Pond hockey

Pond hockey is a form of ice hockey similar in its object and appearance to traditional ice hockey, but simplified and designed to be played on part of a natural frozen body of water. The rink is 50 to 80 percent the size of a standard NHL-specification rink, and has no boards or glass surrounding it; usually only a barrier of snow keeps the puck in play. In addition, because there are no protective barriers behind the goal to contain high errant shots, the top of the goal is lower, in fact only slightly taller than the width of a puck, and the game does not have a formal goalie. Because of these differences, pond hockey places more emphasis on skating and puckhandling ability and less on shooting and checking. Non-competitive pond hockey is played with improvised goals, rinks of a variety of sizes, and no boards or snow barriers. Their can only be 4 players playing per team at a time but have many subs to sub in.

There exists a World Pond Hockey Championship and several other events for players to aspire to.

The term "pond hockey" is often used, especially in Canada, as a synonym to shinny. In that context, it is meant to describe any form of disorganized ice hockey that is played outdoors, typically on a naturally frozen body of water.

Pond Hockey
Eishockey auf dem Backsteinweiher - panoramio
A small pond hockey field
NicknamesIce hockey, Shinny, Pick-up hockey
TypePrimarily outdoors
EquipmentRequired: A ball or a puck (most players use a puck if ice conditions allow, but a ball can be used if the ice has a rough surface), a hockey stick, a net. Optional: Shin pads, gloves, helmet.


Children playing ice hockey - illustration
Children playing pond hockey, 1890s

Organized outdoor hockey has been played many years before indoor rinks were popularized. Pond hockey or shinny has its origins in early Navajo Native American culture. The story of shinny came from a Navajo story where a stranger challenged a Navajo god to a game of shinny in order to free Navajo slaves. Free men and slaves lined up and an agreement was made, the terms of which was as follows. If the Navajo god won the free men would become slaves, but if the slaves won the slaves would be free. Then a bird came to the stranger and said, that if he were to hit the ball lightly the bird would take the ball across the line (commonly known as a goal). The god went first and hit the ball as hard as he could. It did not make it to the line, so the stranger went next and hit the ball lightly. The bird then took the ball and flew across the line. The slaves were then free men and hopped across the line to greet their relatives. Shinny was not just a part of Navajo culture it was part of many Indian stories. Some stories say that the stick or bat represented the clubs used by war gods. Shinny was also used to praise gods, and people would play in honor of a certain god. The Cherokees used it as training for war and called it “little brother of war”. It was also played for celebratory purposes for example the Makahs of Canada who played to celebrate catching a whale which was the main source of food for the tribe in the winter. Shinny was played by almost all tribes; women were also allowed to play, sometimes they would even play with or against men of the tribe. Most of the time the game was played with one stick or bat to hit the ball across the line however, the Makahs were the only tribe to use two bats. The bats are made from wood, they were thin with a curve and wider part at the end to hit the ball. During the game the players would use their feet to move the ball forward but they could never use their hands. The ball was made out of different kinds of things. Some balls were made from a knot in a tree, some were made of whale bone, others were made of buffalo hair covered with the skin of a buck. The balls were pretty much made by any materials the Indians could find. These balls were also coloured with interesting patterns. It is said that some tribes in North Dakota could not accept losing and would kill anyone who beat them. The distance of the goals is unknown, however it is guessed that they were anywhere from 200 to 1,400 yards (1,300 m). They were usually as big as the land could suffice for; they also corresponded to the number of players. It is also said that the Hopi Indian had fields as long as eight miles (13 km) with the goals reaching as far as two villages. During play both teams were even, with up to five-hundred players on each team. Hockey was originally played on a field but was then adapted to play on ice. In some areas of the midwest, specifically Northbrook, IL, the game is referred to as Puck. People sometimes refer to the game to their friends by saying "Let's go tear up the ice!"


