Polo Grounds

The Polo Grounds was the name of three stadiums in Upper Manhattan, New York City, used mainly for professional baseball and American football from 1880 through 1963. As the name suggests, the original Polo Grounds, opened in 1876 and demolished in 1889, was built for the sport of polo. Bound on the south and north by 110th and 112th Streets and on the east and west by Fifth and Sixth (Lenox) Avenues, just north of Central Park, it was converted to a baseball stadium when leased by the New York Metropolitans in 1880. The third Polo Grounds, built in 1890 and renovated after a fire in 1911, is the one generally indicated when the Polo Grounds is referenced. It was located in Coogan's Hollow and was noted for its distinctive bathtub shape, very short distances to the left and right field walls, and an unusually deep center field.

In baseball, the original Polo Grounds was home to the New York Metropolitans from 1880 through 1885, and the New York Giants from 1883 through 1888. The Giants played in the second Polo Grounds for part of the 1889 season and all of the 1890 season, and at the third and fourth Polo Grounds from 1891 through 1957. The Polo Grounds was also the home field of the New York Yankees from 1913 through 1922 and the New York Mets in their first two seasons of 1962 and 1963. All four versions of the ballpark hosted World Series matches at various times. The fourth version also hosted the 1934 and 1942 Major League Baseball All-Star Games.

In football, the third Polo Grounds was home to the New York Brickley Giants for one game in 1921 and the New York Giants from 1925 to 1955. The New York Jets of the American Football League played at the stadium from the league's inaugural season of 1960 through 1963.

Other sporting events held at the Polo Grounds included soccer, boxing, and Gaelic football. The last sporting event at the Polo Grounds was a football game between the New York Jets and the Buffalo Bills on December 14, 1963. Shea Stadium opened in 1964 and replaced the Polo Grounds as the home of the Mets and Jets. The Polo Grounds was demolished over a period of four months that year and a public housing complex, known as the Polo Grounds Towers, was built on the site.

Polo Grounds
"The Bathtub"
No Known Restrictions Polo Grounds during World Series Game, 1913 from the Bain Collection (LOC) (434431507)
The Polo Grounds during the 1913 World Series between the New York Giants and the Philadelphia Athletics
Former namesBrotherhood Park (1890), Brush Stadium (1911–1919)
Locationbounded by West 155th Street, Frederick Douglass Blvd. and Harlem River Drive in Washington Heights, Upper Manhattan, New York
Coordinates40°47′53.17″N 73°57′01.87″W / 40.7981028°N 73.9505194°W (1876–1889)
40°49′51″N 73°56′15″W / 40.83083°N 73.93750°W (1890–1963)
OwnerNew York Giants
OperatorNew York Giants
Capacity34,000 (1911)
55,000 (1923)
Field sizeLeft Field: 279 ft (85 m)
Left-Center: 450 ft (137 m)
Center Field: 483 ft (147 m)
Right-Center: 449 ft (136 m)
Right Field: 258 ft (78 m)
SurfaceGrass
Construction
Broke ground1890
OpenedApril 19, 1890
RenovatedJune 28, 1911
Expanded1923
ClosedDecember 1963
DemolishedApril 10, 1964
ArchitectHenry B. Herts
Tenants
New York Giants (PL) (1890)
New York Giants (NL) (1891–1957)
New York Yankees (AL) (1913–1922)
New York Mets (NL) (1962–1963)
New York Brickley Giants (NFL) (1921)
New York Giants (NFL) (1925–1955)
Columbia Lions football (NCAA) (1900-1936)
Fordham Rams football (NCAA) (1928–1950; 1953-1954)
New York Bulldogs (NFL) (1949)
New York Titans/Jets (AFL) (1960–1963)
Gotham Bowl (NCAA) (1961)

Polo Grounds I

Polo Grounds original
The first Polo Grounds, Opening Day, 1888.
Yale-Princeton May 30 1882
Earliest known image of Polo Grounds I, from 1882

The original Polo Grounds stood at 110th Street between Fifth Avenue and Sixth Avenue, directly across 110th Street from the northeast corner of Central Park. The venue's original purpose was for the sport of polo, and its name was initially merely descriptive, not a formal name, often rendered as "the polo grounds" in newspapers. The Metropolitans, an independent team of roughly major-league caliber, was the first professional baseball team to play there, beginning in September 1880, and remained the sole professional occupant through the 1882 season. At that time the Metropolitans' ownership had the opportunity to bring it into the National League, but elected instead to organize a new team, the New York Gothams — who soon came to be known as the Giants — mainly using players from the Metropolitans and the newly defunct Troy Trojans, and entered it in the National League, while bringing what remained of the Metropolitan club into the competing American Association. For this purpose the ownership built a second diamond and grandstand at the park, dividing it into eastern and western fields for use by the Giants and Metropolitans respectively. Polo Grounds I thus hosted its first Major League Baseball games in 1883 as the home stadium of two teams, the American Association Metropolitans and the National League Gothams.[1] The dual-fields arrangement proved unworkable because of faulty surfacing of the western field, and after various other arrangements were tried, the Metropolitans and Giants alternated play on the eastern field in later years until the Metropolitans moved to the St. George Cricket Grounds on Staten Island in 1886.

Although the Giants would soon become the team of choice in the city, the "Mets" had a good year in 1884. They had started the season in a new facility called Metropolitan Park, which proved to be such a poor venue that they moved back to the Polo Grounds within a few weeks. Despite that bit of drama, the Mets went on to win the American Association pennant. Their good fortune ran out when they faced the Providence Grays in the World Series, in which Providence pitcher Old Hoss Radbourn pitched three consecutive shutouts against them. All three games had been staged at the Polo Grounds.

An early highlight of Giants' play at the Polo Grounds was Roger Connor's home run over the right-field wall and into 112th Street; Connor eventually held the record for career home runs that Babe Ruth would break in 1920.

The original Polo Grounds was used not only for Polo and professional baseball, but often for college baseball and football as well – even by teams outside New York. The earliest known surviving image of the field is an engraving of a baseball game between Yale University and Princeton University on Decoration Day, May 30, 1882.[2] Yale and Harvard also played their traditional Thanksgiving Day football game there on November 29, 1883 and November 24, 1887.[3] (See Football below)

Demolition and forced relocation

New York City was in the process of extending its street grid into uptown Manhattan in 1889. Plans for an extended West 111th Street ran through the Polo Grounds. City workers are said to have shown up suddenly one day and begun cutting through the fence to lay out the new street. With the Giants having won the National League pennant the year before, as well as the World Series there was significant sentiment in the city against the move; a bill was even passed by the state legislature giving the Giants a variance which would allow the park to stand. Governor David B. Hill, who had campaigned for office on a "home rule" pledge, vetoed it on the grounds that whatever he might think of the forced destruction of the park, the will of the city government was to be respected. The loss of their park forced the Giants to look quickly for alternative grounds.

The Giants opened the 1889 season at Oakland Park in Jersey City, New Jersey, playing their first two games there.[4][5] Four days later, they moved to the St. George Cricket Grounds (where the Metropolitans had continued to play until their demise following the 1887 season).[6]

After closing out a homestand at the St. George Grounds on June 14, the Giants went on the road. Upon their return on July 8 they had relocated again, to a "New Polo Grounds" site within Manhattan at the far terminus of the then Ninth Avenue Elevated at 155th Street and 8th Avenue (now Frederick Douglass Boulevard).[7] Despite their vagabond existence in 1889, the Giants managed to win the pennant for the second consecutive year, as well as that year's World Series against Brooklyn.

Polo Grounds II

Manhattan Field ca1901
Manhattan Field c. 1901 with Polo Grounds outfield in background. High Bridge crossing the Harlem River at about 173rd Street is in the background. The bridge's center spans over the river itself were replaced by a large single span in the 1920s. The tower on the left is Highbridge Water Tower.

