Politics of Scotland

Scotland is a country which is currently in a political union with the rest of the United Kingdom. Having been directly governed by the UK Government since 1707, a system of devolution was established in 1999, after the Scottish people voted by a firm majority to re-establish a primary law making Scottish Parliament in a referendum held in 1997.

Scotland entered into a political union with England in 1707, and since then has sent representatives to the Palace of Westminster, which succeeded the Parliament of England to become the British Parliament. Currently, 59 Members of Parliament (MPs) represent Scottish constituencies at Westminster, and issues such as the constitution, foreign affairs, defence, social security, pensions, issues of medical ethics, and fiscal, economic and monetary policy are decided on a nationwide UK level. In 1999, a 129-member Scottish Parliament was established in Edinburgh; it has full power to make law in Scotland, except in reserved matters. In the UK government, Scottish affairs are represented by the Secretary of State for Scotland, currently David Mundell MP. The Scottish Government is headed by a First Minister, who is the leader of the political party with the most support in the Scottish Parliament, currently Nicola Sturgeon MSP. The head of state in Scotland is the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II (since 1952). There are six Members of the European Parliament elected by Scotland, as the UK is a member state of the European Union.

Scotland can best be described as having a multi-party system. In the Scottish Parliament, the centre-left pro-independence Scottish National Party is the party which forms the devolved government; it currently holds a plurality of seats in the parliament (62 out of 129). Opposition parties include: the Scottish Conservative Party (centre-right, conservative), Scottish Labour Party (centre-left, social democratic), the Scottish Liberal Democrats (centrist, social liberal), and the Scottish Green Party (centre-left to left-wing, green). Elections are held once every five years, with 73 Members being elected to represent constituencies, and the remaining 56 elected via a system of proportional representation. At Westminster, Scotland is represented by 35 MPs from the Scottish National Party, 13 from the Conservative Party, 7 MPs from the Labour Party and 4 from the Liberal Democrats.

Today, the independence of Scotland from the United Kingdom remains a prominent political issue. On Thursday 18 September 2014, the Scottish electorate voted in a referendum on whether or not to become independent, and opted to stay as part of the United Kingdom, with 55.3% voting to stay in the United Kingdom and 44.7% voting for independence.

Current situation

Scottish results at UK general elections (since 1951)
Year Con Lab SNP Lib Dem[a]
2017 13 Seats 28.6% 7 Seats 27.1% 35 Seats 36.9% 4 Seats 6.8%
2015 1 Seat 14.9% 1 Seat 24.3% 56 Seats 50.0% 1 Seat 7.5%
2010 1 Seat 16.7% 41 Seats 42.0% 6 Seats 19.9% 11 Seats 18.9%
2005 1 Seat 15.8% 41 Seats 39.5% 6 Seats 17.7% 11 Seats 22.6%
2001 1 Seat 15.6% 56 Seats 43.9% 5 Seats 20.1% 10 Seats 16.4%
1997 0 Seats 17.5% 56 Seats 41.0% 6 Seats 22.0% 10 Seats 13.0%
1992 11 Seats 25.7% 49 Seats 34.4% 3 Seats 21.5% 9 Seats 13.1%
1987 10 Seats 24.0% 50 Seats 38.7% 3 Seats 14.0% 9 Seats 19.3%
1983 21 Seats 28.4% 40 Seats 33.2% 2 Seats 11.8% 8 Seats 24.5%
1979 22 Seats 31.4% 44 Seats 38.6% 2 Seats 17.3% 3 Seats 9.0%
Oct 1974 16 Seats 24.7% 41 Seats 33.1% 11 Seats 30.4% 3 Seats 8.3%
Feb 1974 21 Seats 32.9% 40 Seats 34.6% 7 Seats 21.9% 3 Seats 7.9%
1970 23 Seats 38.0% 44 Seats 44.5% 1 Seat 11.4% 3 Seats 5.5%
1966 20 Seats 37.6% 46 Seats 47.7% 0 Seats 5.0% 5 Seats 6.7%
1964 24 Seats 37.3% 43 Seats 46.9% 0 Seats 2.4% 4 Seats 7.6%
1959 31 Seats 47.3% 38 Seats 46.7% 0 Seats 0.8% 1 Seat 4.8%
1955 36 Seats 50.1% 34 Seats 46.7% 0 Seats 0.5% 1 Seat 1.9%
1951 35 Seats 48.6% 35 Seats 48.0% 0 Seats 0.3% 1 Seat 2.8%

The party with the largest number of seats in the Scottish Parliament is the Scottish National Party (SNP), which campaigns for Scottish independence. The current First Minister of Scotland is SNP leader Nicola Sturgeon, who has led a government since November 2014. The previous First Minister, Alex Salmond, led the SNP to an overall majority victory in the May 2011 general election, which was then lost in 2016 and now forms a minority government. Other parties represented in the parliament are the Labour Party, Conservative Party which form the official opposition, Liberal Democrats and the Scottish Green Party. The next Scottish Parliament election is due to be held in May 2021.