09 MN pond hockey
09 MN pond hockey

Pond hockey is just like indoor ice hockey but is played outdoors and most of the time on a lake or pond. Pond hockey tournaments are typically played four on four but when playing casually there is no set number of players on a team, though the players try to balance the sides as best they can. Depending on equipment and player's availabilities, pond hockey may or may not use a goalie. If a goalie is not used, the goals can be defined with anything from open, regular hockey nets to player's boots.[1] Since pond hockey started the popularity has soared, official pond hockey tournaments are found across the globe. Pond hockey tournaments have entwined the concept of youth pick-up hockey into a serious art form. The rink can range from any size or shape but they typically resemble a scaled down regular indoor ice hockey rink. Some pond hockey rinks use boards, however in most, the surrounding piled up snow from clearing the pond or lake makes a good substitute. In some of the more prominent pond hockey tournaments official ice hockey boards are used. One rink for example, the rink from the U.S. Pond Hockey Championship is set up into 155-foot (47 m) long ovals.[2]


Because pond hockey discourages hard physical contact, the equipment involved is basic. Hockey helmets are not mandatory, but recently the trend has been to wear a helmet for apparent safety reasons, also shin pads have evolved into popular use. Most pond hockey enthusiasts also decide to wear gloves, because of the temperature and because gloves provide safety from unintentional slashing from hockey sticks, or skates. Other equipment involved corresponds directly to basic ice hockey equipment such as a hockey stick, skates, and a hockey puck. Depending on player and equipment availability as well as proximity to the pond hockey rink, a typical hockey net can be seen being used. However, in very classic pick-up pond hockey, the game is planned quite spontaneously and quickly and the idea of a net could be abandoned. In this case, the goal could be defined by almost anything, but is usually clothing or footwear.


The most important tactic to possess in pond hockey is good passing, because incomplete passes can result in losing pucks in the surrounding snow. Most of the game consists of open ice puck handling; therefore hand-eye coordination is crucial. Speed is also an important ingredient that makes a good pond hockey player. There are sometimes no goalies used in pond hockey which almost guarantees goals on break away streaks. In pond hockey, a good player does not specialize in offense or defence, rather teamwork becomes important. Due to the possible lack of a goalie, or indeed a skilled goalie, everyone has to work together to make sure the other team does not get an easy goal. Playing intelligently becomes key. If a player makes a bad pass or slips over an opponent, the opponent will have an easy attempt at a goal.


The rules of pond hockey generally follow the same set of rules as ice hockey but are typically less strict depending on the players and the level of play involved. There is also variability in the rules depending on other factors such as how many players there are and what equipment is available. More rules are often followed in high level play, such as in organized tournaments.

Many ice hockey rules are not observed in pond hockey due to the different playing areas. Rules such as offsides and icing are often not followed due to the difficulty in their regulation. One of the other major differences in pond hockey is that checking rarely occurs due to players not wearing the same level of padding as they would playing normal ice hockey.

Another distinctive rule in pond hockey is the concept of picking teams, which usually occurs in pick-up games. Since teams are generally not organized, they have to be picked before the game starts. Teams are often either picked by designated captains or by a method known as “drawing sticks” or “sticks in the middle”. This method involves all the players putting their sticks in a pile where one of the players then separates them into two groups, each with half the sticks. The players who have their sticks in the same group are then on the same team.


There are many Pond hockey tournaments in the United States and Canada. Five of the more prominent ones are the BC Pond Hockey Series,[3] Canadian National Pond Hockey Championships, U.S. Pond Hockey Championships, the World Pond Hockey Championships and the Labatt Blue Pond Hockey Tournament. The BC Pond Hockey Series started in 2009 in Rossland, BC and now includes tournaments in Prince George, BC and Invermere, BC.[4] The U.S. Pond Hockey Championship has been played on Lake Calhoun and Lake Nokomis, both of which are located in Minneapolis, Minnesota. There are 116 teams that compete in the tournament, and each team has four players. Twenty-four sheets of ice are utilized for the event, with each sheet surrounded by short boards (unlike the tall ones used in pro hockey).[5] The World Pond Hockey Championship is played in Plaster Rock, New Brunswick, and utilizes 22 sheets of ice for the games. Both tournaments have set their own rules in dealing with officials, penalties, equipment, and scoring. There is no skill level bias in these tournaments, so anyone is eligible to play. Due to popular demand, however, signing up early is essential. In the past couple of years, the popularity of these tournaments has exceeded expectations. The tournaments have been covered by many news stations and have also been the subject of many newspaper headlines. Spectators from all over stand in freezing conditions to watch these games. While the tournaments may have rules, their primary purpose is still for the enjoyment of all involved. The Labatt tournament, based in Buffalo, New York (home of the American headquarters of Labatt Brewing Company), is a more recent development. It was founded in January 2008 in the wake of the 2008 NHL Winter Classic and has been held annually each year since. Tournaments like the World Pond Hockey Championships and the U.S. Pond Hockey Championships have brought back the popularity of pond hockey, and have enlarged the pond hockey audience; the Buffalo tournament, for instance, has grown from an original 32-team bracket to 124 teams in 2011.[6][7][8]