The new site was overlooked to the north and west by a steep promontory known as Coogan's Bluff. Because of its elevation, fans frequently watched games from the Bluff without buying tickets.[8] The ballpark itself was in bottomland known as Coogan's Hollow. The grandstand had a conventional curve around the infield, but the shape of the property left the center field area actually closer than left center or right center. This was not much of an issue in the "dead ball era" of baseball. The land remained in the Coogan estate, and the Giants were renters for their entire time at Polo Grounds II, III and IV. The Brooklyn Dodgers played a pair of home series at this ballpark in late July and early August 1890.[9]

Merkles Boner game Polo Grounds Sept23 1908
Fans on Coogan's Bluff watch the infamous Merkle's Boner game between the Giants and Cubs, September 23, 1908.

After the National League version of the New York Giants moved into Polo Grounds III in 1891, Polo Grounds II was sub-leased to the Manhattan Athletic Club and was referred to ever after as Manhattan Field. It was converted for other sports such as football and track-and-field. It still existed as a structure for nearly 20 more years. Babe Ruth's first home run as a Yankee, on May 1, 1920, was characterized by the New York Times reporter as a "sockdolager" (i.e. a decisive blow), and was described as traveling "over the right field grand stand into Manhattan Field."[10] Bill Jenkinson's modern research indicates the ball traveled about 500 feet in total, after clearing the Polo Grounds double decked right field stand. Manhattan Field continued to be an occasional site for amateur sports reported in local newspapers as late as spring of 1942. In June 1948, the Giants again leased the Manhattan Field property, and had it paved over to serve as a parking lot for the Polo Grounds.

Polo Grounds III and IV

Polo Grounds III

Polo Grounds Manhattan Field
Polo Grounds (III) (left) and Manhattan Field (aka Polo Grounds II) (right) c.1900

Polo Grounds III was the stadium that made the name nationally famous. Built in 1890, it initially had a completely open outfield bounded by just the outer fence, but bleachers were gradually added. By the early 1900s, some bleacher sections encroached on the field from the foul lines about halfway along left and right field. Additionally, there was a pair of "cigar box" bleachers on either side of the "batter's eye" in center field. The expansive outfield was cut down somewhat by a rope fence behind which carriages (and early automobiles) were allowed to park. By 1910, bleachers enclosed the outfield, and the carriage ropes were gone. The hodge-podge approach to the bleacher construction formed a multi-faceted outfield area. There were a couple of gaps between some of the sections, and that would prove significant in 1911.

Known as "Brotherhood Park" when it opened in 1890, Polo Grounds III was the home of a second New York Giants franchise in the Players' League. The latter was a creation of Major League Baseball's first union, the Brotherhood of Professional Base-Ball Players. After failing to win concessions from National League owners, the Brotherhood founded its own league in 1890. The Players' League Giants built Brotherhood Park in the northern half of Coogan's Hollow, next door to Polo Grounds II, otherwise bounded by rail yards and the bluff. Brotherhood Park hosted its first game on April 19, 1890, the same day the National League's Giants played their first home game of the season.[11] For the full 1890 season the two editions of the Giants were neighbors. When the teams played on the same day, fans in the upper decks could watch each other's games, and home run balls hit in one park might land on the other team's playing field. After the one season the Players' League folded, and the Brotherhood's members went back to the National League. The National League Giants then moved out of Polo Grounds II and into Brotherhood Park, which was larger. They took their stadium's name with them once again, turning Brotherhood Park into the new-new Polo Grounds. Between Polo Grounds II and III-IV, they would remain in Coogan's Hollow for 69 seasons.[12]

Polo grounds panorama
Polo Grounds c.1905. The Morris-Jumel Mansion is on the upper right on top of Coogan's Bluff

Fire and reconstruction as Polo Grounds IV

Polo Grounds Fire
Giants players inspecting the burned ruins at the Polo Grounds, April 14, 1911.

In the very early morning hours of Friday, April 14, 1911, a fire of uncertain origin swept through the stadium's horseshoe-shaped grandstand, consuming wood and leaving only steel uprights in place. The gaps between some sections of the stands saved a good portion of the outfield seating and the clubhouse from destruction. Giants owner John T. Brush decided to rebuild the Polo Grounds with concrete and steel, renting Hilltop Park from the Yankees during reconstruction.

Progress was sufficient to allow the stadium to reopen just three months later, June 28, 1911, the date some baseball guides date the structure. As configured, it was the ninth concrete-and-steel stadium in the Majors and fourth in the National League. Unfinished seating areas were rebuilt during the season while the games went on. The new structure stretched in roughly the same semicircle from the left field corner around home plate to the right field corner as prior but was extended into deep right-center field. The surviving wooden bleachers were retained basically as is, with gaps remaining on each side between the new fireproof construction.

Polo Grounds 1923
Polo Grounds expansion in progress during the 1923 season

The Giants rose from the ashes along with their ballpark, winning the National League pennant in 1911 (as they also would in 1912 and 1913). As evidenced from the World Series programs, the team renamed the new structure Brush Stadium in honor of their then-owner John T. Brush, but the name did not stick, and by the late 1910s it was passé. The remaining old bleachers were demolished during the 1923 season when the permanent double-deck was extended around most of the rest of the field and new bleachers and clubhouse were constructed across center field. This construction gave the stadium its familiar horseshoe or bathtub style shape, as well as a new nickname, "The Bathtub".

Polo Grounds grandstands
Seating diagram of the Polo Grounds, circa 1923

This version of the ballpark had its share of quirks. The "unofficial" distances (never marked on the wall) down the left and right field lines were 279 and 258 feet respectively, but there was a 21-foot overhang in left field, which often intercepted fly balls which would otherwise have been catchable and turned them into home runs. Contrasting with the short distances down the lines were the 450 distances in deepest left and right center (the gaps), with the base of the straightaway centerfield clubhouse standing 483 feet distant from home plate, up a 58-foot runway from the grandstand corners on either side of the clubhouse, which were themselves 425 feet from home plate. The famous photo of The catch made by Willie Mays in the 1954 World Series against Vic Wertz of the Cleveland Indians occurred immediately in front of the "batter's eye", a metal screen atop the grandstand wall directly to the right of the centerfield runway. Consequently, the ball travelled less than 425 feet (probably about 410–415 feet), admittedly a prodigious smash, but far less than the legendary length many assume. It would have been a home run in several other ballparks of the time as well as in most of today's modern ballparks. The bullpens were actually in play, in the left and right center field gaps.[13] The outfield sloped downward from the infield, and people in the dugouts often could only see the top half of the outfielders.

The New York Yankees sublet the Polo Grounds from the Giants during 1913–1922 after their lease on Hilltop Park expired. After the 1922 season, the Yankees built Yankee Stadium directly across the Harlem River from the Polo Grounds, which spurred the Giants to expand their park to reach a comparable seating capacity to stay competitive. However, since nearly all the new seating was in the outfield, Yankee Stadium still had more desirable seats than did the Polo Grounds for watching baseball. However, the Polo Grounds became better suited for football due to the new seating placement.

The Giants' first night game at the stadium was played on May 24, 1940.

The Polo Grounds was the site of one of the most iconic moments in baseball history - the historic "Shot Heard 'Round the World" walk-off home run on October 3, 1951 that decided the hard-fought National League pennant playoff series between the Giants and their cross-town rivals, the Brooklyn Dodgers.

Death at the Polo Grounds

On August 16, 1920, Indians shortstop Ray Chapman was hit in the head by a pitch thrown by the Yankees' Carl Mays. At the time, batters did not wear helmets. Chapman died 12 hours after he was hit, at 4:30 a.m. on the 17th. He remains the only baseball player to die from a head injury in MLB.[14]

On July 4, 1950, Bernard Doyle, a 56-year-old New Yorker originally from Dublin, was accidentally shot and killed while in his seat at the Polo Grounds. Doyle had brought a friend's 13-year-old son with him to see the Brooklyn Dodgers play the Giants. He was killed by a stray bullet about an hour prior to the start of the game.[15] A 14-year-old boy later confessed to having shot a gun into the air from his rooftop at 515 Edgecombe Avenue, out of frustration with his view of the ballpark being obstructed by a parapet.