Under devolution, Scotland is represented by 59 MPs in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom elected from territory-based Scottish constituencies, out of a total of 650 MPs in the House of Commons. A Secretary of State for Scotland, who prior to devolution headed the system of government in Scotland, sits in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom and is responsible for the limited number of powers the office retains since devolution, as well as relations with other Whitehall Ministers who have power over reserved matters. The Scottish Parliament can refer devolved matters back to Westminster to be considered as part of United Kingdom-wide legislation by passing a Legislative Consent Motion — usually referred to as a Sewel Motion. This has been done on a number of occasions where it has been seen as either more efficient, or more politically expedient to have the legislation considered by Westminster. The Scotland Office is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom, responsible for reserved Scottish affairs. The current Secretary of State for Scotland is David Mundell MP, a Conservative. Until 1999, Scottish peers were entitled to sit in the House of Lords.

The main political debate in Scotland tends to revolve around attitudes to the constitutional question. Under the pressure of growing support for Scottish independence, a policy of devolution had been advocated by all three GB-wide parties to some degree during their history (although Labour and the Conservatives have also at times opposed it). This question dominated the Scottish political scene in the latter half of the twentieth century with Labour leader John Smith describing the revival of a Scottish parliament as the "settled will of the Scottish people".[1] Now that devolution has occurred, the main argument about Scotland's constitutional status is over whether the Scottish Parliament should accrue additional powers (for example over fiscal policy), or seek to obtain full independence. Ultimately the long term question is: should the Scottish parliament continue to be a subsidiary assembly created and potentially abolished by the constitutionally dominant and sovereign parliament of the United Kingdom (as in devolution) or should it have an independent existence as of right, with full sovereign powers (either through independence, a federal United Kingdom or a confederal arrangement)? To clarify these issues, the SNP-led Scottish Government published Choosing Scotland's Future, a consultation document directed to the electorate under the National Conversation exercise.

The programmes of legislation enacted by the Scottish Parliament have seen the divergence in the provision of public services compared to the rest of the United Kingdom.[2] While the costs of a university education, and care services for the elderly are free at point of use in Scotland, fees are paid in the rest of the UK. Scotland was the first country in the UK to ban smoking in public places, with the ban effective from 26 March 2006. Also, on 19 October 2017, the Scottish government announced that smacking children as punishment was to be banned in Scotland, the first nation of the UK to do so.[3]

The Scottish Parliament

Scotland Parliament Holyrood
The debating chamber of the Scottish Parliament Building.

The election of the Labour government in 1997 was followed by a referendum in Scotland on establishing a devolved Scottish Parliament. 74.3% of voters agreed with the establishment of the parliament and 63.5% agreed it should have tax-varying powers, which meant that it could adjust income taxes by up to 3%.[4][5]

The Parliament was then created by the Scotland Act 1998 of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (Westminster Parliament). This Act sets out the subjects still dealt with at Westminster, referred to as reserved matters, including Defence, International Relations, Fiscal and Economic Policy, Drugs Law and Broadcasting. Anything not mentioned as a specific reserved matter is automatically devolved to Scotland, including health, education, local government, Scots law and all other issues. This is one of the key differences between the successful Scotland Act 1998 and the failed Scotland Act 1978.

Donald Dewar First Minister
Donald Dewar became the first First Minister of Scotland and first leader of a Scottish Government in 1999 since the Treaty of Union in 1707

The Parliament is elected by a mixture of the first past the post and proportional representation electoral systems, namely, the additional members system. Thus the Parliament is unlike the Westminster Parliament, which is elected solely by the first past the post method. The Scottish Parliament is elected every four years and has 129 members, referred to as Members of the Scottish Parliament (MSPs). Of the 129 MSPs, 73 are elected to represent first past the post constituencies, whilst the remaining 56 are elected by the additional member system.

The proportional representation system has resulted in the election of a number of candidates from parties that would not have been expected to get representation through the first past the post system.

A devolved government called the Scottish Executive (renamed Scottish Government in 2007) was established along with the Scottish Parliament in 1999, with the First Minister of Scotland at its head. The secretariat of the Executive is part of the UK Civil Service and the head of the Executive, the Permanent Secretary (presently Leslie Evans), is the equivalent of the Permanent Secretary of a Whitehall department.