In 2009, the Pond Hockey Classic was founded in New England, The Pond Hockey Classic currently hosts three pond hockey events, the New England Pond Hockey Classic in Meredith, NH on Lake Winnipesaukee with over 250 teams, the Lake Champlain Pond Hockey Classic in Colchester, VT on Lake Champlain with over 100 teams and the Montana Pond Hockey Classic in Kalispell, MT with over 60 teams. In 2014, the PHC acquired the Big Apple Pond Hockey Classic played in NYC at Bryant Park.

List of tournaments

Canada regional/local
  • BC Pond Hockey Series[13]
  • Miramichi Rotary Pond Hockey Tournament [14]
USA regional/local
  • The Budd Lake Winter Classic, Budd Lake, NJ
  • Leinenkugel's Classic Pond Hockey, Wausau, WI[15]
  • Labatt Blue Pond Hockey Tournament
  • Labatt Blue Rochester Pond Hockey Regional[16]
  • Vermont Pond Hockey Championships[17]
  • Pond Hockey Classic
    • New England Pond Hockey Classic
    • Lake Champlain Pond Hockey Classic
    • Montana Pond Hockey Classic
    • Big Apple Pond Hockey Classic[18]
Nordic countries/local
  • Save Pond Hockey Tournament[19]

Practice worldwide

  • Even though pond hockey is not a popular sports in South-east Asia, there is an evidence that a skating school of pond hockey operates a training program weekly of pond hockey In Megabox, Hong Kong.[20]

In popular culture


Pond hockey has been seen played in many movies including Mystery, Alaska, The Mighty Ducks and the 2008 documentary film Pond Hockey. In Mystery, Alaska the whole movie is centred on pond hockey. In The Mighty Ducks it is just featured in certain scenes and flashbacks. In Pond Hockey it is the subject of the entire film, which celebrates the importance of the outdoor game.

See also


  1. ^ "Weather graph for Hockey". weather.com. Retrieved September 12, 2017.
  2. ^ "Parking, Not Slush, To Challenge Pond Hockey Championships". 25 January 2017.
  3. ^ "2013 BC POND HOCKEY SERIES". BC Provincial Pond Hockey Series. Archived from the original on July 1, 2012. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
  4. ^ "Pond Hockey". The Kootenay Network. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
  5. ^ "U.S. Pond Hockey Championships". www.uspondhockey.com.
  6. ^ Matt Pitts (December 21, 2009). "Buffalo 2010 Labatt Blue Pond Hockey Tournament Sold Out". WGRZ.
  7. ^ "4th Annual Labatt Blue Pond Hockey Tournament Sold Out". WKBW News. January 3, 2011.
  8. ^ "Pond Hockey Tournament sold out". WIVB.com. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
  9. ^ "Pointstreak Sites | World Pond Hockey Championships | Home". Worldpondhockey.com. 2012-09-19. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
  10. ^ "Canada Pond Hockey Tournament". Canadapondhockey.ca. 2013-04-24. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
  11. ^ "U.S. Pond Hockey Championships". Uspondhockey.com. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
  12. ^ Benoit Theriault (2012-10-31). "Home". Hockeydantan.com. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
  13. ^ "2013 BC POND HOCKEY SERIES - BC Pond Hockey tournaments". Bcpondhockey.com. Archived from the original on 2012-07-01. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
  14. ^ "Miramichi Rotary Pond Hockey Tournament". Miramichirotarypondhockey.com. 2013-04-23. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
  15. ^ "Midwest Freeze Leinenkugel's Classic Adult Pond Hockey Wausau WI USA". Classicpondhockey.com. 2012-03-23. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
  16. ^ "highfalls hockey". highfallshockey.com. Retrieved 2013-12-19.
  17. ^ "Vermont pond hockey". Vermontpondhockey.com. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
  18. ^ "Big Apple Pond Hockey". bigapplepondhockey. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
  19. ^ "Save pond hockey". savepondhockey.org. Retrieved 2017-01-01.
  20. ^ "Penguins Hockey Program Outline". MegaIce - Skating School. MegaIce. Retrieved 1 September 2017.