Giants' final years

The Polo Grounds' end was somewhat anticlimactic, especially compared to other "Jewel Box" parks. Part of the problem was that the stadium was not well maintained from the late 1940s onward; while the baseball Giants owned the stadium, they did not own the parcel on which it stood. Moreover, the neighborhood around the stadium had deteriorated by the early 1950s. All of this combined to severely suppress ticket sales, even when the Giants played well. In 1954, for example, the baseball Giants only drew 1.1 million fans (compared to over two million for the Milwaukee Braves) even as they won the World Series.

The football Giants left for Yankee Stadium across the Harlem River following the 1955 NFL season, and the baseball Giants' disastrous 1956 season (most of which they spent in last place before a late-season surge moved them up to sixth) caused a further drag on ticket sales. The Giants' 1956 attendance was less than half of the figure for the Giants' World Series-winning 1954 season. This hit Giants owner Horace Stoneham particularly hard. He was not nearly as wealthy as his fellow owners; the Giants were his sole source of income. As such, the departure of the football Giants and the baseball Giants' increasingly meager ticket sales left him with little to no money for stadium upkeep.

Polo Grounds 1961 from Harlem River-B.jpeg
The Polo Grounds in 1961, seen from the Harlem River.

Frustrated with the obsolescence and increasing dilapidation of the Polo Grounds, Stoneham seriously considered having the Giants become tenants of the Yankees in the Bronx. He also considered moving to a proposed stadium that would have been owned by the city.[16] However, when both of those plans fizzled, the Giants announced on August 19, 1957, that they would move following that season, after nearly three-quarters of a century, to San Francisco, California, following the Dodgers to the West Coast. The Giants had won five World Series in the Polo Grounds.

The final years of the Polo Grounds

The ballpark then sat largely vacant for nearly three years, until the newly formed Titans of New York (present-day New York Jets) began play in 1960, followed by the newly formed Mets in 1962, using the Polo Grounds as an interim home while Shea Stadium was being built. As a 1962 baseball magazine noted, "The Mets will have to play in the Polo Grounds, hardly the last word in 20th Century stadia."

In 1961, the city of New York decided to claim the land under eminent domain, for the purpose of condemning the stadium and building a high-rise housing project on the site. The Coogan family, which still owned the property, fought this effort until it was finally settled in the city's favor in 1967.[17]

In the 1992 book The Gospel According to Casey, by Ira Berkow and Jim Kaplan, it is reported (p. 62) that in 1963, Mets manager Casey Stengel, who had bittersweet memories of his playing days at the Polo Grounds, had this to say during a rough outing to pitcher Tracy Stallard, whose greatest claim to fame had been giving up Roger Maris' 61st homer in 1961: "At the end of this season, they're gonna tear this joint down. The way you're pitchin', the right field section will be gone already!"

Demolition

The final iteration of the Polo Grounds was demolished in 1964, beginning in April with the same wrecking ball (painted to look like a baseball) that had been used four years earlier on Ebbets Field. The wrecking crew wore Giants jerseys and tipped their hard hats to the historic stadium as they began dismantlement. It took a crew of 60 workers more than four months to level the structure. The site is now home to the Polo Grounds Towers, a public housing project opened in 1968 and managed by the New York City Housing Authority.

Sports other than baseball

Football

The various incarnations of the Polo Grounds were well-suited for football, and hundreds of football games were played there over the years.

The first professional football game played in New York City was played at the Polo Grounds on December 4, 1920. The game featured the Buffalo All-Americans against the Canton Bulldogs in the first year of the American Professional Football Association. The Buffalo All-Americans won the game, 7-3. Some argue that the Buffalo All-Americans are tied with the Akron Pros for the first championship of the American Professional Football Association, which soon came to be known as the National Football League. In 1921 the NFL's New York Brickley Giants played the final game of their 1921 season against the Cleveland Indians at the Polo Grounds. The game ended in a 17–0 Giants loss.[18] Shortly afterwards, the team folded. The Brickley Giants were originally formed with the intent of competing in 1919, and having all of their home games held at the Polo Grounds. However, after the team's first practice, the 1919 schedule, that began with an opening day game against the Massillon Tigers, was scratched because of conflict with New York's blue laws. In 1919, the city allowed professional baseball on Sunday and the Giants thought the law would also apply to football. However, it was ruled that professional football was still outlawed on Sundays, so the team disbanded until 1921.

Other than the name, there is no relation between the Brickley Giants and the modern New York Giants franchise.[19]

Both the New York Giants of the National Football League and the New York Jets (then known as the New York Titans) of the American Football League used the Polo Grounds as their home field before moving on to other sites. The Giants moved initially to Yankee Stadium in 1956 while the Jets, founded in 1960, followed the New York Mets to Shea Stadium in 1964. The football Giants hosted the 1934, 1938, 1944, and 1946 NFL championship games at the Polo Grounds. In addition the Boston Redskins moved the 1936 game from Boston to the Polo Grounds, as part of their transition in relocating to Washington.

College Football

Army - Navy football at Polo Grounds
1916 Army–Navy Game at the Polo Grounds.

Columbia University and Yale University, two of American football's oldest teams, played football in the original 110th Street Polo Grounds in the 19th century, for some games which were expected to draw large crowds, including the Thanksgiving contests in 1883 and 1887.[3] (See also List of Harvard-Yale football games).

The grounds were also used for many games by New York-area college football teams such as Fordham and Army. An upset victory by the visiting University of Notre Dame over Army in 1924 led to Grantland Rice's famous article about the Irish backfield, which he called "The Four Horsemen". The field was also the site of several Army–Navy Games in the 1910s and 1920s.

Soccer

The Polo Grounds held its fair share of international soccer matches as well over the years. In 1926, Hakoah, an all-Jewish side from Vienna, Austria, "drew the largest crowds ever to watch soccer in America up to that time: three successive games drew 25,000, 30,000, and 36,000 spectators. The highlight of the tour was a May 1, 1926 exhibition game between Hakoah and an American Soccer League all-New York team which drew 46,000 fans to the Polo Grounds in New York."[20] (The ASL team won 3–0.)

The first soccer played at the Polo Grounds was as far back as 1894 when the owners of the various major baseball clubs thought it would be a great way to fill their stadiums in the off-season. Six famous baseball franchises of the era formed Association Football sections and fans were told that many would be fielding their baseball stars on the football field in the opening season. The New York Giants soccer team took the field in all-white uniforms with black socks and played six games before the threat of a rival baseball league being formed diverted the owner's attention away from their new venture and caused it to be suspended mid-season. The Giants lay third in the league after six games with two victories, having played their matches in midweek in front of attendances in the high hundreds paying 25 cents a game. Although the owners remained positive about the venture and wanted to run it again the following season this never happened and the Giants' soccer team was no more.[21][22]

On May 19, 1935, the Scotland national team toured the United States, and in their first game played against an ASL All-Star squad which was unofficially representing the United States. Scotland won 5–1 in front of 25,000 people at the Polo Grounds. In 1939, the Scots returned to America for another tour, and played at the Polo Grounds twice. In their first game at the Polo Grounds on May 21, 1939, Scotland tied the Eastern USA All-Stars 1–1 in front of 25,072 fans. In their second game at the Polo Grounds on June 18, 1939, Scotland beat the American League Stars 4–2.

