Poltava (UK: /pɒlˈtɑːvə/, US: /pəlˈ-/; Ukrainian: Полтава [polˈtɑwɐ]; Russian: Полтава [pɐlˈtavə]) is a city located on the Vorskla River in central Ukraine. It is the capital city of the Poltava Oblast (province) and of the surrounding Poltava Raion (district) of the oblast. Poltava is administratively incorporated as a city of oblast significance and does not belong to the raion. It has a population of 289,000.
Top left:Poltava Regional Museum, Top right:Poltava Holy Cross Monastery, Center:The Round Square, Bottom left:The White Arbor, Bottom right:Marusia Churai Memorial in Gogolya Street
Coat of arms
Location of Poltava in Poltava Oblast.
3 raions (districts)
|• Mayor||Oleksandr Mamay (suspended)|
|• Total||103 km2 (40 sq mi)|
|• Density||2,811/km2 (7,280/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+3 (EEST)|
|Licence plate||CK, BI|
|Sister cities||Filderstadt, Ostfildern, Veliko Tarnovo, Lublin, Nice|
|1 The previously believed foundation date was 1174.|
It is still unknown when Poltava was founded, although the town was not attested before 1174. However, for reasons unknown, municipal authorities chose to celebrate the city's 1100th anniversary in 1999. The settlement is indeed an old one, as archeologists unearthed a Paleolithic dwelling as well as Scythian remains within the city limits.
The present name of the city is traditionally connected to the settlement Ltava which is mentioned in the Hypatian Chronicle in 1174. According to the chronicle, on Saint Peter's Day (12 July) of 1182, Igor Sviatoslavich, chasing hordes of the Cuman khans Konchak and Kobiak, crossed the Vorskla River near Ltava and moved towards Pereyaslav (presumably the modern Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi), where Igor's army was victorious over the Cumans. During the Mongol invasion of Rus' in 1238–39 many cities of the middle Dnieper region were destroyed, possibly including Ltava.
In the mid 14th century the region was part of the Duchy of Kiev, which was a vassal of the Algirdas' Grand Duchy of Lithuania. According to the Russian historian Aleksandr Shennikov, the region around modern Poltava was a Cuman Duchy belonging to Mansur, who was a son of Mamai. Shennikov also claims that the Mansur Duchy joined the Grand Duchy of Lithuania as an associated state rather than a vassal state, and that the city of Poltava already existed at that time. In 1399 the army of Mansur assisted the army of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the battle of the Vorskla River, while a legend says that after the battle, the Cossack Mamay helped Vytautas to escape his death.
The city is mentioned for the first time under the name of Poltava no later than 1430. Supposedly, in 1430 the Lithuanian duke Vytautas gave the city, along with Glinsk (today a village near the city of Romny) and Glinitsa, to Murza Olexa (Loxada Mansurxanovich), who moved to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from the Golden Horde. In 1430 Murza Olexa was baptized as Alexander Glinsky, who was a progenitor of the Glinsky family. According to Shenninkov, Alexander Glinsky must have been baptized in 1390 by Cyprian, Metropolitan of Kiev, who had just regained his title of Metropolitan of Kiev and all Russia (rather than the Metropolitan of Russia Minor and Lithuania) and on 6 March 1390 permanently moved to Muscovy.
In 1537 Ografena Vasylivna Glinska (Baibuza) passed Poltava to her son-in-law Mykhailo Ivanovych Hrybunov-Baibuza.
After the Union of Lublin in 1569, the territory around Poltava became part of the Crown of Poland. In 1630 Poltava was passed to a Polish magnate, Bartholomew Obalkowski. In 1641 it changed ownership again, to Alexander Koniecpolski. In 1646 Poltava became part of Wiśniowiecki Ordynatsia (a large Wiśniowiecki estate in Left-bank Ukraine centered in Lubny), governed by the Ruthenian-Polish magnate Jeremi Wiśniowiecki (1612–51). In 1648 the city became the base of a distinguished regiment of Ukrainian Cossacks, and served as a Cossack stronghold during the Khmelnytsky Uprising. In 1650, to commemorate a victory of the Cossack Host over the Polish army at the Poltavka River, the Metropolitan of Kiev, Sylvester Kossov, ordered the establishment of the monastery of the Exaltation of the Cross in Poltava. The project was financed by a number of prominent local residents, including Martyn Pushkar, Ivan Iskra, Ivan Kramar and many others.