Further reading

  • Anderson,Madelyn Klein (2000); North American Indian Games; Franklin Watts.

External links

Canadian Championships

Canadian Championships refers to a number of national-level competition in Canada. It may refer to:

Canadian Championship, a soccer tournament

Canadian Figure Skating Championships

Canadian Professional Figure Skating Championships

Canadian Gymnastics Championships

Canadian National Tennis Championship

Canadian National Badminton Championships

Canadian National Pond Hockey Championships

Canadian Mixed Curling Championship

Canadian Senior Curling Championships

Canadian Masters Curling Championships

Canadian Amateur Championship, of golf

Canadian Tour Championship, of pro-golf

Canadian Touring Car Championship

Canadian Rally Championship

Canadian AutoSlalom Championship

Canadian Superbike Championship

Canadian Rugby Championship

Rugby Canada National Junior Championship

Canadian National Road Race Championships, of cycling

Canadian National Time Trial Championships, of cycling

Canadian Synchronized Skating Championships

Canadian International Heavyweight Championship, of wrestling

Canadian International Tag Team Championship, of wrestling

Canadian Swing Championships, of dance

Canadian Ultimate Championships, of frisbee

Canadian Chess Championship, the closed championship

Canadian Open Chess Championship

Canadian National Scrabble Championship

Canadian Paralympic Athletics Championships

Canadian National Pond Hockey Championships

The Canadian National Pond Hockey Championships are held annually at the Deerhurst Resort in Huntsville, Muskoka District Municipality, Ontario, Canada.

The pond hockey variant used at the nationals plays 4 on 4 without a goalie, with two 15-minute halves and 5-minute halftime break. The winners of the three championship divisions are awarded the coveted Maple Cup.

Chain Lake (Michigan)

Chain Lake is a large pond or small lake in Mackinac County near St. Ignace in the U.S. state of Michigan at an elevation of 600 feet (180 m). The lake is served by Interstate 75, which provides a rest area and lake overlook for southbound drivers at mile 346. The lake is also served by the North Country Trail. In Mackinac County, this trail uses the right-of-way abandoned by a spur line of the Duluth, South Shore and Atlantic Railway, a logging-era railroad that helped remove most of the old-growth timber from around the lake. Second-growth woodland surrounding the small sheet of water is owned by the private sector and by Hiawatha National Forest.The lake is noted for rock bass, bullhead, sunfish, sucker, largemouth bass, perch, and northern pike. In winter seasons with suitable weather conditions it can be used to play pond hockey. It may be named for being part of a "chain" of streams and lakes that offered alternative canoe passage from St. Ignace westward. Although the eastern tip of the lake is less than 1 miles from Lake Huron, it drains down the Moran River and through Freschette Lake into West Moran Bay in Lake Michigan.

Evergreen, Colorado

Evergreen is a census-designated place (CDP) and a U.S. Post Office in Jefferson County, Colorado, United States. Evergreen is roughly 29 miles (47 km) west from Denver. The population was 9,038 at the 2010 census.

French Fort Cove

The French Fort Cove is a nature park located in Miramichi, New Brunswick, between Newcastle and Nordin-Miramichi, which contains regular and advanced walking trails, canoeing, kayaking, paddle-boats, a children's playground, ice-cream shop and holds many events and activities during the summer. It is the location of a former rock quarry which was used to build many buildings and the Langevin Block of Parliament Hill, among others.