First Ministers

Presiding officers

Scotland in the Parliament of the United Kingdom

The House of Commons

Scotselectionreshuffle
The effect of the Boundary Commission for Scotland's reform and the 2005 general election upon Scottish seats

Until the 2005 general election, Scotland elected 72 MPs from 72 single-member constituencies to serve in the House of Commons. As this over-represented Scotland in comparison to the other parts of the UK, Clause 81 of the Scotland Act 1998 equalised the English and Scottish electoral quota. As a result, the Boundary Commission for Scotland's recommendations were adopted, reducing Scottish representation in the House of Commons to 59 MPs with effect from the 2005 general election. The necessary amendment to the Scotland Act 1998, was passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom as the Scottish Parliament (Constituencies) Act 2004. The previous over-representation was widely accepted before to allow for a greater Scottish voice in the Commons, but since the establishment of a Scottish Parliament it has been felt that this is not necessary.

Scottish MPs are elected at the same time as the rest of the UK's MPs.

Scotland was historically represented in the UK government by the Secretary of State for Scotland. This post was established in the 1880s but recently it has been the topic of much speculation. Many believe that since devolution there is no need for such a role. The Secretary of State's department, the Scotland Office, created in 1999, liaises with other Whitehall departments about devolution matters.

Current Scottish representation in the Commons is :

The House of Lords

At one stage, Scottish peers were entitled to elect sixteen representative peers to the House of Lords. In 1963, the Peerage Act was passed, allowing every Scottish peer to sit in the House of Lords. However, since the previous Labour government's reforms of that house this is no longer the case and hereditary Scottish peers have to stand for election from amongst all eligible peers to sit in the house as part of a group of 92 entitled to do so.

Scotland in Europe

Scotland constitutes a single European Parliament constituency. See Scotland (European Parliament constituency).

It is also represented in the Committee of the Regions.

Local government

Local government in Scotland is organised into 32 unitary authorities. Each local authority is governed by a council consisting of elected councillors, who are elected every four years by registered voters in each of the council areas.

Scottish councils co-operate through, and are represented collectively by, the Convention of Scottish Local Authorities (COSLA).

There are currently 1,222 councillors in total, each paid a part-time salary for the undertaking of their duties. Each authority elects a Convener or Provost to chair meetings of the authority's council and act as a figurehead for the area. The four main cities of Scotland, Glasgow, Edinburgh, Aberdeen and Dundee have a Lord Provost who is also, ex officio, Lord Lieutenant for that city.

There are in total 32 councils, the largest being the City of Glasgow with more than 600,000 inhabitants, the smallest, Orkney, with fewer than 20,000 people. See Subdivisions of Scotland for a list of the council areas.

Community councils

Community councils represent the interests of local people. Local authorities have a statutory duty to consult community councils on planning, development and other issues directly affecting that local community. However, the community council has no direct say in the delivery of services. In many areas they do not function at all, but some work very effectively at improving their local area.[6]

Elections for Community Councils are determined by the local authority and the law states that candidates cannot stand on a party-political ticket.

History

NationalistGraffiti
Pro-independence graffiti in Edinburgh

Until 1832 Scottish politics remained very much in the control of landowners in the country, and of small cliques of merchants in the burghs. Agitation against this position through the Friends of the People Society in the 1790s met with Lord Braxfield's explicit repression on behalf of the landed interests.[7] The Scottish Reform Act 1832 rearranged the constituencies and increased the electorate from under 5,000 to 65,000.[8] The Representation of the People (Scotland) Act 1868 extended the electorate to 232,000 but with "residential qualifications peculiar to Scotland".[9] However, by 1885 around 50% of the male population had the vote, the secret ballot had become established, and the modern political era had started.

From 1885 to 1918 the Liberal Party almost totally dominated Scottish politics. Only in the general election of 1955 and the general election of 1931 did the Unionist Party, together with their National Liberal and Liberal Unionist allies, win a majority of votes.

In general, the Unionists achieved their best results in the Glasgow area, due to the Orange vote.

After the coupon election of 1918, 1922 saw the emergence of the Labour Party as a major force. Red Clydeside elected a number of Labour MPs. A communist was elected for Motherwell in 1924, but in essence the 1920s saw a 3-way fight between Labour, the Liberals and the Unionists. The National Party of Scotland first contested a seat in 1929. It merged with the centre-right Scottish Party in 1934 to form the Scottish National Party, but the SNP remained a peripheral force until the watershed Hamilton by-election of 1967.

The Communists won West Fife in 1935 and again in 1945 (Willie Gallacher) and several Glasgow Labour MPs joined the Independent Labour Party in the 1930s, often heavily defeating the official Labour candidates.

The National Government won the vast majority of Scottish seats in 1931 and 1935: the Liberal Party, banished to the Highlands and Islands, no longer functioned as a significant force in central Scotland.

