Pomorie

Pomorie (Bulgarian: Поморие) is a town and seaside resort in southeastern Bulgaria, located on a narrow rocky peninsula in Burgas Bay on the southern Bulgarian Black Sea Coast.

It is situated in Burgas Province, 20 km away from the city of Burgas and 18 km from the Sunny Beach resort. The ultrasaline lagoon Lake Pomorie, the northernmost of the Burgas Lakes, lies in the immediate proximity. The town is the administrative centre of the eponymous Pomorie Municipality.

Pomorie is an ancient city and today an important tourist destination. As of December 2009, it has a population of 13,569 inhabitants.[1] It lies at 42°33′N 27°39′E / 42.550°N 27.650°E.

Pomorie

Поморие
Town
Aerial view of Pomorie
Aerial view of Pomorie
Coat of arms of Pomorie

Coat of arms
Pomorie is located in Bulgaria
Pomorie
Pomorie
Location of Pomorie
Coordinates: 42°34′6″N 27°37′0″E / 42.56833°N 27.61667°ECoordinates: 42°34′6″N 27°37′0″E / 42.56833°N 27.61667°E
CountryBulgaria
Province (Oblast)Burgas
Government
 • MayorIvan Aleksiev (GERB)
Elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Population
 (2009)[1]
 • Total13,569
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal Code
8200

Name

Pomorie-centre-1
Centre of Pomorie

Pomorie was founded by the Ancient Greeks under the name Anchialos (Ancient Greek: Ἀγχίαλος), deriving from Ancient Greek "anchi-" ("near, close to") and "als-" (either "salt" or a poetic and uncommon word for "sea"). In Latin, this was rendered as Anchialus. The Bulgars called the town Tuthom, though it's more common name in Bulgarian was Анхиало, Anhialo based on the Greek name. During the Ottoman rule, the town was called Ahyolu. In 1934 the town was renamed to Pomorie, from the Bulgarian "po-" (in this context "by, next to") and "more" ("sea"), corresponding to one of the two etymologies of the original Greek name.

History

Ancient Greek colony and Roman centre

Possibly founded in the 5th or 4th century BC as a colony of Apollonia (today Sozopol), Anchialos was mentioned in Strabo's Geographica as a small town. It was briefly captured by Messembria (Nesebar) in the 2nd century BC, but reconquered by Apollonia and its fortified walls destroyed.

The western Black Sea coast was ultimately conquered by the Romans under Marcus Licinius Crassus in 29-28 BC after continuous campaigns in the area since 72-71. The fortified wall was meanwhile rebuilt, as evidenced by Ovid in 9 AD en route to Tomis. In the early 1st century AD Anchialos was the centre of a strategia of the vassal Odrysian kingdom, and the town had a Thracian population in the 6th century AD according to the early Byzantine historian Procopius. As the Odrysian kingdom's self-independence was abolished in 45 AD, Anchialos became part of the Roman province of Thrace and was formally proclaimed a city under Emperor Trajan. At the time the city controlled a vast territory bordering that of Augusta Trajana (Stara Zagora) and reaching the Tundzha to the west, bordering that of Messembria to the north and the southern shore of Lake Burgas to the south. Anchialos acquired the appearance of a Roman city and throve in the 2nd and 3rd century under the Severan Dynasty, serving as the most important import and export station of Thrace.

Early Byzantine rule

However, the invasion of barbarian tribes from the north meant an end to this prosperity in the middle of the 3rd century, with the Goths briefly capturing Anchialos around 270. Diocletian stayed in the city between 28 and 30 October 294. His and Constantine the Great's reforms restored the city's prosperity for a while, as the proximity to the new capital of Constantinople made Anchialos a key food supply centre.

Theodoric the Great passed through the city in 476 on the way to Adrianople. A high-ranking Byzantine general named Vitalian in 513 revolted in the region and briefly took control of Anchialos and the neighbouring cities to use their fleet in his attack of Constantinople until he was crushed in 515.