Ice hockey

Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points. The sport is known to be fast-paced and physical, with teams usually consisting of six players each: one goaltender, and five players who skate up and down the ice trying to take the puck and score a goal against the opposing team.

Ice hockey is most popular in Canada, central and eastern Europe, the Nordic countries, Russia and the United States. Ice hockey is the official national winter sport of Canada. In addition, ice hockey is the most popular winter sport in Belarus, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Finland, Latvia, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, and Switzerland. North America's National Hockey League (NHL) is the highest level for men's ice hockey and the strongest professional ice hockey league in the world. The Kontinental Hockey League (KHL) is the highest league in Russia and much of Eastern Europe. The International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF) is the formal governing body for international ice hockey, with the IIHF managing international tournaments and maintaining the IIHF World Ranking. Worldwide, there are ice hockey federations in 76 countries.In Canada, the United States, Nordic countries, and some other European countries the sport is known simply as hockey; the name "ice hockey" is used in places where "hockey" more often refers to the more popular field hockey, such as countries in South America, Asia, Africa, Australasia, and some European countries including the United Kingdom, Ireland and the Netherlands.Ice hockey is believed to have evolved from simple stick and ball games played in the 18th and 19th centuries in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. These games were brought to North America and several similar winter games using informal rules were developed, such as shinny and ice polo. The contemporary sport of ice hockey was developed in Canada, most notably in Montreal, where the first indoor hockey game was played on March 3, 1875. Some characteristics of that game, such as the length of the ice rink and the use of a puck, have been retained to this day. Amateur ice hockey leagues began in the 1880s, and professional ice hockey originated around 1900. The Stanley Cup, emblematic of ice hockey club supremacy, was first awarded in 1893 to recognize the Canadian amateur champion and later became the championship trophy of the NHL. In the early 1900s, the Canadian rules were adopted by the Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace, the precursor of the IIHF and the sport was played for the first time at the Olympics during the 1920 Summer Olympics.

In international competitions, the national teams of six countries (the Big Six) predominate: Canada, Czech Republic, Finland, Russia, Sweden and the United States. Of the 69 medals awarded all-time in men's competition at the Olympics, only seven medals were not awarded to one of those countries (or two of their precursors, the Soviet Union for Russia, and Czechoslovakia for the Czech Republic). In the annual Ice Hockey World Championships, 177 of 201 medals have been awarded to the six nations. Teams outside the Big Six have won only five medals in either competition since 1953. The World Cup of Hockey is organized by the National Hockey League and the National Hockey League Players' Association (NHLPA), unlike the annual World Championships and quadrennial Olympic tournament, both run by the International Ice Hockey Federation. World Cup games are played under NHL rules and not those of the IIHF, and the tournament occurs prior to the NHL pre-season, allowing for all NHL players to be available, unlike the World Championships, which overlaps with the NHL's Stanley Cup playoffs. Furthermore, all 12 Women's Olympic and 36 IIHF World Women's Championships medals were awarded to one of these six countries. The Canadian national team or the United States national team have between them won every gold medal of either series.

Labatt Brewing Company

Labatt Brewing Company Limited (French: La Brasserie Labatt Limitée) is a Belgian-owned brewery in Canada, founded by John Kinder Labatt in 1847 in London, Ontario. Labatt is the largest brewer in Canada.

In 1995, it was purchased by Belgian brewer Interbrew. In 2004, Interbrew merged with Brazilian brewer AmBev to form InBev. In 2008, InBev merged with American brewer Anheuser-Busch to form Anheuser-Busch InBev (abbreviated as AB InBev), making Labatt part of Anheuser-Busch InBev. On October 10, 2016, an over $100 billion merger between Anheuser-Busch InBev and SABMiller closed. Labatt is now part of the new company, Anheuser-Busch InBev SA/NV, which is trading as BUD on the New York Stock Exchange (ABI:BB in Brussels).In the United States, Labatt brand beers are sold under license by Labatt USA, which since 2009 has been fully independent of the Canadian firm and a subsidiary of the privately held North American Breweries of Rochester, New York.