During the 1654 Pereyaslav Council, the Poltava city delegates pledged their allegiance to the Czar of Muscovy, after which stolnik Andrei Spasitelev arrived in Poltava and recorded 1,335 residents who had pledged their allegiance. In 1658 Poltava became a center of anti-government revolt led by Martyn Pushkar, who contested the legitimacy of Ivan Vyhovsky's election to the post of Hetman of Zaporizhian Host. The uprising was extinguished with the help of Crimean Tatars. On the issue boyar Vasily Borisovich Sheremetev wrote to Alexei Mikhailovich on 8 June 1658: "... the Cherkas [Cossack] city of Plotava is ravaged and burned to the ground and only if the Great Sovereign orders to rebuilt on the Tatar Sokma (pathway) of Bakeyev Route and protect many his sovereign cities from Tatar visits. And if the Great Sovereign allows to place a voivode in the city and rebuilt the city until the fall that in Plotava Cherkasy [Cossacks] and residents built their houses and stock-piled their food". With the signing of the 1667 truce of Andrusovo, the city was finally subjected to the Tsardom of Muscovy, while remaining part of the Cossack Hetmanate.
The city suffered from the Great Turkish War when in 1695 Petro Ivanenko led an anti-Muscovite uprising with the help of Crimean Tatars, who ravaged the local monastery. The same year the Poltava Regiment actively participated in the Azov campaigns which resulted in the taking of the Turkish fortress of Kyzy-Kermen (today the city of Beryslav, Kherson Oblast). On 8 July (New Style) or 27 June (Old Style) 1709 the battle of Poltava took place near the city during the Great Northern War. The battle ended in a decisive victory of Peter I of Russia over the Swedish forces and had great historical importance for the Russians. In 1710 there was a plague in the city and its surrounding area. In the mid-18th century the Kolomak Woods near Poltava became a base of haidamaks (Cossack paramilitary bands).
By 1770 Poltava had several brick factories, a regimental doctor, and a pharmacy; that same year the city conducted four fairs. In 1775 it became a city of Novorossiysk Governorate, guarded by the 8th Company of the Dnieper Pike Regiment headquartered in Kobeliaky. In 1775 Poltava's Monastery of the Exaltation of the Cross (Russian: Крестовоздвиженский монастырь, Krestovozdvizhensky Monastyr) became the seat of bishops of the newly created Eparchy (Diocese) of Slaviansk and Kherson. This large new diocese included the lands of the Novorossiya Governorate and the Azov Governorate north of the Black Sea. Since much of that area had only recently been seized from the Ottoman Empire by Russia, and a large number of Orthodox Greek settlers had been invited to settle in the region, the Imperial Government selected a renowned Greek scholar, Eugenios Voulgaris, to preside over the new diocese. After his retirement in 1779, he was replaced by another Greek theologian, Nikephoros Theotokis.
In 1779 the city established the Poltava county school, which became its first secular educational institution. In 1787 Catherine the Great stopped in Poltava on the way from Crimea, escorted by Grigori Potemkin, Alexander Suvorov and Mikhail Kutuzov. In Poltava, on 7 June 1787, before another Russo-Turkish War, Potemkin received his title "Prince of Taurida", while Suvorov received a snuffbox with monogram. In 1802 the city became the seat of the newly established Poltava Governorate. The city's population in 1802 consisted of some 8,000 residents. That same year Poltava opened a government-funded hospital of 20 beds.
On 2 February 1808 the Poltava Male Gymnasium was established. On 20 June 1808 some 54 families of craftsmen were invited to the city from German principalities and settled in the newly established German Sloboda neighborhood with about 50 clay-made houses. In 1810 there were 8,328 people living in Poltava; that same year, the city's first theater was built. In August 1812, on orders of Little Russia Governor General Lobanov-Rostovsky, the famed Ukrainian writer and statesman Ivan Kotlyarevsky formed the 5th Poltava Cavalry Cossack Regiment.
By 1860 Poltava had around 30,000 inhabitants, a district school, a gymnasium, an Institute for Noble Maidens, a spiritual academy, a cadet corps, a library and a number of schools. In 1870 a railway station was opened, leading to rapid economic growth in the region. However, by 1914 the Population of Poltava (around 60,000) was mostly working in small enterprises. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries Poltava became an important cultural centre, where many representatives of Ukrainian national revival were active.
During the events of 1917–1920, Poltava was under the rule of a number of governments, including the Central Rada, Hetmanate, Ukrainian People's Republic, White Movement and Bolsheviks. After becoming a part of Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Poltava experienced accelerated industrial growth, and its population increased to 130,000 by 1939.