Following World War II, on September 26, 1948, the USA beat Israel 3–1 in their first ever game since independence before 25,000 fans at the Polo Grounds. On June 9, 1950, a crowd of 21,000 fans came to the Polo Grounds to watch an 'International Dream Double Header'. Beşiktaş J.K. of Turkey defeated the American Soccer League All-Stars 3–1, and then Manchester United defeated Jönköping (the top amateur team in Sweden) 4–0. On May 17, 1960, Birmingham City of England played Third Lanark of Scotland and lost 4–1 at the Polo Grounds in New York City. On August 6 of the same year, 25,440 patrons showed up at the Polo Grounds to watch the inaugural International Soccer League Final which saw Bangu of Brazil edge out Kilmarnock FC of Scotland 2–0. Bangu's six games on Polo Ground had a total attendance of 104,274. The following year, 1961, may have been the last year documented that soccer was played at the Polo Grounds. The second edition of the International Soccer League held most of its game at the Polo Grounds, with a few games held in Montreal. On July 16, 1961 Shamrock Rovers beat Red Star Belgrade 5–1, on August 9, Dukla Prague beat Everton 7–0, and four days later on August 13, Dukla Prague beat Everton again 2–0, thus winning the Dwight D. Eisenhower Trophy. The combined attendance for both games at the Polo Grounds was 31,627. In domestic league soccer, the Polo Grounds was the home to the New York Nationals of the American Soccer League in 1928.

Gaelic football

On September 14, 1947, the Polo Grounds hosted the final of the All-Ireland Senior Gaelic Football championship between Cavan and Kerry. It was decided that New York would host this match as a commemoration of the 1847 Irish famine which forced a large number of Irish people to emigrate to North America. This novel location for the game was chosen for the benefit of New York's large Irish immigrant population. It was the only time that the final has been played outside Ireland.

The last Gaelic game at the Polo Grounds was on June 1, 1958 when Cavan played New York.

Boxing

The Polo Grounds was the site of many famous boxing matches. These included the legendary 1923 heavyweight championship bout between Jack Dempsey and Luis Firpo, Harry Greb's defense of the middleweight championship title against reigning World Welterweight Champion, Mickey Walker in July 1925, and Billy Conn's near-upset over heavyweight champion Joe Louis in June 1941. It was also the venue for the rematch between World Heavyweight Champion Ingemar Johansson and former champion Floyd Patterson on June 20, 1960. In what turned out to be the last major boxing match at the Polo Grounds, Patterson became the first heavyweight boxer to regain the championship over the Swedish-born Johansson, who almost one year to the day, took the crown from Patterson at Yankee Stadium.

Motorsports

The Polo Grounds were the site of three different oval tracks. The first track, a ¼ mile dirt oval, was used for midget racing in 1940 and 1941. The second, a 1/5 mile board track, was used briefly in 1948. The final track, a ¼ mile paved oval, was used for stock car racing in 1958 and 1959, after the Giants moved to San Francisco.[23][24]

Open-air concert

Verdi's Requiem - Zenatello, Lawrence, Gay, and Rothier, 1916
The performance of Verdi's Requiem at the Polo Grounds in 1916

A performance of Verdi's Requiem took place at the Polo Grounds on June 4, 1916, presented by the National Open Air Festival Society. It was given by a chorus of 1,200 singers (chorus master, Arnaldo Conti), selected from among the leading choral societies of New York; and an augmented New York Philharmonic Orchestra of 120 players. The soloists were Lucile Lawrence, Maria Gay, Giovanni Zenatello and Leon Rothier, and the performance was conducted by Louis Koemmenich.[25][26][27]

Features for baseball

Center field

Mays 19540929
Willie Mays, The Catch and the 483 sign in 1954
Polo Grounds circa 1952
Center field in the 1950s, with famous Chesterfield cigarettes advertisement visible above the clubhouse.
1954 World Series game two.jpeg
Dusty Rhodes rounding first after hitting a home run over the short right field fence (rear) in the second game of the 1954 World Series

One of the oddest features at the Polo Grounds were the deep dimensions in straight away center field. The wall was so far away from home plate, at 483 feet (147 m), that few players ever hit home runs over it. Before its 1923 reconstruction, only Babe Ruth ever reached the centerfield stands; after 1923 only four players would reach the distant centerfield bleachers. The entire 60-foot (18 m) wall in dead center field was considered in play, as were the clubhouse windows on the in-play side of the wall. The ground rules of the Polo Grounds were set up so that if a ball went through an open window in the clubhouse, it was a ground rule double, rather than a home run. Since no ball ever reached that area in the life of the stadium, that rule was never tested.

In Game 1 of the 1954 World Series, Giants outfielder Willie Mays made a sensational catch of a fly ball hit by the Cleveland Indians' Vic Wertz into deep center field, a catch which, in the words of NBC television sports announcer Jack Brickhouse, "must have looked like an optical illusion to a lot of people", and which turned the tide of that Series in the Giants' favor.

On October 2, 1936, in Game 2 of the 1936 World Series, Yankees centerfielder Joe DiMaggio made a similar, though far less crucial, catch (his team being ahead 18–4) for the final out of the game.[28][29] The Giants' Hank Leiber hit a long fly ball to deep center field that DiMaggio caught in the runway, perhaps 430–440 from the plate, and his momentum carried him partway up the clubhouse steps. He then stopped and turned around, as the crowd stood and acknowledged the departure of Franklin D. Roosevelt, who was in attendance that day.[30]

Babe Ruth hit many of his early signature blasts at the Polo Grounds, reaching the center field seats on several occasions. His longest blast at the grounds, over the right-center upper deck in 1921, was estimated at over 550 feet. He also hit several centerfield home runs at other ballparks which exceeded 500 feet. Had Ruth played regularly in the remodeled Polo Grounds, theoretically he would have been capable of hitting the clubhouse if conditions were right. Neither he nor anyone else ever did, but a few came close.

After the 1923 remodeling, only five players ever hit a home run into the center field stands:[31][32]

Right field

The deep center field was complemented by the short right-field fence. Its foul pole was 258 feet (79 m) from home, one of the shortest ever used in the major leagues. Since the early 20th century, home runs that just cleared a field's shortest fence had been known as "Chinese home runs", from a stereotype of Chinese immigrant workers as doing the bare minimum required for the low wages they received for menial labor. Within baseball, by the 1940s those home runs were largely associated with the short right-field fence at the Polo Grounds. The 511 career homers hit by Giants outfielder Mel Ott, whose physique and batting technique were not those associated with power hitting, have often been downplayed because a significant number were hit to right at home, a criticism he often responded to by asking why few other hitters in the league were making that hit if it were so easy.[37]

Bobby Thomson's "Shot Heard 'Round the World" that won the 1951 National League pennant for the Giants was hit over the left field fence. But arguably the best-remembered home run hit to the right side was the walk-off three-run shot by Dusty Rhodes, batting for Monte Irvin in the 10th inning of Game 1 of the 1954 Series, after Mays' catch had kept the Giants tied. It just barely cleared the fence, above the outstretched glove of the leaping outfielder Dave Pope, leading Al López, manager of the heavily favored Indians, to attribute the Giants' stunning victory in the Series opener to the ballpark's unusual dimensions.[38]

John T. Brush Stairway

John T Brush Stairway
Phoenix-Phoenix Municipal Stadium-1964-2
The main entrance of the Phoenix Municipal Stadium with the Polo Grounds light poles in the background.

