Pompeiopolis

Pompeiopolis (Greek: Πομπηιούπολις) was a Roman city in ancient Paphlagonia, located near Taşköprü, Kastamonu Province in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. The exact location is 45 km north of Kastamonu and a short distance across the river from modern Taşköprü, in the valley of the Gökırmak (Roman name Amnias, or Amneus). The borders of Pompeiopolis reach the Küre mountains to the north, Ilgaz mountains to the south, Halys river to the east and Pınarbaşı valley to the west. The city's remains today consist of an acropolis, some rock-cut tombs, tumuli, a bridge and remains of houses with mosaic tile floors. It is believed that many more artifacts and remains can be uncovered if further archaeological excavation can be conducted at the Zımbıllı hills within the city boundaries.

Pompeiopolis was established together with Neoclaudiopolis as one of a number of cities founded by the Roman general and politician Pompey (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) and integrated into the new Roman double province of Bithynia-Pontus in the year 64 BC. It was later assigned by Mark Antony to the vassal princes of Paphlagonia, and in 6 BC, after the death of Deiotaros Philadelphos, the last king, Paphlagonia was re-integrated into the Roman Empire and placed under the governor of the province of Galatia. While the city flourished and grew during this period, it was the metropolis of Paphlagonia from the reign of Antoninus Pius until that of Gallienus, having a civic mint in the same period, as well. The city was called Sebaste for a short period of time during the patronship of Gnaeus Claudius Severus, Marcus Aurelius' son-in-law. Rare coins surviving from that era bear the inscriptions "Sebaste Metropolis of Paphlagonia". w Being a bishopric since the early 4th century at latest, Pompeiopolis received the title of autocephalus archdiocese at some time during the reign of Justinian I. Within the church province of Paphlagonia, Pompeiopolis always ranked immediately after Gangra, and above the other bishoprics.

It is currently believed that Pompeiopolis was deserted in the early 8th century AD after the attacks of the Arabs Muslim conquests and as a result of the defensive military reorganizations of the Byzantine emperors of the 8th century. This region was conquered by the invading Turks in the late 11th century. In the 10th/11th century, Pompeiopolis became a metropolitan see until the 14th century, when this diocese was suppressed. Among the fourteen known titular holders of the Christian diocese are Philadelphus at the First Council of Nicaea, Severus of Constantinople and Theodore of Constantinople.

Many of the artifacts that were revealed in the course of those excavations are currently being exhibited in the Museum of Archaeology of Kastamonu. Since 2006 the University of Munich (Germany) is conducting excavations on the archaeological site under the direction of professor Lâtife Summerer.

This Pompeiopolis in Paphlagonia must not be confused with the Soloi or Pompeiopolis in Cilicia, also established by Pompey.

The bishopric of Pompeiopolis in Paphlagonia is included in the Catholic Church's list of titular sees.[1]

Pompeiopolis
Greek: Πομπηιούπολις
Pompeiopolis is located in Turkey
Pompeiopolis
Shown within Turkey
LocationTurkey
RegionKastamonu Province
Coordinates41°31′01″N 34°12′47″E / 41.517°N 34.213°ECoordinates: 41°31′01″N 34°12′47″E / 41.517°N 34.213°E