In 1945, the SNP saw its first MP (Robert McIntyre) elected at the Motherwell by-election, but had little success during the following decade. The ILP members rejoined the Labour Party, and Scotland now had in effect a two-party system.

  • 1950: The Liberals won two seats - Jo Grimond winning Orkney and Shetland.
  • 1951: Labour and the Unionists won 35 seats each, the Liberals losing one seat.
  • 1955: The Unionists won a majority of both seats and votes. The SNP came second in Perth and Kinross.
  • 1959: In contrast to England, Scotland swung to Labour, which scored four gains at the expense of the Unionists. This marked the start of a trend which in less than 40 years saw the Unionists' Scottish representation at Westminster reduced to zero. This was the last occasion when the Unionists won in Scotland: their merger with the Conservative Party of England and Wales in 1965, to become the Scottish Conservative and Unionist Party, began a long, steady decline in their support.
  • 1964: There was a substantial swing to Labour, giving them 44 of Scotland's 71 seats. The Liberals won four seats, all in the Highlands.
  • 1965: David Steel won the Roxburgh, Selkirk and Peebles by-election for the Liberals.
  • 1966: Labour gained 2 more seats and the Liberals made a net gain of 1. The SNP garnered over 100,000 votes and finished second in 3 seats.
  • 1967: The SNP did well in the Glasgow Pollok by-election, but this allowed the Conservative and Unionist candidate to win. However, in the subsequent Hamilton by-election Winnie Ewing won a sensational victory.
  • 1968: The SNP made substantial gains in local elections.
  • 1970: The SNP performed poorly in local elections and in the Ayrshire South by-election. The general election saw a small swing to the Conservatives & Unionists, but Labour won a majority of seats in Scotland. The SNP made little progress in central Scotland, but took votes from the Liberals in the Highlands and in north east Scotland, and won the Western Isles.
  • 1971-1973: The SNP did well in by-elections, Margo MacDonald winning Glasgow Govan.
  • 1974: In the two general elections of 1974 (in February and October) the SNP won 7 and then 11 seats, their share of the vote rising from 11% in 1970 to 22% and then 30%. With the Labour Party winning the October election by a narrow margin, the SNP appeared in a strong position.
  • 1974-1979: Devolution dominated this period: the Labour government attempted to steer through devolution legislation, based on the recommendations of the Kilbrandon Commission, against strong opposition, not least from its own backbenchers. Finally a referendum, whilst producing a small majority in favour of an elected Scottish Assembly, failed to achieve a turnout of 40% of the total electorate, a condition set in the legislation. In the 1979 general election the SNP fared poorly, falling to 17% of the vote and 2 seats. Labour did well in Scotland, but in the United Kingdom as a whole Margaret Thatcher led the Conservatives to a decisive victory.
  • 1979-1983: The SNP suffered severe splits as the result of the 1979 drop in support. Labour also was riven by internal strife as the Social Democratic Party split away. Despite this, the 1983 election still saw Labour remain the majority party in Scotland, with a smaller swing to the Conservatives than in England. The SNP's vote declined further, to 12%, although it won two seats.
  • 1987: The Labour Party did well in the 1987 election, mainly at the expense of the Conservatives & Unionists, who were reduced to their smallest number of Scottish seats since before World War I. The SNP made a small but significant advance.
  • 1988: Jim Sillars won the Glasgow Govan by-election for the SNP.
  • 1992: This election proved a disappointment for Labour and the SNP in Scotland. The SNP went from 14% to 21% of the vote but won only 3 seats. The Conservative and Unionist vote did not collapse, as had been widely predicted, leading to claims that their resolutely anti-devolution stance had paid dividends.
  • 1997: In common with England, there was a Labour landslide in Scotland. The SNP doubled their number of MPs to 6, but the Conservatives & Unionists failed to win a single seat. Unlike 1979, Scottish voters delivered a decisive "Yes" vote in the referendum on establishing a Scottish Parliament.
  • 1999: The Scottish Parliament was established. A coalition of Labour and Liberal Democrats led by Donald Dewar took power.
  • 2007: The SNP became Scotland's largest party in the 2007 Scottish Parliamentary election and formed a minority government.
  • 2008: John Mason won the Glasgow East by-election for the SNP.
  • 2008: Lindsay Roy won the Glenrothes by-election for Labour with an increased share of the vote and a 6,737 majority over the SNP.
  • 2009: Willie Bain won the Glasgow North East by-election for Labour with 59.4% of the vote and an 8,111 majority over the SNP.
  • 2010: United Kingdom general election, 2010: Labour won 41 out of 59 Scottish seats including Glasgow East from the SNP and received over 1 million votes across Scotland, despite losing 91 seats across Britain as a whole.
  • 2011: The SNP become the first party to win an overall majority in the Scottish Parliament.
  • 2015: The SNP won 56 out of 59 Scottish seats, winning 50% of the popular vote. Labour, the Conservatives and the Liberal Democrats won 1 seat each.
  • 2017: In the June snap Westminster general election, the SNP won 35 out of the 59 Scottish seats, the Conservatives won 13, Labour won 7 and the Liberal Democrats won 4 seats.