The only part of the Polo Grounds that still remains is the "John T. Brush Stairway",[39] which runs down Coogan's Bluff from Edgecombe Avenue to Harlem River Driveway at about 158th Street.[40] The stairway, named for John T. Brush—the then-recently deceased owner of the Giants—opened in 1913 and led to a ticket booth overlooking the stadium. The stairway reportedly offered a clear view of the stadium for fans who did not purchase tickets to a game. A marker on the stairway reads: "The John T. Brush Stairway Presented By The New York Giants."[40]

In November 2011, it was reported that the stairway would undergo a $950,000 restoration, thanks to donations from the New York Giants, Jets, Yankees, Mets, San Francisco Giants, and Major League Baseball.[41][42] The restoration was scheduled to be completed in September 2012, but in February 2013 it was announced that a "soft opening" would take place in spring 2013.[41][43] After numerous delays, the restored steps opened finally in early August 2014.[44] The restored stairway is considered a city historic landmark.[45]

Polo Grounds light poles

The light poles from the Polo Grounds remain in use at Phoenix Municipal Stadium, a minor league facility in Phoenix, Arizona, built in 1964. When the stadium was built, Horace Stoneham, owner of the San Francisco Giants, had the original Polo Grounds light poles shipped there. The Giants held spring training at the stadium's predecessor since 1947 and played at the new ballpark during spring training 1964. The poles were installed in the stadium where they currently remain standing.[46]

Timeline and teams

Game1 1912 World Series Polo Grounds
Crowd at refurbished Polo Grounds III, October 8, 1912, Game 1 of the 1912 World Series
  • Polo Grounds I
  • Polo Grounds II (otherwise known as Manhattan Field)
    • Giants (NL), 1889–1890
  • Polo Grounds III (originally called Brotherhood Park, also known as Brush Stadium from 1911 to 1919)

Statistics

Dimensions

T&T Polo Grounds diagram 1951
Diagram of the Polo Grounds drawn in 1951

Compiled from various photos, baseball annuals, The Official Encyclopedia of Baseball (Turkin & Thompson, 1951) and Green Cathedrals by Phil Lowry.

1890–1911
Dimension Distance Notes
Left Field Line 335 ft (102 m) Not posted
Center Field 500 ft (150 m) Not posted
Right Field Line 335 ft (102 m) Not posted
1911–1922
Dimension Distance Notes
Left Field Line 277 ft (84 m) Not posted
Center Field 433 ft (132 m) Not posted
Right Field Line 258 ft (79 m) Not posted
1923–1957, 1962–1963
Dimension Distance Notes
Left Field Line 279 ft (85 m) Not posted—sometimes listed as 280
Left Field Upper Deck Overhang about 250 ft (76 m)
Shallow Left Center 315 ft (96 m)
Left Center 1 360 ft (110 m)
Left Center 2 414 ft (126 m)
Deep Left Center 447 ft (136 m) Left of bullpen curve
Deep Left Center 455 ft (139 m) Right of bullpen curve
Center Field Approx. 425 ft (130 m) (Unposted) corners of runways
Center Field 483 ft (147 m) Posted on front of clubhouse balcony, sometimes 475 ft (145 m)
Center Field 505 ft (154 m) (Unposted) sometimes given as total C.F. distance
Deep Right Center 455 ft (139 m) Left of bullpen curve
Deep Right Center 449 ft (137 m) Right of bullpen curve
Right Center 2 395 ft (120 m)
Right Center 1 338 ft (103 m)
Shallow Right Center 294 ft (90 m)
Right Field Line 257 ft. 3​38 in. Not posted—sometimes listed as 258
Backstop 65 ft (20 m) Sometimes also given as 74 ft (23 m)

The disparities in some of the posted distances, notably straightaway center, have not been fully reconciled by researchers. The closest object in straight center field was the Grant Memorial, followed by the post supporting the overhang of the clubhouse (above which the 483 or 475 signs were posted), and a roll-up door several feet behind the overhang at ground level. The roof of the protruding part of the clubhouse sloped back and met the vertical wall of the larger part of the clubhouse. The exact objects referred to by the numbers 475, 483, and 505 can be speculated but remain unconfirmed.

Seating capacity

Years Capacity
1911–1916 34,000[47]
1917–1919 36,000[47]
1920–1922 38,000[47]
1923–1925 43,000[47]
1926–1929 55,000[47]
1930–1935 56,000[47]
1937–1939 51,856[47]
1940–1946 56,000[47]
1947–1952 54,500[47]
1953–1963 56,000[47]

Gallery

Polo Grounds 1910

Panoramic view of the Polo Grounds, October 13, 1910.

Jake Stahl 1912 World Series

The Polo Grounds during the 1912 World Series.

1913WorldSeriesBleachers

Fans in the Polo Grounds bleachers during the 1913 World Series.

Halchasefielding

Hal Chase fielding, 1913.

Polo Grounds outside

Exterior of the Polo Grounds with Harlem River Speedway in foreground, circa 1915. Note vacant lot, site of Manhattan Field.

Polo Grounds 1913 World Series CROPPED

View of the field from the grandstand.

Verdi's Requiem - Zenatello, Lawrence, Gay, and Rothier, 1916

Verdi's requiem being performed at the Polo Grounds, 1916.

Polo Grounds outfield 1923

Opening Day in 1923, with the newly built Yankee Stadium visible in the distance.