In World War II, the Nazi Wehrmacht occupied Poltava from late October 1941 until 23 September 1943, when it was retaken during the Chernigov-Poltava Strategic Offensive of the battle of the Dnieper. During the Nazi occupation the Jewish population (9.9% of the total population in 1939) was imprisoned in a ghetto before being murdered during mass executions perpetrated by an Einsatzgruppe and buried in mass graves in the area. By the summer of 1944 the United States Army Air Forces conducted a number of shuttle bombing raids against Nazi Germany under the name of Operation Frantic. Poltava Air Base, as well as Myrhorod Air Base, were used as eastern locations for landing B-17 Flying Fortress heavy bombers involved in those operations.
The post-war restoration of Poltava continued in the 1950s and 1960s. The city became an important centre of military education in the Soviet Union, where missile and communications officers were prepared, and was also home to a Soviet Air Force division of heavy bombers.
Poltava is the administrative center of the Poltava Oblast (province) as well as of the Poltava Raion housed within the city. However, Poltava is a city of oblast subordinance, thus being subject directly to the oblast authorities rather to the raion administration housed in the city itself.
Poltava's government consists of the 50-member Poltava City Council (Ukrainian: Полтавська Міська рада) which is headed by the Secretary (currently Oleksandr Kozub). The city's current mayor is Oleksandr Mamay, who was sworn in on 4 November 2010 after being elected with more than 61 percent of the vote. In 2015 he was re-elected as a candidate of Conscience of Ukraine with 62.9% in a second round of Mayoral election.
The centre of the old city is a semicircular Neoclassical square with the Tuscan column of cast iron (1805–11), commemorating the centenary of the Battle of Poltava and featuring 18 Swedish cannons captured in that battle. As Peter the Great celebrated his victory in the Saviour church, this 17th-century wooden shrine was carefully preserved to this day. The five-domed city cathedral, dedicated to the Exaltation of the Cross, is a superb monument of Cossack Baroque, built between 1699 and 1709. As a whole, the cathedral presents a unity which even the Neoclassical belltower has failed to mar. Another frothy Baroque church, dedicated to the Dormition of the Theotokos, was destroyed in 1934 and rebuilt in the 1990s.
The most popular sport is football (soccer). Two professional football (soccer) teams are based in the city: Vorskla Poltava in the Ukrainian Premier League and FC Poltava in the Second League. There are 3 stadiums in Poltava: Butovsky Vorskla Stadium (main city stadium), Dynamo Stadium are situated in the city centre and Lokomotiv Stadium which is situated in Podil district.
Poltava's transportation infrastructure consists of two major train stations with railway links to Kiev, Kharkiv, and Kremenchuk. Poltava's Kiev line is electrified and is used by the Poltava Express. The electrification of the Poltava-Kharkiv line was completed in August 2008.
The Avtovokzal serves as the city's intercity bus station. Buses for local municipal routes depart from "AC-2" (autostation No. 2 – along Shevchenko street) and "AC-3" (Zinkivska street). Local municipal routes are parked along the Taras Shevchenko Street. Marshrutka minibuses serve areas where regular bus access is unavailable; however, they are privately owned and cost more per ride. In addition, a 15-route trolleybus network of 72.6 kilometres (45.1 mi) runs throughout the city. On the routes of the city go more than 50 units of trolleybuses.
Poltava is also served by a domestic airport, situated outside the city limits near the village of Ivashky. The international highway M03, linking Poltava with Kiev and Kharkiv, passes through the southern outskirts of the city. There is also a regional highway P-17 crossing Poltava and linking it with Kremenchuk and Sumy.
Poltava has always been one of the most important science and education centres in Ukraine. Major universities and institutions of higher education include the following:
Poltava is twinned with:
The 2011 Ukrainian Super Cup became the eighth edition of Ukrainian Super Cup, which is an annual season opening football exhibition game contested by the winners of the previous season's Ukrainian Top League and Ukrainian Cup competitions.
The match was played on 5 July 2011 in Poltava at the Vorskla Stadium becoming second time when the game was played at the stadium.
This year the Super Cup was contested by league winner Shakhtar Donetsk and cup runner-up Dynamo Kyiv. Dynamo won it 3–1.2016–17 Ukrainian Cup
The 2016–17 Ukrainian Cup is the 26th annual season of Ukraine's football knockout competition.