Bibliography

  • Latife Summerer, Pompeiopolis-Tasköprü. 2000 Years from Metropolis to County Town (Istanbul 2017)
  • Christian Marek, "Pompeiopolis", Der Neue Pauly (DNP). Band 10 , Metzler, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-476-01480-0.
  • Latife Summerer (Hrsg.): Pompeiopolis I: Eine Zwischenbilanz aus der Metropole Paphlagoniens nach fünf Kampagnen (2006-2010) Beier & Beran, Langenweißbach 2011, ISBN 978-3-941171-63-3.
  • Latife Summerer, Alexander von Kienlin, Georg Herdt, Frühe Forschungen in Paphlagonien - Neue Grabungen in Pompeiopolis, Anatolian Metal IV, Beiheft 25, Bochum 2013, 257-266.
  • Latife Summerer, Alexander von Kienlin, "Pompeiopolis. Metropolis of Paphlagonia," Hadrien Bru, Guy Labarre (ed.), L'Anatolie des peuples, des cités et des cultures. (IIe millénaire av. J.-C. - Ve siècle ap. J.-C.). Colloque international de Besançon - 26-27 novembre 2010 (2 vols.). Besançon: Presses universitaires de Franche-Comté, 2014. 115-126. ISBN 9782848674735.
  • Julie Dalaison, "L'atelier monétaire de Pompeiopolis en Paphlagonie", in Delrieux (F.) et Kayser (Fr.), éd., Hommages offerts à François Bertrandy, Tome 1: Des déserts d'Afrique au pays des Allobroges, Laboratoire Langages, Littératures, Sociétés, Collection Sociétés, Religions, Politiques, n° 16, Chambéry, 2010, p. 45-81.

References

  1. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2013, ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 954

External links

Annia Galeria Aurelia Faustina

Annia Galeria Aurelia Faustina (c. 151-after 165) was the eldest child of the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius and his wife, Faustina the Younger. Her younger sister was Lucilla and her younger brother was Commodus. Her maternal grandparents were Antoninus Pius and Faustina the Elder, while her paternal grandparents were Domitia Lucilla and praetor Marcus Annius Verus. She was born and raised in Rome.

The parents of Faustina betrothed her to Gnaeus Claudius Severus, whom she later married after 159. Gnaeus Claudius Severus was a Roman Senator of Pontian Greek descent that came from Pompeiopolis, a city in the Roman province of Galatia. After Faustina married Claudius Severus, they settled in Pompeiopolis. Faustina bore Claudius Severus a son, Tiberius Claudius Severus Proculus, who served as consul in 200.

Council of Constantinople (360)

In 359, the Roman Emperor Constantius II requested a church council, at Constantinople, of both the eastern and western bishops, to resolve the split at the Council of Seleucia. According to Socrates Scholasticus, only about 50 of the Eastern bishops, and an unspecified number of the western ones, actually attended.Acacius of Caesarea declared that the Son (Jesus Christ) was similar to the Father (God) "according to the scriptures," as in the majority decision at the Council of Ariminum and close to the minority at the Council of Seleucia. Basil of Ancyra, Eustathius of Sebaste, and their party declared that the Son was of similar substance to the Father, as in the majority decision at Seleucia, a position known as homoiousia. Maris of Chalcedon, Eudoxius of Antioch, and the deacons Aëtius and Eunomius declared that the Son was of a dissimilar substance from the Father, a position known as anomoeanism or heteroousia.The Heteroousians defeated the Homoiousians in an initial debate, but Constantius banished Aëtius, after which the council, including Maris and Eudoxius, agreed to the homoian creed of Ariminum with minor modifications.Wulfila also attended the council and endorsed the resulting creed.After the Council of Constantinople, the homoiousian bishop Acacius deposed and banished several homoousian bishops, including Macedonius I of Constantinople, Basil, Eustathius, Eleusius of Cyzicus, Dracontius of Pergamum, Neonas of Seleucia, Sophronius of Pompeiopolis, Elpidius of Satala and Cyril of Jerusalem.At the same time, Acacius also deposed and banished the Anomoean deacon Aëtius.

Dorylaeum

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Gaius Claudius Severus

Gaius Claudius Severus was a Roman senator who lived in the second half of the 1st century AD and the first half of the 2nd century AD. He originated from a family of Pontian Greek descent. Severus was born and raised in Pompeiopolis, a city in the Roman province of Galatia.

Severus was a magistrate in the reign of the Emperor Trajan 98-117. Trajan had successfully annexed Arabia Petraea in 105-106, made the region a Roman province, and Severus became its first governor. Severus remained in the office from 106 until 116. During his tenure a road, Via Nova Traiana, was paved from Aqaba via Petra to Bozrah.