The bishopric of Anchialus was originally a suffragan of the metropolitan see of Hadrianopolis in Haemimonto, capital of the Roman province of Haemimontus. However, the Notitiae Episcopatuum of Pseudo-Epiphanius, written in the reign of Byzantine Emperor Heraclius (c. 640), gives it as an autocephalous archbishopric, today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.[2] The first bishop of the see whose name is known is 2nd-century Sotas, mentioned by Eusebius of Caesarea as an adversary of Montanism. Timotheus was at the Council of Sardica in 343/344. Sebastianus was one of the bishops at the First Council of Constantinople of 381. Sabbatius was a signatory of the decree of the Patriarch of Constantinople against simoniacs in 459. Paulus was at the Second Council of Constantinople in 553. Jacobus was a contemporary of Patriarch Tarasios of Constantinople. Nicolaus was at the Photian Council of Constantinople (879).[3][4][5] No longer a residential bishopric, Anchialus is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.[6]

Pomorie Tracian Tomb 03-lazarov-ifb
Pomorie's ancient Thracian tomb

The Slavic and Avar invasion in 584 meant Anchialos was conquered and its fortifications were destroyed. Avar Khagan Bayan turned the city into his residence for a few months and concluded a peace treaty with the Byzantines. At the eve of his campaigns, the emperor Maurice visited the city to oversee reconstruction.

Byzantine and Bulgarian rule

After 681 and the formation of the First Bulgarian Empire to the north Anchialos played an important role in many conflicts between the two empires. In 708 the forces of Justinian II were completely defeated near the fortress by the army of Bulgar Khan Tervel. On 30 June 763 the Bulgars under Telets suffered a defeat by the Byzantine army of Constantine V. On 21 June 766 the same emperor's fleet of 2,600 heavy ships sank en route to Anchialos, where Constantine was waiting, and most soldiers drowned, forcing him to return to Constantinople.

In May 783 Irene undertook a demonstrative campaign across Thrace and restored Anchialos' destroyed fortifications. The city was first conquered by the Bulgarian Empire in 812, under Khan Krum, who settled Slavs and Bulgars in Anchialos. The Byzantines restored their control over the city and the area in 864.

The Battle of Anchialus took place near the city on 20 August 917, and was one of Tsar Simeon the Great's greatest military achievements. Simeon's army routed the considerably larger Byzantine forces under Leo Phocas. Bulgaria retained the city until 971, when the Byzantine Empire reconquered it and held it for two centuries as Bulgaria was subjugated. After the restoration of the Bulgarian state Anchialos changed hands several times until it was captured by the Venetian knights of Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy in October 1366. The next year it was ceded to Byzantium.[7]

Ottoman rule

After the Ottoman invasion of the Balkans in the 14th century, Anchialos remained a Byzantine bulwark until submission in 1453 together with Constantinople. Whilst under Ottoman administration, it became the centre of a kaza also encompassing the area around Sozopol as "Ahyolu". It was the centre of an eparchy of the Patriarchate of Constantinople and continued to act as a cultural, religious, economic and administrative centre of the region until the early 19th century, as many noble Byzantine families settled after 1453. Two Patriarchs of Constantinople stem from the city—Michael III of Anchialus (1170–1178) and Jeremias II Tranos (1572–1579, 1580–1584, 1587–1595).

Already before 1819 many prominent locals joined the Greek patriotic organization Filiki Eteria. At the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence (1821) a part of the town's representatives, priests as well as the Orthodox bishop Eugenios were executed by the Ottoman authorities.[8] During the Russo-Turkish War of 1828-1829 Anchialos was captured by the Russian forces on 11 July 1829 and held for a year. At the time it was mainly inhabited by Greeks,[9] with minorities of Bulgarians and Turks,[8] had a population of 5,000-6,000, six Orthodox churches and a mosque. After the Russian forces withdrew the whole of what is today Eastern Bulgaria gradually depopulated, with many people fleeing to the Christian lands to the north. Pomorie's St George's Monastery was founded in 1856. It was a kaza centre in İslimye sanjak of Edirne Province before 1878 as "Ahyolu".[10]

Liberated Bulgaria

Anchialos was liberated from Ottoman rule on 27 January 1878 and became part of Eastern Rumelia as a kaza centre in Burgaz sanjak until Bulgaria unified in 1885. At the turn of the 20th century Anchialos was a predominantly Greek town of about 6,000. Pomorie was one of the predominantly Greek-inhabited towns in Bulgaria that were afftected by anti-Greek pogroms in early 1900s. The local Greek community was already targeted by the Bulgarian authorities from early 1905.[11] The town was burnt down in July, 1906, and over 300 Greeks were murdered. The perpetrators were Bulgarian refugees from the region of Macedonia as a response to the massacre of the Bulgarian inhabitants of the village of Zagorichani by Greek militants. In addition to political reasons there were also economic motives.[12][13][11] The Bulgarian authorities were accused by most European governments due to this turn of events. The destruction of the town was compared by contemporary European diplomacy to the anti-Jewish pogroms in Russia.[11]

The town accommodated many Bulgarian refugees from Eastern Thrace, mainly from around Lozengrad after World War I, who replaced the Greeks who had fled in the first decade of the 20th century; in 1906 they founded Nea Anchialos in Greece. During the 19th and 20th century it gradually lost most of its importance in the southern Bulgarian Black Sea Coast at the expense of rapidly developing Burgas. It established itself as a centre of wine and salt production and was renamed Pomorie in 1934.