List of festivals in Buffalo, New York

Like many large cities, numerous festivals have become part of the Buffalo's culture and tradition. Though most of the festivals occur during the summer months, the city has recently pushed to have winter festivals as well, in an effort to capitalize on the region's snowy reputation.

NHL Hitz Pro

NHL Hitz Pro is an ice hockey video game developed by Next Level Games and published by Midway Games. It's the third and final game of the NHL Hitz series. It was released on September 25, 2003, for the PlayStation 2, Nintendo GameCube, and Xbox. Unlike the previous titles in the series, this game has 5-on-5 gameplay instead of the usual 3-on-3 gameplay with the earlier titles. Despite that fact, however, the game does not include penalty shots, and it is still an arcade-type hockey game like its predecessors. It also has, as the name suggests, a lot of hard hitting, appealing more often to casual hockey fans than hardcore ones. The cover athlete of the game is Nicklas Lidström, and features commentary from Tim Kitzrow and Harry Teinowitz.

Unlike many other hockey video games of the 21st century, NHL Hitz Pro had the IIHF license, enabling it to use the jerseys of the Olympic hockey teams.

The game also has many game modes, one of the most popular being the "Pick-Up Hockey" game mode, where the game would turn into either a roller, street, or pond hockey match-up between two amateur teams.

NHL Winter Classic

The NHL Winter Classic is one of three series of regular season outdoor games played in the National Hockey League (NHL), and is distinct from the league's other two series, the NHL Heritage Classic and the NHL Stadium Series. The Winter Classic is annually held on or around New Year's Day, generally in a football or baseball stadium, in an area with a resident NHL team. The first Winter Classic was held in 2008 at the venue then known as Ralph Wilson Stadium (now New Era Field) in Orchard Park, New York, between the Buffalo Sabres and Pittsburgh Penguins. A total of eleven have been held. The most recent game was played during 2018–19 season at Notre Dame Stadium, with the Boston Bruins defeating the Chicago Blackhawks 4–2.

After the success of the Cold War at Michigan State University in 2001 and the 2003 Heritage Classic, the NHL's first regular season outdoor game, the league inaugurated the Winter Classic in 2008. It eventually caught on as an annual tradition for the league, suspending only in 2013 due to 2012–13 NHL lockout. The 2014 game between the Toronto Maple Leafs and the Detroit Red Wings set a new NHL attendance record of 105,491. The Winter Classic has been contested only in the United States, while the Heritage Classic has been held exclusively in Canada. The Winter Classic featured only American teams for its first five games, until the Maple Leafs' appearance in 2014.

Along with the NHL All-Star Game, the Winter Classic is considered one of the NHL's premier events; with matchups generally booked to showcase the league's most popular teams and players, the event garners the league its highest attendance and among its highest television ratings. The event is typically promoted as a return to the sport's outdoor roots, meant to evoke memories of pond hockey. Its popularity has led to the scheduling of additional outdoor hockey games, both in the NHL and other leagues worldwide. In May 2014, the SportsBusiness Journal and SportsBusiness Daily named the Winter Classic its "Sports Event of the Year," the second time in five years the Classic has won that distinction.

Palgrave Pond

Palgrave Pond (also known as the Palgrave Mill Pond) is a reservoir just northwest of the community of Palgrave in the Town of Caledon, Regional Municipality of Peel in the Greater Toronto Area of southern Ontario, Canada. It is adjacent to Ontario Highway 50 (Peel Regional Road 50) and was formed by the damming of the main branch of the Humber River, originally to create a mill pond. Each winter, the surface of the pond is transformed into a community skating rink available for recreational use (commonly referred to as the Palgrave Pond). The rinks are created by local volunteer, Ken Hunt (aka the “Ice Angel”), and have appeared on the Mill Pond each winter since December 2000.

Plaster Rock, New Brunswick

Plaster Rock (2016 population: 1,023) is a Canadian village in Victoria County, New Brunswick. The mayor is Alexis Fenner.