The road was completed in 111 at the earliest. There are two surviving letters sent by Apollonarius, an Egyptian soldier and assistant secretary to Severus, one to his father and another to his mother; one of the letters bears the date March 26, 107, and mentions that the construction work for the road was already in progress then. These letters discuss the construction period and how the road was constructed. Severus in 112 served as a suffect consul in absentia. Severus married an unnamed Roman woman and had a son named Gnaeus Claudius Severus Arabianus, ordinary consul in 146.

Gnaeus Claudius Severus (consul 167)

Gnaeus Claudius Severus was a Roman senator and philosopher who lived in the Roman Empire during the 2nd century.

Severus was the son of the senator and philosopher Gnaeus Claudius Severus Arabianus by an unnamed mother. Severus was of Pontian Greek descent. He was born and raised in Pompeiopolis, a city in the Roman province of Galatia. His paternal grandfather, Gaius Claudius Severus, was a consul and the first Roman governor of Arabia Petraea in the reign of the Emperor Trajan, 98-117.

Like his father, Severus was a follower of peripatetic philosophy. Although Severus held no major political influence, he was considered as an influential figure in the intellectual and philosophical circles in Rome. Like his father, Severus was a friend and had a great influence on the Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161-180). It was probably Severus that introduced Marcus Aurelius to the rhetorician Cornelianus and recommended Galen to him as his personal physician. Severus and his father accompanied Marcus Aurelius on a philosophical visit to Athens in 176.

Severus served as a suffect consul in 167 and an ordinary consul in 173. In the year of his second consulship, Severus became a patron and was made an honorary citizen of Pompeiopolis. That same year, an honorific inscription, which survives to this day on a statue base, was dedicated to Severus in his birth city:

For the good fortune of Gnaeus Claudius Severus who was consul twice, pontifex, son-in-law of the Emperor Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus, patron of the city, the metropolis Pompeiopolis of the province of Paphlagonia put this up in the 178th year of the province through the work of Publius Domitius Augureinus Clodius Kalbeinus the chief archon.

Gnaeus Claudius Severus Arabianus

Gnaeus Claudius Severus Arabianus (113-after 176) was a Senator and philosopher who lived in the Roman Empire.

Severus was the son of the consul and first Roman Governor of Arabia Petraea, Gaius Claudius Severus, by an unnamed mother. Severus was of Pontian Greek descent. He was born and raised in Pompeiopolis, a city in the Roman province of Galatia.

When Severus had come to Rome during the reign of Emperor Hadrian (117-138), he had become a philosophical mentor and a teacher to Roman noble students. Among his students was the future Emperor Marcus Aurelius, with whom he had become friends.

In Rome, Severus assumed a reputation as a man of spirit and as a great philosophical mentor. He was a follower of Peripatetic philosophy and later served as an ordinary consul in 146 in the reign of Antoninus Pius (138-161).

He married an unnamed woman, by whom he had a son called Gnaeus Claudius Severus. Severus was evidently a politician with a deep interest in political philosophy, as evidenced by Marcus Aurelius’ opinion of him in Meditations (1.14n):

From Severus: love of family, love of truth, love of justice; to have come by his help to understand Thrasea, Helvidius, Cato, Dio Brutus; to have conceived the idea of a balanced constitution, a commonwealth based on equality and freedom of speech, and of a monarchy which values above all the liberty of the subject; from him, too, a constant and vigorous respect for philosophy; beneficence, unstinting generosity, optimism; his confidence in the affection of his friends, his frankness with those who met with his censure, and open likes and dislikes, so that his friends did not need to guess at his wishes.

Kastamonu Province

Kastamonu Province (Turkish: Kastamonu ili) is one of the provinces of Turkey, in the Black Sea region to the north of the country. It is surrounded by Sinop to the east, Bartın, Karabük to the west, Çankırı to the south, Çorum to the southeast and the Black Sea to the north.

List of Catholic archdioceses

The following is a current list of Catholic archdioceses ordered by country and continent (for the Latin Church) and by liturgical rite (for the Eastern Catholic Churches).