Landmarks

Pomorie-municipality
Building of Pomorie Municipality in 2010
Pomorie-church-Nativity-of-Theotokos-1
Nativity of Theotokos Church in 2010
PomorieSolnitsi2
Pomorie salt works
  • Municipal museum and gallery
  • Museum of Salt
  • Ancient Thracian beehive tomb (3rd century AD)
  • Traditional 19th-century wooden houses
  • Nativity of Theotokos Church (1890)
  • Church of the Transfiguration of God (1765)
  • St George's Monastery (1856)
  • Yavorov's Rocks

Honour

Pomorie Point on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after Pomorie.

References

  1. ^ a b Bulgarian National Statistical Institute - towns in 2009
  2. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 832
  3. ^ Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. I, coll. 1189-1192
  4. ^ Gaetano Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica, Vol. 2, pp. 41
  5. ^ Siméon Vailhé, v. Anchialos, in Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. II, Paris 1914, coll. 1511-1513
  6. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 832
  7. ^ Beshevliev, Boyan. "Anchialos/Ahelo (Middle Ages)". Εγκυκλοπαίδεια Μείζονος Ελληνισμού, Εύξεινος Πόντος. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
  8. ^ a b Κοτζάμπαση, Μαρία. Αγχίαλος (Νεότεροι χρόνοι) (in Greek). Εγκυκλοπαίδεια Μείζονος Ελληνισμού, Εύξεινος Πόντος. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
  9. ^ Dragostinova, Theodora. Between two motherlands : nationality and emigration among the Greeks of Bulgaria, 1900-1949. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-4945-1.
  10. ^ (PDF) http://acikarsiv.ankara.edu.tr/fulltext/3066.pdf. Retrieved 2009-07-16. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  11. ^ a b c Theodora Dragostinova, Between two motherlands : nationality and emigration among the Greeks of Bulgaria, 1900-1949. Cornell University Press, 2011. [1], page=44-47
  12. ^ Detrez, Raymond (2015). Historical Dictionary of Bulgaria (3 ed.). p. 390. ISBN 978-1-4422-4180-0.
  13. ^ Cornis-Pope, Marcel; Neubauer, John. History of the Literary Cultures of East-Central Europe: Junctures and disjunctures in the 19th and 20th centuries. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 144. ISBN 9789027293404.

External links

2009–10 Bulgarian Cup

The 2009–10 Bulgarian Cup was the 28th official season of the Bulgarian annual football knockout tournament. The competition began on September 16, 2009 with the matches of the Preliminary Round and ended with the final on May 5, 2010. Litex Lovech are the defending champions.

Beroe won the competition, beating Chernomorets Pomorie in the finals at Gradski. As such, they qualified for the third qualifying round of the 2010–11 UEFA Europa League.

2010 Bulgarian Cup Final

The 2010 Bulgarian Cup Final was played at the Lovech Stadium in Lovech on May 5, 2010, and was contested by Beroe Stara Zagora and Chernomorets Pomorie. The match was won by Beroe Stara Zagora, with Doncho Atanasov scoring the crucial goal in the 92nd minute.

Battle of Achelous (917)

The Battle of Achelous or Acheloos (Bulgarian: Битката при Ахелой, Greek: Μάχη του Αχελώου), also known as the Battle of Anchialus, took place on 20 August 917, on the Achelous River near the Bulgarian Black Sea coast, close to the fortress Tuthom (modern Pomorie) between Bulgarian and Byzantine forces. The Bulgarians obtained a decisive victory which not only secured the previous successes of Simeon I but made him de facto a ruler of the whole Balkan Peninsula excluding the well-protected Byzantine capital Constantinople and the Peloponnese.

The battle, which was one of the biggest and bloodiest battles of the European Middle Ages, was one of the worst disasters ever to befall a Byzantine army, and conversely one of the greatest military successes of Bulgaria. Among the most significant consequences was the official recognition of the Imperial title of the Bulgarian monarchs, and the consequent affirmation of Bulgarian equality vis-à-vis Byzantium.

