 9 March 1979) was a French prelate and Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who served as Archbishop of Lyon from 1965 to 1967, Prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy from 1967 to 1969, Vatican Secretary of State from 1969 to 1979, and Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church from 1970 to 1979. He was elevated to the cardinalate in 1965.Justice minister
A justice ministry, ministry of justice, or department of justice is a ministry or other government agency in charge of the administration of justice. The ministry or department is often headed by a minister of justice (called minister for justice in only very few countries) or secretary of justice. In countries where this agency is called a department (usually department of justice, sometimes attorney general's department) the head of the department is entitled attorney general, for example in the United States. Monaco is an example of a country that does not have a ministry of justice, but rather a Directorate of Judicial Services (Secretary of Justice) that oversees the administration of justice. Vatican City, a country under the sovereignty of the Holy See, also does not possess a ministry of justice. The legislative body (which includes a legal office) is overseen by the President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State.
Depending on the country, specific duties may relate to organizing the justice system, overseeing the public prosecutor and national investigative agencies (e.g. Federal Bureau of Investigation), and maintaining the legal system and public order. Some ministries have additional responsibilities in related policy areas overseeing elections, directing the police, law reform, and administration of the immigration and citizenship services. The duties of the ministry of justice may in some countries be split from separate responsibilities of an attorney general (often responsible for the justice system) and the interior minister (often responsible for public order). Sometimes the prison system is separated into another government department called Corrective Services.Nicola Canali
Nicola Canali (6 June 1874 – 3 August 1961) was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State from 1939 and as Major Penitentiary from 1941 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1935. He was Grand Master of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem, a prestigious papal order of knighthood.Politics of Vatican City
The politics of Vatican City take place in a framework of a theocratic absolute elective monarchy, in which the Pope, religiously speaking, the leader of the Roman Catholic Church and Bishop of Rome, exercises ex officio supreme legislative, executive, and judicial power over the Vatican City (an entity distinct from the Holy See), a rare case of non-hereditary monarchy.
The pope is elected in the Conclave, composed of all the cardinal electors (now limited to all the cardinals below the age of 80), after the death or resignation of the previous Pope. The Conclave is held in the Sistine Chapel, where all the electors are locked in (Latin cum clave) until the election for which a two-thirds majority is required. The faithful can follow the results of the polls (usually two in the morning and two in the evening, until election) by a chimney-top, visible from St. Peter's Square: in a stove attached to the chimney are burnt the voting papers, and additives make the resulting smoke black (fumata nera) in case of no election, white (fumata bianca) when the new pope is finally elected. The Dean of the Sacred College (Cardinale Decano) will then ask the freshly elected pope to choose his pastoral name, and as soon as the pope is dressed with the white cassock, the Senior Cardinal-Deacon (Cardinale Protodiacono) appears on the major balcony of St. Peter's façade to introduce the new pope with the famous Latin sentence
Annuntio vobis gaudium magnum: habemus papam.(I announce to you a great joy: We have a Pope). The term "Holy See" refers to the composite of the authority, jurisdiction, and sovereignty vested in the Pope and his advisers to direct the worldwide Roman Catholic Church. It is therefore quite distinct from the Vatican City state, which was created in 1929, through the Lateran treaties between the Holy See and Italy. As the "central government" of the Roman Catholic Church, the Holy See has a legal personality that allows it to enter into treaties as the juridical equal of a state and to send and receive diplomatic representatives. It has formal diplomatic relations with 179 nations. The State of Vatican City, for its part, is recognized under international law as a sovereign territory. Unlike the Holy See, it does not receive or send diplomatic representatives, and the Holy See acts on its behalf in international affairs.Pontifical commission
A pontifical commission (Latin: pontificia commissio) is a committee of Catholic experts convened by the Pope for a specific purpose. The following is a list of commissions, the dates they began and the pope who established.
Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei, 2 July 1988 by Pope John Paul II.
Pontifical Commission for the Cultural Heritage of the Church, 1988 by Pope John Paul II.
Pontifical Commission for Sacred Archaeology, 6 January 1852 by Pope Pius IX.
Pontifical Biblical Commission, 30 October 1902 by Pope Leo XIII.
International Theological Commission, 1969
Pontifical Commission for Latin America, 19 April 1958 by Pope Pius XII.
Pontifical Commission for Religious Relations with the Jews, established 22 October 1974.
Pontifical Commission for Reference on the Institute for Works of Religion, 24 June 2013 by Pope Francis.
Pontifical Commission for Reference on the Organisation of the Economic-Administrative Structure of the Holy See, 18 July 2013.
Pontifical Commission for the Protection of Minors, 22 March 2014.
Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State, which is an institute of the Vatican City State and not considered as part of the Roman Curia, 1939 by Pius XII.Former:
Pontifical Commission for Russia
Pontifical Commission on Birth ControlSee also: Interdicasterial commissions:
Interdicasterial Commission for the Catechism of the Catholic Church (former)
Interdicasterial Commission on Particular Churches
Interdicasterial Commission for the Church in Eastern Europe
Interdicasterial Commission for Consecrated Religious
Interdicasterial Commission for Candidates to Sacred OrderPresident of the government
President of the government, chairman of the government, or head of the government is a term used in official statements to describe several Prime Ministers.
Croatia, Prime Minister of Croatia
Greece, Prime Minister of Greece, Πρόεδρος της Κυβέρνησης
Lebanon, Prime Minister of Lebanon
Morocco, President of the Government of Morocco
Philippines, Prime Minister of the Philippines (defunct)
Serbia, Prime Minister of Serbia
Slovenia, Prime Minister of Slovenia
Spain, Prime Minister of Spain, Presidente del Gobierno de España
Vatican City, President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City StateChairman of the Government can refer to:
Russia, Prime Minister of Russia
Adjara, Chairman of the Government of Adjara
Slovakia, Prime Minister of Slovakia
Czech Republic, Prime Minister of the Czech RepublicHead of the Government can refer to:
Algeria, Prime Minister of Algeria
Tunisia, Head of Government of Tunisia
Israel, Prime Minister of Israel
Syria, Prime Minister of SyriaRosalio José Castillo Lara
Rosalio José Castillo Lara JCD (4 September 1922 – 16 October 2007) was a Venezuelan prelate of the Catholic Church. He worked in the Roman Curia for almost all of his career, first with responsibility for rewriting the code of canon law and then in administrative positions in the government of the Holy See. He was made a cardinal in 1985.Sebastiano Baggio
Sebastiano Baggio (16 May 1913 – 22 March 1993) was an Italian cardinal, a candidate for pope and the President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State in 1984 and the prefect of the Sacred Congregation for Bishops in 1978.
Born in Rosà, Veneto, Sebastiano was ordained a priest on 21 December 1935, at the age of 22, in Vicenza. He was a priest for 57 years, a bishop for 39 years and a cardinal for 23 years. Described as affable and smiling, he helped many charitable works.
After a diplomatic career that included assignments in Chile, Canada and Brazil, he was elevated to cardinal in 1969 by Pope Paul VI and named Archbishop of Cagliari, Sardinia. He participated in the two conclaves of 1978. Cardinal Baggio died in 1993 at Rome at age 79; at the time, he was the Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, and a sub dean of the College of Cardinals.Sergio Guerri
Sergio Guerri (25 December 1905—15 March 1992) was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who served as personal theologian to five popes from 1955 to 1989, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1969.
Heads of state and government of Europe