Polo Grounds after 1911

Polo Grounds - 1921

See also

References

  1. ^ SABR Biography
  2. ^ Harper's Young People, v. III (1882), p. 524.
  3. ^ a b Bergin, The Game, p. 308
  4. ^ Oakland Park
  5. ^ "Giants Ballparks: 1883-Present". mlb.com. Retrieved January 7, 2012.
  6. ^ St. George Cricket Grounds
  7. ^ 1889 game log
  8. ^ http://www.hhoc.org/hist/coogans_bluff_p.htm
  9. ^ 1890 Brooklyn Dodgers schedule
  10. ^ http://1920yankees.blogspot.com/2006/12/may-1st-yankees-6-red-sox-0.html
  11. ^ Schedule for 1890 Players' League Giants
  12. ^ Polo Grounds at ballparks.com
  13. ^ Aronoff, Jason (2009). Going, Going ... Caught!: Baseball's Great Outfield Catches as Described by Those Who Saw Them, 1887–1964. United States: McFarland Publishing. p. 276.
  14. ^ Maeder, Jay (1998). Big Town Big Time. Sports Publishing LLC. p. 116. ISBN 1-58261-028-2.
  15. ^ "Mystery Bullet Kills Baseball Fan In Midst of Crowd at Polo Grounds". The New York Times. July 5, 1950. Retrieved October 30, 2011.
  16. ^ Thornley, Stew, "The Polo Grounds (New York)", Society for American Baseball Research
  17. ^ Stew Thornley, Land of the Giants, p. 116
  18. ^ 1921 Brooklyn Giants season Archived June 4, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  19. ^ Pro Football Hall of Fame (1984). "Mr. Mara" (PDF). Coffin Corner. Professional Football Researchers Association. 6 (11 and 12): 1&ndash, 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 27, 2010.
  20. ^ Holroyd, Steve. "The Year in American Soccer – 1926". American Soccer History Archives.
  21. ^ http://www.rsssf.com/usadave/alpf.html
  22. ^ Soccer at the Polo Grounds Archived March 4, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  23. ^ Brown, Allan (2003). The History of America's Speedways:Past and Present (3rd ed.). Comstock Park, Michigan: Brown. p. 502. ISBN 0-931105-61-7.
  24. ^ White, Gordon Eliot (2002). Lost Race Tracks:Treasures of Automobile Racing. Hudson, Wisconsin: Iconografix. p. 78. ISBN 1-58388-084-4.
  25. ^ "New York's Greatest Open Air Musical Event" (PDF). The Theatre. New York: 364a. June 1916.
  26. ^ "Open Air Presentation of Verdi's Requiem" (PDF). New York Times. May 21, 1916.
  27. ^ Further sources on Flickr about the event & photo (Library of Congress call number: LC-B2-3874-13).
  28. ^ Diamonds Are Rough All Over, by Stanley Frank, Baseball Digest, July 1947, Vol. 6, No. 5, ISSN 0005-609X
  29. ^ 1936 World Series Game 2 box score at Baseball Reference
  30. ^ www.nydailynews.com Archived September 6, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  31. ^ Richman, Milton. "Couple of Revolutionaries: Wilhelm and Brock Earned Shrine Spots". Los Angeles Times. January 13, 1985. Retrieved December 13, 2018. "While with the Cubs in 1962, Brock became one of only five known players to hit a ball into the right center field bleachers in the Polo Grounds. The ball Brock hit in a game with the Mets traveled nearly 500 feet. The only others to reach those bleachers in a regular National League game were Hank Aaron and Joe Adcock. Luke Easter deposited a ball in those bleachers while he was playing in the Negro Leagues and Schoolboy Rowe also did during batting practice before an Old Timers' game [sic]. "
  32. ^ a b c d Sheehan, Joseph. "Adcock Homer to Bleachers in Center Helps Braves Top Giants". The New York Times. April 30, 1953. Retrieved December 13, 2018. "Bobby [Thomson] chased the soaring drive all the way to the four-foot wall in front of the open stand to the left of the clubhouse corridor. [...] It landed ten rows up in the stand, after carrying approximately 475 feet. The 483 foot sign on the center-field flagpole supplied the basis for this distance estimate. [...] Schoolboy Rowe, the Detroit pitcher, hit one about where Adcock's landed in batting practice prior to a 1933 exhibition game between the Giants and Tigers. And, in a Negro League contest in 1948, Luke Easter, now with the Indians, deposited a drive in the right-field sector of the divided stand."
  33. ^ Vidmer, Richards. "Giants Subdue Tigers in 11th". New York Herald Tribune. April 9, 1933. Retrieved December 13, 2018. "Rowe didn't exhibit any of his long-distance hitting ability after the game got started, but in the batting practice he parked a ball in the centerfield bleachers."
  34. ^ "Grays Beat Cubans Twice". New York Herald Tribune. July 19, 1948. Retrieved December 13, 2018. "In the nightcap Lucius [sic] Easter, of the winners, blasted a homer into the centerfield bleachers, nearly 500 feet from home plate."
  35. ^ Burley, Dan. "Hits Homer Into PG Bleachers, 490 Ft!". New York Amsterdam News. July 24, 1948. Retrieved December 13, 2018. "Luscious Easter, giant Homestead Grays left fielder, who last Sunday hit the longest home run in memory at the Polo Grounds when he laced a serve by lefthander Pat Scantlebury of the Cubans into the right centerfield bleachers, sixth row, 490 feet from home plate."
  36. ^ Walfoort, Cleon. "Aaron's Epic Homer in 'Book'; Braves Romp, 7-1". Milwaukee Journal. June 19, 1962. Retrieved December 13, 2018. "By a coincidence, Lou Brock of Chicago had become the first player ever to hit a ball into the bleachers to the right of the scoreboard only Sunday when the Cubs played a doubleheader here."
  37. ^ Hardy Jr., James D. (2007). Baseball and the Mythic Moment: How We Remember the National Game. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company. pp. 32–34. ISBN 9780786426508. Retrieved March 18, 2015.
  38. ^ Billheimer, John (2007). Baseball and the Blame Game: Scapegoating in the Major Leagues. McFarland. pp. 94–96. ISBN 9780786429066. Retrieved March 18, 2015.
  39. ^ Details about the Brush Stairway
  40. ^ a b Williams, Timothy (February 19, 2008). "A Stairway to Sports History From the Polo Grounds". The New York Times.
  41. ^ a b Mixson, Colin; Sanderson, Bill (November 7, 2011). "San Francisco Giants make $50,000 donation to restore part of Polo Grounds". Nypost.com. NYP Holdings, Inc. Retrieved November 26, 2011.
  42. ^ "Restoration Of John T. Brush Stairway In High Bridge Park Finally Begun", A Walk in the Park (blog), November 8, 2011
  43. ^ Post, Paul. "Stairway to heaven: Polo Grounds steps coming back". mlb.com. Retrieved February 11, 2013.
  44. ^ "Harlem stairway to the Polo Grounds is back -- even if there isn't a stadium anymore". New York Daily News. August 5, 2014.
  45. ^ Walsh, Kevin (November 2014). "HAMILTON and WASHINGTON HEIGHTS". Forgotten NY. Retrieved November 6, 2014.
  46. ^ "Phoenix Municipal Stadium". City of Phoenix. 2016. Retrieved March 14, 2016.
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Polo Grounds Historical Analysis". Baseball Almanac. Retrieved November 23, 2011.

Sources

  • Benson, Michael. Ballparks of North America.
  • Bergin, Thomas G. The Game: The Harvard-Yale Football Rivalry. Yale Press, 1984.
  • Harper's Young People. "A Game of Base-Ball at the Polo Grounds, New York City, on Decoration Day — Yale vs. Princeton.", v. III (1882), p. 524.
  • Lowry, Philip J. Green Cathedrals.
  • Thornley, Stew. Land of the Giants: New York's Polo Grounds.
  • Ziegel, Vic (text), New York Daily News (photos), Guglberger, Claus (ed.) Summer in the City. pp. 8,71,126,184 provide good documentation of the distance-markers on the walls

External links

1915 New York Yankees season

The 1915 New York Yankees season was the 13th season for the Yankees and their 15th overall. The team was under new ownership and new management.

The team finished with a record of 69–83, 32½ games behind the American League champion Boston Red Sox. New York was managed by Bill Donovan. Home games were played at the Polo Grounds.

1921 World Series

The much-anticipated 1921 World Series featured John McGraw's New York Giants, dedicated practitioners of the dead-ball era's "inside game", and the New York Yankees, who relied on the "power game" exemplified by Babe Ruth, who was coming off of what was arguably his best year ever statistically. This was the first World Series appearance by the Yankees, who have gone on to play in the Series a record 40 times. The 1921 Series was a closely contested matchup that ended on a double play featuring a baserunning miscue.

1922 World Series

In the 1922 World Series, the New York Giants defeated the New York Yankees in five games (four games to none with one tie; starting this year the World Series was again best-of-seven). By now, the term "World Series" was being used frequently, as opposed to "World's Series". As with the 1921 World Series, every game was played at the Polo Grounds because it housed both teams, with the home team alternating; it was also the Yankees' final season at the Polo Grounds, as they would move into the then-under construction Yankee Stadium for the 1923 season, which ended in them winning the rematch.

The Giants pitched around Babe Ruth and scored just enough runs to win each of the games outside the controversial Game 2 tie. That game was called on account of darkness, but many thought there was sufficient light to have played some more innings (the sun was still in the sky), and there were some suspicions that one or both teams might have "allowed" the tie to happen to increase the overall gate receipts. Commissioner Landis was among those who was dissatisfied with the result. One story is that Landis asked Umpire Hildebrand, "Why the Sam Hill did you call the game?" The umpire answered, "There was a temporary haze on the field." The game decision was in the hands of the umpires, but the Commissioner's Office controlled the gate receipts. Landis ordered the money, more than $120,000, turned over to World War I charities, thus nullifying any impropriety. The tied game would turn out to be the third (and final) tied game in the history of the World Series. The other two tied games occurred in 1907 and 1912. No ties are possible under later rules, which allow for suspension of a tied game and resumption of it at a later date, as with Game 5 of the 2008 World Series.

This would prove to be Giants' manager John McGraw's third and final World Series win.

1925 New York Giants season

The 1925 New York Giants season was the franchise's inaugural season in the National Football League. The team finished with a record of 8–4 against league opponents.

1936 Boston Redskins season

The Boston Redskins finished the 1936 season with a record of seven wins and five losses and finished in first place in the Eastern Division of the National Football League.

They won their final three games of the regular season to win the division title, the finale was a 14–0 shutout of the New York Giants at the Polo Grounds.The Redskins hosted the 1936 NFL Championship game against the favored Green Bay Packers, the Western Division champions with a 10–1–1 record and two regular season victories over Boston. The game was moved by owner George Preston Marshall from Fenway Park in Boston to the Polo Grounds in New York City to improve attendance. The Packers won the title game 21–6.This was the first winning season for the Redskins, as well as their first championship game appearance. It was also the last season that the Redskins played in Boston; days after the title game, Marshall announced the move to his hometown of Washington, D.C. for the 1937 season.