Battle of Anchialus (708)

The Battle of Anchialus (Bulgarian: Битката при Анхиало) occurred in 708 AD near the modern-day town of Pomorie, Bulgaria 42°33′N 27°39′E.

Battle of Anchialus (763)

The battle of Anchialus (Bulgarian: Битката при Анхиало) occurred in 763, near the town of Pomorie on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast 42°33′N 27°39′E. The result was a Byzantine victory.

Deyan Lozev

Deyan Lachezarov Lozev (Bulgarian: Деян Лъчезаров Лозев; born 26 October 1993) is a Bulgarian footballer, who currently plays as a midfielder for Arda Kardzhali.

Jeremias II of Constantinople

Jeremias II Tranos (c. 1536 – September 4, 1595) was Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople three times between 1572 and 1595.

Kableshkovo, Pomorie Municipality

Kableshkovo is a small town in the Pomorie Municipality, Bulgaria. As of 2005 the population is 2 866. A small but modern sports complex of PFC Naftex Burgas is under construction. It will include two football terrains and an attached hotel. A golf complex is also expected to be built till 2010, and is expected to be the biggest and most modern golf complex in the country.

Kristiyan Uzunov

Kristiyan Uzunov (Bulgarian: Кристиян Узунов; born 4 February 1989) is a Bulgarian footballer who plays as a defender for Vitosha Bistritsa. He was raised in CSKA Sofia's youth teams.

Made his official debut for CSKA in the last match of 2008-09 season in the Bulgarian A PFG (Professional Football Group) against Lokomotiv Mezdra.

Lake Pomorie

Lake Pomorie (Bulgarian: Поморийско езеро, Pomoriysko ezero) is the northernmost of the coastal Burgas Lakes, located in the immediate proximity of the Black Sea and the Bulgarian town of Pomorie. It has an area of 8.5 km² (reaching 10 km² together with the adjacent damp zones) and has an elongated shape with a length of 6.7 km and width of 1.8–2 km. Divided from the sea by a narrow strip of sand (spit) and an artificial dike, the lake is an ultrasaline natural lagoon.

Lake Pomorie is a protected area since January 2001. Sea salt is obtained in the north part and curative mud in the south. Located on the Via Pontica bird migration route, the lake is inhabited by 215 species of birds, 4 of which globally endangered, and is thus of ornithological importance.

Martin Vasilev

Martin Vasilev (Bulgarian: Мартин Василев; born 2 January 1992) is a Bulgarian footballer who plays as a defender for Lokomotiv Sofia.

Mihael Orachev

Mihael Orachev (Bulgarian: Михаел Орачев; born 3 October 1995) is a Bulgarian footballer, who currently plays for CSKA 1948 Sofia as a midfielder. He is the son of former footballer Malin Orachev.

Milen Tanev

Milen Tanev (Bulgarian: Милен Танев; born 4 March 1987) is a Bulgarian footballer currently playing as a midfielder for Pomorie.

Miroslav Koev

Miroslav Koev (Bulgarian: Мирослав Коев; born 22 April 1990) is a Bulgarian footballer who plays as a defender for Pomorie.

OFC Pomorie

Pomorie (Bulgarian: Поморие) is a Bulgarian municipal (Bulgarian: общински, pronounced obshtinski) association football club based in Pomorie, that competes in the Second League, the second tier of Bulgarian football. The club plays its home matches at the Pomorie Stadium, which has an overall capacity of 2,000 seats.

Pomorie Municipality

Pomorie Municipality (Bulgarian: Община Поморие, Obshtina Pomorie) is located in the Burgas Province, Bulgaria. The territory is 413.3 km² and the population is 28,572. The main economic activities are tourism, wine industry and grape growing.

Yani Pehlivanov

Yani Pehlivanov (Bulgarian: Яни Пехливанов; born 14 July 1988) is a Bulgarian footballer who plays as a midfielder for Etar Veliko Tarnovo.

Yanko Georgiev

Yanko Georgiev (Bulgarian: Янко Георгиев; born 22 October 1988) is a Bulgarian football goalkeeper who currently plays for Botev Plovdiv.

Zhivko Petkov

Zhivko Stoyanov Petkov (Bulgarian: Живко Стоянов Петков; born 15 February 1993) is a Bulgarian footballer, who plays as a forward for Pomorie.

Bulgaria Cities and towns of Bulgaria (2011 census)
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