Political parties

The current party forming the Scottish Government is the Scottish National Party (SNP), which won 63 of 129 seats available in the 2016 Scottish Parliament election. The SNP was formed in 1934 with the aim of achieving Scottish independence. They are broadly centre-left and are in the European social-democratic mould. They are the largest party in the Scottish Parliament and have formed the Scottish Government since the 2007 Scottish Parliament election.

In the course of the twentieth century, Scottish Labour rose to prominence as Scotland's main political force. The party was established to represent the interests of workers and trade unionists. From 1999 to 2007, they operated as the senior partners in a coalition Scottish Executive. They lost power in 2007 when the SNP won a plurality of seats and entered a period of dramatic decline, losing all but one of their seats in the 2015 UK election and falling to third place in the 2016 Scottish election. The 2017 UK election produced a mixed result for the party as it gained six seat and increased its vote by 2.8% but the party came in third behind the SNP and Scottish Conservatives.

The Scottish Liberal Democrats were the junior partners in the 1999 to 2007 coalition Scottish Executive. The party has lost much of its electoral presence in Scotland since the UK Liberal Democrats entered into a coalition government with the UK Conservative Party in 2010. In the 2015 UK election they were reduced from 12 seats to one seat, and since the 2016 Scottish Parliament election they have had the fifth highest number of MSPs (five), unchanged on 2011.

The Unionist Party was the only party ever to have achieved an outright majority of Scottish votes at any general election, in 1951 (they only won a majority if the votes if their National Liberal and Liberal Unionist allies are included). The Unionist Party was allied with the UK Conservative Party until 1965, when the Scottish Conservative and Unionist Party was formed. The Conservatives then entered a long-term decline in Scotland, culminating in their failure to win any Scottish seats in the 1997 UK election. At the four subsequent UK elections (2001, 2005, 2010 and 2015) the Conservatives won only one Scottish seat. The party enjoyed a revival of fortunes in the 2016 Scottish Parliament election, winning 31 seats and finishing in second place. The Conservatives are a centre-right party.

The Scottish Green Party have won regional additional member seats in every Scottish Parliament election, as a result of the proportional representation electoral system. They won one MSP in 1999, increased their total to seven at the 2003 election but saw this drop back to 2 at the 2007 election. They retained two seats at the 2011 election, then increased this total to six in the 2016 election. The Greens support Scottish independence.

The Scottish Socialist Party (SSP) were formed in 1998[10] from the Scottish Socialist Alliance which had aimed to unite the left-wing in Scotland.[11] They won one MSP in 1999 and increased their total to six at the 2003 election. The SSP split in 2006 when two MSPs and a large number of activists left to form Solidarity. Both parties lost all their seats at the 2007 election, but the SSP continues to have local representation. Both the SSP and Solidarity support Scottish independence.

The Scottish Senior Citizens Unity Party (SSCUP) were formed just in time to contest the 2003 elections to the Scottish Parliament. They were formed to work for the rights of Scotland's senior citizens. Thanks to the Scottish Parliament's proportional electoral system, they managed to get one MSP elected in 2003, John Swinburne, their party founder and leader. In the 2007 election they lost their only seat.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ From the 1951 election to the 1979 election the Party was just the Liberal Party, within the 1983 and 1987 election the party was the SDP-Liberal Alliance.

References

  1. ^ Cavanagh, Michael (2001) The Campaigns for a Scottish Parliament. University of Strathclyde. Retrieved 12 April 2008.
  2. ^ "Devolved services in Scotland Archived 18 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine" direct.gov.uk Retrieved 12 April 2008.
  3. ^ Scotland begins pub smoking ban, BBC News Online, 26 March 2006
  4. ^ "London Offers Scotland Its Own Parliament, With Wide Powers". The New York Times. 25 July 1997. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
  5. ^ "Past Referendums - Scotland 1997". The Electoral Commission. Archived from the original on 7 December 2006. Retrieved 17 November 2006.
  6. ^ Stirling Council. "Community Council Info". Stirling Council Homepage. Stirling Council. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
  7. ^ Buchan, James (2003). Crowded with Genius. Harper Collins. p. 338. ISBN 0-06-055888-1.
  8. ^ Lynch, Michael (1992). Scotland: A New History. Pimlico. p. 391. ISBN 0-7126-9893-0.
  9. ^ Lynch (1992), p416
  10. ^ "Vote 99. Scotland. Parties and Issues. Scottish Socialist Party". BBC News. 12 April 1999.
  11. ^ "Party launched to unite the left". The Herald. 12 February 1996. Retrieved 18 April 2017.