1936 NFL Championship Game

The 1936 NFL Championship Game was the fourth championship game played in the National Football League (NFL). It took place on December 13 at Polo Grounds in New York City, making it the first NFL title game held on a neutral field.The Eastern Division champion Boston Redskins (7–5) were the host team, but their owner George Preston Marshall moved the game out of Fenway Park to New York due to apathy and low support in Boston. Several days after the game, he announced plans to move the team to his hometown of Washington, D.C. for the following season.This was the first championship game for both the Redskins and the Western Division champion Green Bay Packers (10–1–1), who were favored. The Packers won 21–6 for their fourth NFL title, all under longtime head coach Curly Lambeau. Green Bay won league championships awarded by league standing in 1929, 1930, and 1931.

1938 NFL Championship Game

The 1938 National Football League Championship Game was the sixth championship game played in the National Football League (NFL). It was played on December 11 at the Polo Grounds in New York City, with an attendance of 48,120, a record crowd for a title game.The game matched the New York Giants (8–2–1), champions of the Eastern Division, against the Western Division champion Green Bay Packers (8–3–0). The Giants had won the regular season game with Green Bay 15–3 at the Polo Grounds three weeks earlier on November 20, but Green Bay was without hall of fame end Don Hutson; there was no clear favorite for the title game.This was the Giants' fourth championship game appearance, their previous victory was in the famous "Sneakers game" of 1934 and they were runners-up in 1933 and 1935. It was the Packers' second trip, winning in 1936. New York also won the 1927 NFL title when the championship was awarded to the team with the best season record. Green Bay had similarly won three straight league titles in 1929, 1930, and 1931.

After trailing two points at halftime, Green Bay took the lead in the third quarter with a short field goal, but New York responded with a touchdown and held on through a scoreless fourth quarter to win, 23–17.With the victory, the Giants became the first team to win two championship games since the league split into two divisions in 1933. The two teams met again in the title game the following year in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, with different results.

The Giants' next title was in 1956, won at Yankee Stadium.

1946 NFL Championship Game

The 1946 National Football League Championship Game was the 14th annual championship game of the National Football League (NFL), played December 15 at the Polo Grounds in New York City, with a record-breaking attendance of 58,346.

The game matched the New York Giants (7–3–1), champions of the Eastern Division, against the Western Division champion Chicago Bears (8–2–1). The Giants had won the regular season game 14–0 at the Polo Grounds seven weeks earlier on October 27, but the Bears were seven to ten point favorites.

This was the fifth and final NFL Championship game played at the Polo Grounds and the fourth of six meetings between the Bears and Giants in the title game.

Tied after three quarters, Chicago won 24–14 for their seventh NFL title, their fifth victory in eight NFL championship game appearances. The attendance record stood for another nine years, until the 1955 title game in Los Angeles.

1954 World Series

The 1954 World Series matched the National League champion New York Giants against the American League champion Cleveland Indians. The Giants swept the Series in four games to win their first championship since 1933, defeating the heavily favored Indians, who had won an AL-record 111 games in the regular season; it has since been broken by the 1998 New York Yankees (114) and again by the 2001 Seattle Mariners (116, tying the 1906 Chicago Cubs for the most wins ever). The Series is perhaps best-remembered for "The Catch", a sensational running catch made by Giants center fielder Willie Mays in Game 1, snaring a long drive by Vic Wertz near the outfield wall with his back to the infield. It is also remembered for utility player Dusty Rhodes' clutch hitting in three of the four games, including his walk-off hit for Monte Irvin that won Game 1, probably the best-known hit to be described as a "Chinese home run", since it barely cleared the 258-foot (79 m) right-field fence at the Polo Grounds. Giants manager Leo Durocher, who had managed teams to three National League championships, won his first and only World Series title in his managerial career. The Giants, who would move west to become the San Francisco Giants, would not win a World Series again until the 2010 season.

This was the first time the Cleveland Indians had been swept in a World Series and the first time the New York Giants had swept an opponent without qualification. They had won four games without a loss in the 1922 World Series, but there was also one tie. Game 2 was the last World Series and playoff game at the Polo Grounds, because the Giants did not win another pennant until after their move to San Francisco and because the Mets did not reach the postseason until after they moved to Shea Stadium. Game 4 was the last World Series and playoff game at Cleveland Stadium; the Indians did not return to the World Series or playoffs until 1995, a year after Jacobs Field opened.

1960 New York Titans season

The 1960 New York Titans season was the inaugural season for the team in the upstart American Football League (AFL). The team began play in the Polo Grounds, the one-time home of the National Football League (NFL)'s New York Giants. The Titans finished their first season at a respectable 7–7.

1963 New York Jets season

The 1963 New York Jets season was the fourth season for the team in the American Football League (AFL) and the first under the moniker Jets. The season began with the team trying to improve on their 5–9 record from 1962 under new head coach Weeb Ewbank. The Jets finished the season 5–8–1, while playing their final season of home games at the Polo Grounds in Upper Manhattan, before relocating to Shea Stadium in the borough of Queens the following season.

In rebranding itself as the Jets, the club abandoned its navy-blue and gold uniforms in favor of kelly green and white. The jerseys had opposite-colored sleeves with thick stripes on the shoulders and cuffs, above and below the TV numerals. The pants were white with two parallel green stripes on each side. The new helmets were white with a single green stripe down the center; the logo on each side was a silhouette of a jet airplane in green, with the word "JETS" in thick white sans-serif italics along the fuselage.

Eagles–Giants rivalry

The Eagles–Giants rivalry is a National Football League (NFL) rivalry between the Philadelphia Eagles and New York Giants. The rivalry began in 1933 with the founding of the Eagles, and slowly strengthened when both teams came to relative prominence in the 1940s and 1950s. The two teams have played in the same division in the NFL every year since 1933. The ferocity of the rivalry can also be attributed to the geographic New York-Philadelphia rivalry, which is mirrored in Major League Baseball's Mets–Phillies rivalry and the National Hockey League's Flyers–Rangers rivalry. It is ranked by NFL Network as the number one rivalry of all-time and Sports Illustrated ranks it amongst the top ten NFL rivalries of all-time at number four, and according to ESPN, it is one of the fiercest and most well-known rivalries in the football community.

Giants–Redskins rivalry

The Giants–Redskins rivalry is a rivalry between the New York Giants and the Washington Redskins of the National Football League. The rivalry began in 1932 with the founding of the Washington Redskins, and is the oldest rivalry in the NFC East Division. While often dismissed, particularly in recent times, this rivalry has seen periods of great competition. In particular the Giants and Redskins competed fiercely for conference and division titles in the late 1930s and early 1940s and 1980s. Perhaps most fans today recall the 1980s as the most hotly contested period between these teams, as the Redskins under Joe Gibbs and the Giants under Bill Parcells competed for division titles and Super Bowls. During this span the two teams combined to win 7 NFC East Divisional Titles, 5 Super Bowls and even duked it out in the 1986 NFC Championship Game with the Giants winning 17–0. This rivalry is storied and while it tends to be dismissed due to the Redskins' recent struggles, Wellington Mara, long time owner of the Giants, always said that he believed the Redskins were the Giants' truest rival.Despite flagging in recent years, in 2012 the rivalry intensified significantly, both on the field and off it: when, in March of that year, a special NFL commission headed by Giants owner John Mara imposed a $36 million salary cap penalty on the Redskins (and a smaller one on the Dallas Cowboys) for the organization's approach to structuring contracts in the 2010 NFL season, when there was no cap – which he publicly claimed was, if anything, too lenient, and should have cost them draft picks as well – the Redskins organization, particularly owner Daniel Snyder, were convinced that, by so disciplining divisional rivals, Mara had abused his league-wide office to advance his own teams' interests (the draft sanctions Mara sought were regarded as especially malicious, as such a punishment would have likely voided the pick-laden trade with the St. Louis Rams – completed three days before the cap penalties were announced – to acquire the #2 position, used to draft Robert Griffin III); in the week leading up to a crucial Week 13 Monday Night Football showdown eventually won by Washington, copies of Mara's quote, along with statistics implying that NFL referees were biased in the Giants' favor, were posted throughout the teams' facilities, and a smiling Snyder, within earshot of numerous media personnel, told a team employee that "I hate those motherfuckers" in the victorious locker room after the game.