The decision on a schedule of competitions for clubs from the First and Second League in the composition will be confirmed by Central Council of the Professional Football League of Ukraine and the competition will start on 20 July 2016.Andriy Pyatov
Andrii Valeriiovych Piatov (Ukrainian: Андрій Валерійович П'ятов; born 28 June 1984) is a Ukrainian football goalkeeper who plays for FC Shakhtar Donetsk in the Ukrainian Premier League.Battle of Poltava
The Battle of Poltava (8 July 1709) was the decisive victory of Peter I of Russia, also known as "the Great," over the Swedish forces under Field Marshal Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld, in one of the battles of the Great Northern War.
It is widely believed by historians to have been the beginning of the Swedish Empire's decline as a European great power, while the Tsardom of Russia took its place as the leading nation of north-eastern Europe. The battle also bears major importance in Ukrainian national history, as Hetman of Zaporizhian Host Ivan Mazepa sided with the Swedes, seeking to create an uprising in Ukraine against the tsardom.
Today, at the site of the battle there is a State Cultural Heritage Preserve Complex in Poltava known as the "Poltava Battle Field", which consists of monuments and churches commemorating the event.European route E584
European route E 584 is a European B class road in Romania, Moldova and Ukraine, connecting the cities Poltava and Slobozia, Romania.FC Poltava
FC Poltava (Ukrainian: ФК Полтава) was a Ukrainian football club based in Poltava in 2007–2018.FC Vorskla Poltava
FC Vorskla Poltava (Ukrainian: ФК «Во́рскла» Полта́ва [ˈwɔrsklɐ polˈtɑwɐ]) is a professional football club in Poltava, Ukraine that competes in the Ukrainian Premier League, the top flight of Ukrainian football.Horishni Plavni
Horishni Plavni (Ukrainian: Горішні Плавні, before 2016 known as Komsomolsk-na-Dnipri, Ukrainian: Комсомо́льськ-на-Дніпрі or simply Komsomolsk, Ukrainian: Комсомо́льськ) is a purpose-built mining city in central Ukraine, located on the left bank of the Dnieper. Horishni Plavni is a city of regional significance of Poltava Oblast, practically conurbated with the larger neighboring city of Kremenchuk.Kremenchuk
Kremenchuk ( KREM-ən-CHOOK, KRIM-in-; Ukrainian: Кременчу́к, romanized: Kremenčúk [kremenˈtʃuk]) or Kremenchug ( -CHOOG; Russian: Кременчу́г, romanized: Kremenčúg [krʲɪmʲɪnʲˈtɕuk]) an important industrial city in central Ukraine, stands on the banks of the Dnieper River. The city serves as the administrative center of the Kremenchuk Raion ( district) in Poltava Oblast ( province). Kremenchuk is administratively incorporated as a city of oblast significance administered by its own city council and does not form a part of the raion. Population: 223,805 (2015 est.) Along with its city-satellites Svitlovodsk and Horishni Plavni, Kremenchuk functions as an important urban agglomeration and transportation hub.
Although not as large as some other oblast centers and cities of regional significance, Kremenchuk has importance as a large industrial center in Ukraine and Eastern Europe - as the base of the KrAZ truck plant, the Kremenchuk Oil Refinery of Ukrtatnafta, the Kryukiv Railway Car Building Works, and the nearby (Svitlovodsk) Kremenchuk HES. Highway M22 crosses the Dnieper over the dam of the hydro-electric power-plant.
Originally established on the left bank, Kremenchuk eventually incorporated the city of Kryukiv on the right bank. The Kryukiv Railway Car Building Works is one of the oldest railway-repair and rail-car-building factories in Eastern Europe, dating from 1869.List of cities in Ukraine
This is a complete list of cities in Ukraine. On 1 January 2010 there were 459 cities (Ukrainian: мiсто, misto) in Ukraine. City status is granted on the decision of the Ukrainian parliament (Verkhovna Rada). The city status is only partially related to the size of a populated place in Ukraine.
There are three categories of cities that depends on status of those cities in the country and in the table below are indicated by a respective letter as a city status (see legends below for the city status lettering identification). All cities have some level of significance. Any settlement that obtains city status becomes a city of district (район, raion) subordinance. The cities of regional significance can either be of oblast subordinance or republican subordinance (in Crimea). The cities of national significance are officially known as the cities with special status. The significance of a city does not relate to whether the city is an administrative center and such industrial cities like Kryvyi Rih, Mariupol, Makiivka, Horlivka, Kamianske and others have the same level of significance as the regional administrative centers.