External links

An Là

An Là (The Day) is a Scottish Gaelic-language news programme broadcast on the Gaelic-language channel, BBC Alba. The programme, based at BBC Alba's newsroom in Inverness, began at 8pm on Monday 22 September 2008 and provides a 30-minute bulletin of Scottish, British and international news for Gaelic speakers seven days a week. The Sunday night review programme, composed of highlights from the week's bulletins as well as material from Eòrpa, called Seachd Là, began at 6.30pm on Sunday 28 September 2008.

An Là is presented from Studio G at the BBC in Inverness, but output through Studio C Gallery in BBC Pacific Quay. Seachd Là, weather and the An Là sports news all come from BBC Pacific Quay in Glasgow.

An Là is the first daily television news programme to be broadcast in Scots Gaelic since the axing of Grampian Television's Telefios bulletins in 2000.

An Là was shortlisted in the Best Current Affairs category at the 2009 Celtic Media Festival.

Ardfheis

Ard Fheis or Ardfheis (Irish pronunciation: [ˈɑːɾˠd̪ˠ ˈɛɕ] "high assembly"; plural Ardfheiseanna) is the name used by many Irish political parties for their annual party conference. The term was first used by Conradh na Gaeilge, the Irish language cultural organisation, for its annual convention.

Burgh constituency

A burgh constituency is a type of parliamentary constituency in Scotland. It is a constituency which is predominantly urban, and on this basis has been designated as a burgh constituency. They are the successors of the historic parliamentary burghs of the Parliament of Scotland.

In 1708 parliamentary burghs were allocated to districts of burghs, each district serving as a constituency of the Parliament of Great Britain. In the Parliament of the United Kingdom, from 1801 onwards, this district system continued until it was gradually abolished during the first half of the 20th century.

Modern burgh constituencies are much like county constituencies in the way that their boundaries are drawn, but election candidates are allowed lower expenses, as they do not need to travel as much. For British House of Commons elections, the allowance is £7,150 and 5p per elector. For by-elections, the allowance is always £100,000.

House of Commons constituencies were formerly used for elections to the Scottish Parliament, created in 1999, but they have been de-linked since 2005, by reducing the number of Commons constituencies in Scotland without a corresponding change in the Scottish Parliament. The historic distinction between county and burgh constituencies is maintained in both sets of constituencies.

For Scottish Parliament elections, the allowance is £5,761 and 4.8p per elector.

The following constituencies are designated as burgh constituencies in the Scottish Parliament:

Aberdeen Central

Aberdeen Donside

Airdrie and Shotts

Ayr

Coatbridge and Chryston

Dundee City East

Dundee City West

Edinburgh Central

Edinburgh Eastern

Edinburgh Northern and Leith

Edinburgh Pentlands

Edinburgh Southern

Edinburgh Western

Glasgow Anniesland

Glasgow Cathcart

Glasgow Kelvin

Glasgow Maryhill and Springburn

Glasgow Pollok

Glasgow Provan

Glasgow Shettleston

Glasgow Southside

Hamilton, Larkhall and Stonehouse

Motherwell and Wishaw

Paisley

Rutherglen

Uddingston and Bellshill

Cairde na hÉireann

Cairde na hÉireann (Irish: Friends of Ireland) is a republican organisation in Scotland best known for the annual James Connolly march through the streets of Edinburgh and for the Bloody Sunday march each January in Glasgow, both of which Cairde decided to drop. Since then the organisation has focused more in its anti-racism campaign and its other stated aims.

HMNB Clyde

Her Majesty's Naval Base, Clyde (HMNB Clyde; also HMS Neptune) primarily sited at Faslane is one of three operating bases in the United Kingdom for the Royal Navy (the others being HMNB Devonport and HMNB Portsmouth). It is the service's headquarters in Scotland and is best known as the home of Britain's nuclear weapons, in the form of nuclear submarines armed with Trident missiles.

International Socialist Group (Scotland)

The International Socialist Group was a revolutionary socialist organisation based in Scotland which was formed in April 2011 by former members of the Socialist Workers Party. The group produced a free monthly broadsheet and online blog, Communiqué. The ISG participated in a number of campaigns, such as the Coalition of Resistance, Stop the War Coalition and the Radical Independence Campaign. In 2015 the ISG formally dissolved with its members participating in the Scottish Left Project, the organisational process which led to the RISE electoral alliance to contest the 2016 Scottish Parliamentary elections alongside Scottish Socialist Party, individuals from the Radical Independence Campaign and other activists and trade unionists.