Hilltop Park

Hilltop Park was the nickname of a baseball park that stood in the Washington Heights neighborhood of New York City. It was the home of the New York Yankees of Major League Baseball from 1903 to 1912, when they were known as the "Highlanders". It was also the temporary home of the New York Giants during a two-month period in 1911 while the Polo Grounds was being rebuilt after a fire.

The ballpark's formal name, as painted on its exterior walls, was American League Park. Because the park was located on top of a ridge of Manhattan Island, it came to be known as Hilltop Park, and its team was most often called the New York Highlanders (as well as the Americans and the Yankees). This "Highland" connection contrasted with their intra-city rivals, the Giants, whose Polo Grounds was just a few blocks away, in the bottomland under Coogan's Bluff.

Hilltop Park sat on the block bounded by Broadway, 165th Street, Fort Washington Avenue, and 168th Street. The structure consisted of a covered grandstand stretching from first base to third base and uncovered bleacher sections down the right and left field lines. Originally built in just six weeks, the park sat 16,000, with standing room for an additional 10,000 or so. The bleachers were covered in 1911, and also bleachers to seat an additional 5,000 fans were built in 1911 (partially to accommodate Giants fans, who were temporary tenants after the Polo Grounds fire) in center field.

The field was initially huge by modern standards — 365 ft (111 m) to left field, 542 ft (165 m) to center field and 400 ft (120 m) to right field. An inner fence was soon constructed to create more realistic action. Both the park and the nickname "Highlanders" were abandoned when the American Leaguers left, at the beginning of the 1913 season, to rent the Polo Grounds from the Giants. The Polo Grounds had a far larger seating capacity, and by that time was made of concrete due to the 1911 fire. Hilltop Park was demolished in 1914.

History of the New York Giants (baseball)

The San Francisco Giants of Major League Baseball originated in New York City as the New York Gothams in 1883 and were known as the New York Giants from 1885 until the team relocated to San Francisco after the 1957 season. During most of their 75 seasons in New York City, the Giants played home games at various incarnations of the Polo Grounds in Upper Manhattan.

Numerous inductees of the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum in Cooperstown, New York played for the New York Giants, including John McGraw, Mel Ott, Bill Terry, Willie Mays, Monte Irvin, and Travis Jackson. During the club's tenure in New York, it won five of the franchise's eight World Series wins and 17 of its 24 National League pennants. Famous moments in the Giants' New York history include the 1922 World Series, in which the Giants swept the Yankees in four games, the 1951 home run known as the "Shot Heard 'Round the World", and the defensive feat by Willie Mays during the first game of the 1954 World Series known as "the Catch".

The Giants had intense rivalries with their fellow New York teams the New York Yankees and the Brooklyn Dodgers, facing the Yankees in six World Series and playing the league rival Dodgers multiple times per season. Games between any two of these three teams were known collectively as the Subway Series. The rivalry with the Dodgers continues to be played as the Dodgers joined the Giants in moving also to along the Pacific Ocean on the West Coast in California after the 1957 season when they relocated to Los Angeles. The New York Giants of the National Football League are named after the team.

IRT Ninth Avenue Line

The IRT Ninth Avenue Line, often called the Ninth Avenue Elevated or Ninth Avenue El, was the first elevated railway in New York City. It opened on July 3, 1868 as the West Side and Yonkers Patent Railway, as an experimental single-track cable-powered elevated railway from Battery Place, at the south end of Manhattan Island, northward up Greenwich Street to Cortlandt Street. It ceased operation on June 11, 1940, after it was replaced by the IND Eighth Avenue Line which had opened in 1932.

The last section in use, over the Harlem River, was known as the Polo Grounds Shuttle, and closed on August 31, 1958. This portion used the now-removed Putnam Bridge swing bridge and went through a tunnel, complete with partially underground stations.

Oakland Park (Jersey City, New Jersey)

Oakland Park was a ballpark in Jersey City, New Jersey. It was used by the New York Giants for their first two home games in 1889. The park was opened in the spring of 1888, as the new home of the Jersey City minor league club. The Jersey City club disbanded in July 1890, but the park continued to be used by other local teams for several years.

It was located on a block bounded by Oakland Avenue (northwest); Hoboken Avenue (southwest); Bonner (now Baldwin) Avenue (southeast); and Fleet Street (northeast). Newspaper accounts in 1888 reported that the grandstand was to be built along Hoboken to shade the fans from the sun. Given the orientation of the block, that suggests home plate to center field pointing roughly northeast. The papers also reported that the old stands from the unused west half of the first Polo Grounds were to be ferried across the river and reassembled at the new Oakland Park.

After the city had evicted the Giants from the original Polo Grounds at 110th Street and 5th Avenue in Manhattan, the Giants were compelled to find temporary home fields until they could secure a more permanent location. They played their first two games on April 24 and April 25 against Boston, each team winning one at Oakland Park.

Their next home game came on April 29, at the St. George Cricket Grounds in Staten Island. Their last game at St. George was on June 14. Their record at St. George was 17-6. After a lengthy road trip, on July 8 they finally debuted their new home field at 8th Avenue and 155th Street in Manhattan. They dubbed this field the new Polo Grounds. That general vicinity would be the Giants' home through the 1957 season.

Despite the nomadic nature of their 1889 season, the Giants would win the National League championship, edging out Boston by one game, and then go on to defeat Brooklyn in the NL-AA World Series.

Polo Grounds, New Inn

The Polo Grounds, Pontypool Road was a sports ground and former greyhound racing track in New Inn, near Pontypool, Torfaen, south Wales.

The Polo Ground in the village of New Inn (known previously as Pontypool Road on old maps) was situated off the west side of the High Way (modern day Highway) and the northern side of New Road. The grounds were used for coursing and pony races and was home to the Wanderers Polo team at the end of the 19th century. The local schools of New Inn, Pontymoile, Griffithstown and Sebastopol used the Polo Ground before the second world war as did the Pontypool Road Cricket Club. In the 1920s and 1930s Pontypool Hockey Club and Pontypool Road Association Football Club also used the site.

During the second world war the grounds were used to house soldiers. This accommodation was later used as New Inn Camp 677 to house German and Italian prisoners of war (PoW).Greyhound racing began in the 1930s with four race meetings per week. The greyhound track was referred to as Pontypool Road as was the village for a time due to the rail station being close to the grounds. The greyhound racing was independent (unaffiliated to a governing body). In the 1947 betting licence lists the track was able to accommodate a capacity of 10,000 people. The exact finishing date of the greyhound racing is not known but the track is not listed in the betting licence lists after 1947.

In the mid-1970s Chad Valley moved their soft toy manufacturing to a factory on the Polo Grounds and the industrial units now there are on the Chad Valley Site, Polo Grounds.

Polo Grounds Music

Polo Grounds Music is a hip hop and R&B record label. Polo Grounds Music is a full-service entertainment company with a focus in publishing, management, marketing and promotions.

Founded in 2006 by Bryan Leach, Polo Grounds Music was originally distributed by Clive Davis' J Records, but in 2011, parent owner Sony folded J, Jive and Arista Records to its current distributor, RCA.

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