Power hockey

Power Hockey is a competitive, fast-paced hockey game based on the use of a power wheelchair. The foundation of the sport derives from ice hockey and floor hockey, but with adapted rules to enable people with disabilities, who use a power wheelchair, to play and be active in a competitive team setting. The sport is also referred to as Electric Wheelchair Hockey or Electric Wheelchair Floorball in various parts of the world.


Shinny (also shinney, pick-up hockey, pond hockey, or "outdoor puck") is an informal type of hockey played on ice. It is also used as another term for street hockey. There are no formal rules or specific positions, and generally, there are no goaltenders. The goal areas at each end may be marked by nets, or simply by objects, such as stones or blocks of snow. Body checking and lifting or "roofing/reefing/raising the puck" (shooting the puck or ball so it rises above the ice) are often forbidden because the players are not wearing protective equipment. Shinny is a game that all levels of hockey enthusiasts can play because it requires no rink, requires no skills except ability to hold a stick and at the very least to try to touch the puck or ball when it goes by. Shinny may be completely non-competitive and recreational.

In his book Country on Ice, Doug Beardsley claims that most Canadian hockey professional players have played some form of shinny in their youth.

The Gardens Ice House

The Gardens Ice House is a privately operated skating and fitness facility in Laurel, Maryland. Built on Fairland Regional Park land, the venue features an Olympic ice rink, two NHL rinks (the third of these added on January 1, 1999), and since November 2013, an outdoor mini-rink.

The Gardens is a public-private partnership between the Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission and Top Shelf Development. The facility hosts the Mid Atlantic Skating School, Gardens Figure Skating Club, and Potomac Curling Club, as well as the annual Maryland Scholastic High School Championship. It hosted the American Indoor Football league's Maryland Reapers in 2012 and Washington Eagles in 2013. The facility hosted the Washington Jr. Nationals from 2010 until their move to Vermont in 2014. The Gardens is the home arena for the Washington Power roller hockey team.

"Whitey's Pond", an outdoor skating venue open from November to March each year, had its grand opening at The Gardens on November 1, 2013. Named in honor of veteran hockey rink owner Whitey Guenin of Indiana, the rink will feature 3 on 3 adult hockey, described at other rinks as a form of pond hockey.

U.S. Pond Hockey Championships

The U.S. Pond Hockey Championships are an annual pond hockey event on Lake Nokomis in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Though an amateur tournament, the competition draws hockey enthusiasts from all over North America, many of whom have pro and college hockey experience.

ESPN.com listed the tournament as part of their "101 Things Sports Fans Must Experience Before They Die."

Whitmore Lake, Michigan

Whitmore Lake is a census-designated place and unincorporated community in the U.S. state of Michigan. The community spans the boundary between Green Oak Township in Livingston County and Northfield Township in Washtenaw County. The United States Census Bureau has defined a census-designated place (CDP) with this name for statistical purposes, which has no legal status as an incorporated municipality. The population was 6,423 at the 2010 census.The community is located about 9 miles (14 km) north of Ann Arbor and about 9 miles (14 km) south of Brighton. It is situated around the shores of Whitmore Lake, and the CDP also includes the area around the smaller Horseshoe Lake to the south, Lawton Lake to the east and Monahan Lake to the northeast. U.S. Highway 23 forms the western edge of much of the CDP.The Whitmore Lake post office, with ZIP code 48189, serves a larger area than that defined by the CDP and includes portions of southeast Hamburg Township, northeastern Webster Township, and larger parts of Green Oak and Northfield Townships than are included in the CDP.The 667-acre (2.70 km2) Whitmore Lake was named by Jonathan F. Stratton, a surveyor, after Luke H. Whitmore, a local landowner around 1825. Area residents have considered incorporation many times, but have not chosen to do so yet.

The well-known 8 Mile Road that forms the boundary between the city of Detroit and Detroit's northern suburbs in Oakland and Macomb counties ends in Whitmore Lake, along with 5 Mile, 6 Mile, 7 Mile, and 9 Mile Roads.

World Pond Hockey Championships

The World Pond Hockey Championships is an annual international competition that takes place outdoors, on a body of frozen water, playing the pond hockey variant of ice hockey. The event takes place in the small, rural village of Plaster Rock, New Brunswick, Canada, on Roulston Lake.

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