Notable figures within the ISG included Jonathon Shafi, co-founder of the Radical Independence Campaign, and Cat Boyd.

Lord of Parliament

A Lord of Parliament (Scots: Laird o Pairlament) was the holder of the lowest form of peerage entitled as of right to take part in sessions of the pre-Union Parliament of Scotland. Since that Union in 1707, it has been the lowest rank of the Peerage of Scotland, ranking below a viscount. A Lord of Parliament is said to hold a Lordship of Parliament.

The peerage of Scotland differs from those of England and Ireland, in that its lowest rank is not that of baron. In Scotland, the term "baron" refers to a feudal baron, considered to be a minor lord who is not a peer, approximately equal to a baron in some continental countries. The Scottish equivalent to the English baron is the Lord of Parliament.

A male holder of such a lordship is designated a "Lord of Parliament," while there is no similar designation for female holders. Lords of Parliament are referred to as Lord X, while female holders of Lordships of Parliament are known as Lady X. The wife of a Lord of Parliament is also Lady X. Children of Lords of Parliament and female holders of Lordships of Parliament are styled The Honourable [Forename] [Surname], except that the heir apparent to the peerage is styled The Master of [peerage title]. Where succession by women is allowed, an heiress presumptive may be styled The Mistress of [peerage title]. After the death of father and/or mother, the child may continue to use the style "the Honourable".

The creation of Lordships of Parliament ceased when Scotland and England were combined into a single Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707, when their parliaments were merged.

From 1707 to 1963 the Scottish peers were represented in the House of Lords by representative peers, but from 1963 to 1999 they were all entitled to sit there. However, the House of Lords Act 1999 removed the right of hereditary peers, including Lords of Parliament, to sit in the House of Lords, except that a number of hereditary peers do still sit, following election by hereditary peers. In 1999, two Lords of Parliament were so elected: Lord Reay and the Lady Saltoun. Following the death of Lord Reay on 10 May 2013, only Lady Saltoun remained in parliament. Lady Saltoun resigned from the House of Lords in December 2014.

No provision was made for Lords of Parliament to be specially represented in the current Scottish Parliament, but the Scotland Act 1998 provides that a person is not disqualified from membership of the Parliament merely because he or she is a peer (whether of the United Kingdom, Great Britain, England, Scotland, or Ireland).

Lothian (Scottish Parliament electoral region)

Lothian is one of the eight electoral regions of the Scottish Parliament. Nine of the parliament's 73 first past the post constituencies are sub-divisions of the region and it elects seven of the 56 additional-member Members of the Scottish Parliament (MSPs). Thus it elects a total of 16 MSPs.

The Lothian region was created as a result of the First Periodic Review of Scottish Parliament Boundaries and largely replaced the

Lothians region.

Loyalism

In general, loyalism is an individual's allegiance toward an established government, political party, or sovereign, especially during times of war and revolt. In the United States, the most common usage of the term refers to loyalty to the British Crown, especially to opponents of the American Revolution and those exiles who went to Canada and Mexico.

The term loyalist was also used during the Spanish Civil War, applying to Republicans who remained loyal to the Spanish Republic against Franco's "Nationalists".

National anthem of Scotland

A number of songs are used as Scottish anthems, most notably "Flower of Scotland" and "Scotland the Brave".

In 2004, lawyers for the devolved Scottish Parliament advised that it was within the legal competence of the Scottish Parliament to choose a national anthem for Scotland, countering the suggestion that it would be a matter reserved to the Parliament of the United Kingdom. This ruling prompted some interest in the idea, and a petition to the Scottish Parliament's petitions committee supported by the Scottish Green Party was referred without recommendation to the Scottish Executive, but they decided to take no action, considering the issue not to be a political priority. There have been subsequent attempts to re-open the debate on a national anthem for Scotland.

Popular sovereignty

Popular sovereignty, or sovereignty of the peoples' rule, is the principle that the authority of a state and its government are created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives (Rule by the People), who is the source of all political power. It is closely associated with social contract philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Popular sovereignty expresses a concept and does not necessarily reflect or describe a political reality. The people have the final say in government decisions. Benjamin Franklin expressed the concept when he wrote, "In free governments, the rulers are the servants and the people their superiors and sovereigns".Americans founded their Revolution and government on popular sovereignty, but the term was also used in the 1850s to describe a highly controversial approach to slavery in the territories as propounded by senator Stephen A. Douglas. It meant that local residents of a territory would be the ones to decide if slavery would be permitted, and it led to bloody warfare in Bleeding Kansas as abolitionists and proponents of slavery flooded Kansas territory in order to decide the elections. An earlier development of popular sovereignty arose from philosopher Francisco Suárez and became the basis for Latin American independence. Popular sovereignty also can be described as the voice of the people.