Below is the list of all cities estimated by population in 2014 and compared to the 2001 Ukrainian Census, except for Chernobyl which population is an unofficial estimate.Lubny
Lubny (Ukrainian: Лубни́, Russian: Лубны́) Polish: Łubnie) is a city in Poltava Oblast (province) of central Ukraine. Serving as the administrative center of Lubny Raion (district), the city itself is administratively incorporated as a city of oblast significance and does not belong to the raion. Population: 45,275.Myrhorod
Myrhorod (Ukrainian: Ми́ргород) or Mirgorod (Russian: Ми́ргород) is a city in the Poltava Oblast (province) of central Ukraine. Serving as the administrative center of the Myrhorod Raion (district), the city itself is administratively incorporated as a city of oblast significance and does not belong to the raion. It is located on the Khorol River.Obolon' crater
Obolon' crater is a 20 km (12 mi) diameter buried meteorite impact crater situated about 200 km (120 mi) southeast of Kiev in Ukraine (Poltava Oblast).
The site has been drilled, which revealed the presence of shocked minerals and impact melt rock; the high chlorine content of the latter suggesting that the area was covered by shallow sea at the time of impact.
One estimate puts the age at 169 ± 7 million years (Middle Jurassic).Oleksiy Butovsky Vorskla Stadium
Oleksiy Butovsky Vorskla Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Poltava, Ukraine. It is currently used mostly for football matches, and is the home of FC Vorskla Poltava. The stadium holds 24,795 people.Poltava Air Base
Poltava Air Base (Ukrainian: Авіабаза «Полтава», Russian: Авиабаза «Полтава») is a military airfield located approximately 8 km (5.0 mi) northwest of Poltava, Ukraine. It is one of two airfields near Poltava, the other being Poltava Airport.Poltava Governorate
The Poltava Governorate (Russian: Полтавская губернія; translit.: Poltavskaya guberniya, Ukrainian: Полтавська Губернія) or Government of Poltava was a guberniya in the historical Left-bank Ukraine region of the Russian Empire, which was officially created in 1802 from the disbanded Malorossiya Governorate which was split between the Chernigov Governorate and Poltava Governorate with an administrative center of Poltava.Poltava Oblast
Poltava Oblast (Ukrainian: Полтавська область, translit. Poltavs’ka oblast’; also referred to as Poltavshchyna – Ukrainian: Полтавщина) is an oblast (province) of central Ukraine. The administrative center of the oblast is the city of Poltava. Most of its territory is part of the historic Cossack Hetmanate (its southern regions: Poltava, Myrhorod, Lubny, and Hadiach). Population: 1,438,948 (2015 est.)Two other important cities there are Horishni Plavni and Kremenchuk.Pyriatyn
Pyriatyn (Ukrainian: Пиря́тин) is a city in Poltava Oblast, Ukraine. It is the administrative center of Pyriatyn Raion. Population: 15,781 (2015 est.)Russian battleship Poltava (1894)
The Russian battleship Poltava (Russian: Полтава) was one of three Petropavlovsk-class pre-dreadnought battleships built for the Imperial Russian Navy in the 1890s. The ship was transferred to the Pacific Squadron shortly after completion and based at Port Arthur from 1901. During the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05, she participated in the Battle of Port Arthur and was heavily damaged during the Battle of the Yellow Sea. She was sunk by Japanese artillery during the subsequent Siege of Port Arthur in December 1904, but was raised by the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) after the war and renamed Tango (丹後).
During World War I, she bombarded German fortifications during the Siege of Tsingtao. The Japanese government sold Tango back to the Russians at their request in 1916. She was renamed Chesma (Чесма) as her former name had been given to a new ship. En route to the White Sea, she joined an Allied force that persuaded the Greek government to disarm their ships. Her crew declared for the Bolsheviks in October 1917, but made no effort to resist when the British decided to intervene in the Russian Civil War in early 1918. In poor condition, the ship was used as a prison hulk. Abandoned by the British when they withdrew in 1919 and recaptured by the Bolsheviks, she was scrapped in 1924.
|Climate data for Poltava|
|Record high °C (°F)||11.0
|Average high °C (°F)||−3.1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−5.5
|Average low °C (°F)||−8.3
|Record low °C (°F)||−32.2
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||40.7
|Average precipitation days||19.2||15.7||15.7||9.0||9.6||9.2||6.9||4.7||9.3||10.8||14.4||17.9||142.4|
|Average relative humidity (%)||86.7||83.6||76.8||61.4||61.0||65.8||66.7||60.3||70.5||78.3||86.5||87.9||73.8|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||68.2||76.3||133.3||183.0||266.6||294.0||300.7||285.2||216.0||142.6||60.0||43.4||2,069.3|
|Source #1: Climatebase.ru|
|Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun data).|
Administrative center: Poltava
|Cities with special status|