Many smaller countries, as well as large countries with small Catholic populations, lack (the need for) ecclesiastical province(s) and hence for large Metropolitan archdioceses and may rather have canonical jurisdictions that are immediately subject to the Holy See – dioceses, ordinariates, apostolic vicariates, apostolic exarchates, territorial prelatures, apostolic administrations, apostolic prefectures and/or missions sui iuris (all of which may also exist in countries with one or more archdioceses).

List of ancient settlements in Turkey

Below is the list of ancient settlements in Turkey. There are innumerable ruins of ancient settlements spread all over the country. While some ruins date back to Neolithic times, most of them were settlements of Hittites, Phrygians, Lydians, Ionians, Urartians, and so on.

Mersin Province

The Mersin Province (Turkish: Mersin ili) is a province in southern Turkey, on the Mediterranean coast between Antalya and Adana. The provincial capital is the city of Mersin and the other major town is Tarsus, birthplace of St Paul. The province is part of Çukurova, a geographical, economical and cultural region, that covers the provinces of Mersin, Adana, Osmaniye and Hatay.

Pamplona

Pamplona (Spanish: [pamˈplona]; French: Pampelune) or Iruña (Basque: [iɾuɲa], alternative spelling: Iruñea, IPA: [iɾuɲea]) is the capital city of the Autonomous Community of Navarre, in Spain, and historically also of the former Kingdom of Navarre. Pamplona is also the second largest city in the greater Basque cultural region, composed of two Spanish autonomous communities, Navarre and Basque Country, and the French Basque Country.

Pamplona has a moderate climate being at 446 metres (1,463 ft) in terms of elevation. In addition to its elevation, Pamplona being inland results in cool nights by Spanish standards.

The city is famous worldwide for the running of the bulls during the San Fermín festival, which is held annually from 6 to 14 July. This festival was brought to literary renown with the 1926 publication of Ernest Hemingway's novel The Sun Also Rises. It is also home to Osasuna, the only Navarrese football club to have ever played in the Spanish top division.

Pompeiopolis (disambiguation)

Pompeiopolis was a city in ancient Paphlagonia, now in Turkey.

Pompeiopolis (Ancient Greek: Πομπηϊούπολις) may also:

Pompeiopolis in Cilicia, now in Turkey

Pompeiopolis in Hispania, now in Spain

Pompeiopolis in Pontus, a former name of Samsun, Turkey

Samsun

Samsun (Pontic Greek: Σαμψούντα, Ottoman Turkish: صامسون) is a city on the north coast of Turkey with a population over half a million people. It is the provincial capital of Samsun Province and a major Black Sea port. The growing city has two universities, several hospitals, shopping malls, a lot of light manufacturing industry, sports facilities and an opera.

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk began the Turkish War of Independence here in 1919.

Soli (Cilicia)

Soli (Ancient Greek: Σόλοι, Sóloi), often rendered Soli/Pompeiopolis (Ancient Greek: Πομπηϊούπολις), was an ancient city and port in Cilicia, 11 km west of Mersin in present-day Turkey.

Sylvester Horton Rosecrans

Sylvester Horton Rosecrans (February 5, 1827 – October 21, 1878) was an American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Bishop of Columbus from 1868 until his death in 1878.

Taşköprü, Kastamonu

Taşköprü (Turkish: taş köprü "stone bridge") is a town and district of Kastamonu Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. According to the 2000 census, population of the district is 43,800 of which 16,181 live in the town of Taşköprü. The district covers an area of 1,811 km2 (699 sq mi), and the town lies at an elevation of 553 m (1,814 ft).

The town takes its name from the stone bridge constructed in the 13th century by the Chobanids over the Gök River. The 68 meter span is supported on seven arches and still carries automobile traffic. Taşköprü is 42 km from Kastamonu and is noted for its garlic.

Tiberius Claudius Severus Proculus

Tiberius Claudius Severus Proculus (about 163-by 218) was a Roman Senator. Via his mother he was a grandson of Emperor Marcus Aurelius, but he played only a limited role in dynastic politics.

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