Scotland (European Parliament constituency)

Scotland (Scots: Scotland, Scottish Gaelic: Alba [ˈal̪ˠapə] (listen)) constitutes a single constituency of the European Parliament. In 2014 it elected six MEPs, using the d'Hondt method of party-list proportional representation.

Scottish Affairs Select Committee

The Scottish Affairs Select Committee is a select committee of the House of Commons in the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The remit of the Committee is to examine the expenditure, administration and policy of the Office of the Secretary of State for Scotland (and prior to that, the Scottish Office), and relations with the Scottish Parliament. It also looks at the administration and expenditure of the Advocate General for Scotland.Unlike the Scottish Grand Committee, MPs from constituencies outwith Scotland can, and do, sit on the Scottish Affairs Committee.

Scottish Grand Committee

The Scottish Grand Committee is a committee of the House of Commons. It is not a select committee (see Scottish Affairs Select Committee), but rather a grand committee composed of all 59 Scottish MPs (72 MPs prior to 2005).

It has its origins in a Scottish standing committee set up in 1907 to consider the Committee Stage of exclusively Scottish bills. Its remit was widened in 1948 to include consideration of bills "in relation to their principle" and up to six days of Estimates debates. In 1957 up to two days of Matter Day debates was added and Committee Stage consideration was transferred to a small Scottish Standing Committee.

In July 1994, a number of new procedures were introduced in the SGC which provided for:

questions to be asked of the Secretary of State

statements by, and subsequent questions to, any Minister of the Crown

substantive debates on the adjournment

half-hour adjournment debates at the end of each sitting (chosen by ballot)

the power to meet in ScotlandThe Scottish Grand Committee's function is to oversee UK Parliament bills specific to Scotland. However, since the creation of the Scottish Parliament none has been presented, and consequently the Committee has met only occasionally since. It is not a defunct body, however, as a Scotland-only UK Parliament bill is still theoretically possible. The Committee last met in November 2003. For several years it met at the Old Royal High School in Edinburgh. The retention of the Scottish Grand Committee was agreed by the House of Commons on 21 October 1999.

Secretary of State for the Northern Department

The Secretary of State for the Northern Department was a position in the Cabinet of the government of Great Britain up to 1782, when the Northern Department became the Home Office.

Shadow Cabinet (Scottish Parliament)

Unlike the Westminster arrangement where there is an 'Official Opposition' to the government of the day, there is no such thing as an 'official' opposition to the Scottish Government. Instead, all parties that are not in government are merely 'opposition parties'. With the current Scottish Government being Scottish National Party (SNP), the four other main parties are all opposition parties and each will have a Shadow Cabinet composed of Members of the Scottish Parliament (MSPs) with a responsibility to shadow a government minister or area of government.

Parties are allowed to choose how their spokespersons are referred to. Named party spokespeople are not all Members of the Scottish Parliament.

South Scotland (Scottish Parliament electoral region)

South Scotland is one of the eight electoral regions of the Scottish Parliament. Nine of the parliament's 73 first past the post constituencies are sub-divisions of the region and it elects seven of the 56 additional-member Members of the Scottish Parliament (MSPs). Thus it elects a total of 16 MSPs.

The South Scotland region was created as a result of the First Periodic Review of Scottish Parliament Boundaries and largely replaced the

South of Scotland region.

West Scotland (Scottish Parliament electoral region)

West Scotland is one of the eight electoral regions of the Scottish Parliament. Ten of the parliament's 73 first past the post constituencies are sub-divisions of the region and it elects seven of the 56 additional-member Members of the Scottish Parliament (MSPs). Thus it elects a total of 17 MSPs.

The West Scotland electoral region was created as a result of the First Periodic Review of Scottish Parliament Boundaries and largely replaced the West of Scotland region.

West of Scotland (Scottish Parliament electoral region)

West of Scotland was one of the eight electoral regions of the Scottish Parliament that were created in 1999. Nine of the Parliament's 73 first past the post constituencies were sub-divisions of the region and it elected seven of the 56 additional-member Members of the Scottish Parliament (MSPs). Thus it elected a total of 16 MSPs.

The West of Scotland region shared boundaries with the Central Scotland, Glasgow, Highlands and Islands, and Mid Scotland and Fife regions.

Following the First Periodic Review of Scottish Parliament Boundaries it was eventually replaced by the West Scotland region.

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