Political party strength in U.S. states refers to the level of representation of the various political parties of the U.S. in each statewide elective office providing legislators to the state and to the U.S. Congress and electing the executives at the state (U.S. state governor) and national (U.S. President) level.
Throughout most of the 20th century, although the Republican and Democratic parties alternated in power at a national level, some states were so overwhelmingly dominated by one party that nomination was usually tantamount to election. This was especially true in the Solid South, where the Democratic Party was dominant for the better part of a century, from the end of Reconstruction in the late 1870s, through the period of Jim Crow Laws into the 1960s. Conversely, the New England states of Vermont, Maine, and New Hampshire were dominated by the Republican Party, as were some Midwestern states like Iowa and North Dakota.
However, in the 1970s and 1980s the increasingly conservative Republican Party gradually overtook the Democrats in the southeast. The Democrats' support in the formerly Solid South had been eroded during the vast cultural, political and economic upheaval that surrounded the 1960s. By the 1990s, the Republican Party had completed the transition into the southeast's dominant political party, despite typically having fewer members due to the prevalence of Republican voting generational Democrats. In New England, the opposite trend took place; the former Republican strongholds of Maine and Vermont became solidly Democratic, as did formerly Republican areas of New Jersey, New York, and Connecticut.
Currently, the majority of the overall number of seats held in the state legislatures has been switching between the two parties every few years. As of the U.S. gubernatorial elections of 2010, the Republican party holds an outright majority of approximately 440 with 3,890 seats (53% of total) compared to the Democratic party's number of 3,450 (47% of total) seats elected on a partisan ballot. Of the 7,382 seats in all of the state legislatures combined, independents and third parties account for only 16 members, not counting the 49 members of the Nebraska Legislature, which is the only legislature in the nation to hold non-partisan elections to determine its members. Due to the results of the 2010 elections, Republicans took control of an additional 19 state legislative chambers, giving them majority control of both chambers in 25 states versus the Democrats' majority control of both chambers in only 16 states, with 8 states having split or inconclusive control of both chambers (not including Nebraska); previous to the 2010 elections, it was Democrats who controlled both chambers in 27 states versus the Republican party having total control in only 14 states, with eight states divided and Nebraska being nonpartisan.
As of October 2017, Gallup polling found that 31% of Americans identified as Democrat, 24% identified as Republican, and 42% as Independent. Additionally, polling showed that 46% are either "Democrats or Democratic leaners" and 39% are either "Republicans or Republican leaners" when Independents are asked "do you lean more to the Democratic Party or the Republican Party?"
In 2014, Gallup found seventeen states safely or leaning Democratic, and fifteen states safely or leaning Republican, with eighteen states categorized as "competitive between the two parties", a net shift of one state to the Republican side since 2013. In February 2016, Gallup found fourteen states safely or leaning Democratic, and twenty states safely or leaning Republican, with sixteen categorized as "competitive", a net Democrat decline of eight states to give the Republicans a six state advantage. This is also the first time in the eight years that Gallup has tracked state partisanship that there have been more Republican than Democratic states, as well as a reversal from the Democratic highs of 2008 and 2009, or even the more recent 2012.
|Number of U.S. States|
|Year||Solid Dem||Lean Dem||Competitive||Lean GOP||Solid GOP||Net Dem|
Previously, Gallup observed that the "greatest movement away from the Democratic Party came between 2009 and 2010, when the number of states with a Democratic advantage fell from 34 to 23". At the time, Gallup concluded that "President Obama faces a much less favorable environment as he seeks a second term in office than he did when he was elected president." There have been less significant partisan shifts among the U.S. states since 2011.
Another metric to measure how much a state leans towards one party or the other is the Cook Partisan Voting Index (PVI). Cook PVIs are calculated by comparing a state's average Democratic Party or Republican Party share of the two-party presidential vote in the past two presidential elections to the nation's average share of the same. PVIs for the states over the period 1994–2014 can be used to show the trends of U.S. states towards, or away from, one party or the other.
The following table shows all the U.S. states and to what party (Democratic or Republican) their state governors belong. Also indicated is the majority party of the state legislatures' upper and lower houses as well as U.S. Senate representation. Nebraska's legislature is unicameral, i.e., it has only one legislative house and is officially non-partisan, though party affiliation still has an unofficial influence on the legislative process.
The simplest measure of the party strength in a state's voting population is the breakdown-by-party totals from its voter registration figures (figures that can easily be obtained from the websites of the Secretaries of State or the Boards of Elections of the various states). As of 2019, 28 states and the District of Columbia allow registered voters to indicate a party preference when registering to vote; the following 20 states (mostly in the South and the Midwest) do not provide for party preferences in voter registration: Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, North Dakota, Ohio, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, Washington and Wisconsin. The partisan breakdown "demographics" provided in the following table are obtained from that state's party registration figures (from late 2014 whenever possible) where indicated. Only Wyoming has a majority of registered voters identifying themselves as Republicans; two states have a majority of registered voters identifying themselves as Democrats: Maryland and Kentucky (since 2010, Louisiana, Pennsylvania and West Virginia have all seen their Democratic-majority registrations slip to just Democratic-pluralities).
For those states that do not allow for registration by party, Gallup's annual polling of voter party identification by state is the next best metric of party strength in the U.S. states. The partisan figures in the table below for the 22 states that don't register voters by party come from Gallup's 2014 polling of voter party identification by state.
|Governor||State Senate||State House||Senior
|U.S. House of Representatives||Partisan Split (as of 2014)|
|Alabama||Republican||Republican||Republican 27-8||Republican 77-28||Republican||Democratic||Republican 6-1||Republican|
|Alaska||Republican||Republican||Republican 13-7||Coalition 25-15(a)||Republican||Republican||Republican||Republican|
|Arizona||Republican||Republican||Republican 17-13||Republican 31-29||Democratic||Republican||Democratic 5-4||Republican|
|Arkansas||Republican||Republican||Republican 26-9||Republican 76-24||Republican||Republican||Republican 4||Republican|
|California||Democratic||Democratic||Democratic 29-11||Democratic 61-19||Democratic||Democratic||Democratic 46-7||Democratic|
|Colorado||Democratic||Democratic||Democratic 19-16||Democratic 41-24||Democratic||Republican||Democratic 4-3||Republican|
|Connecticut||Democratic||Democratic||Democratic 23-13||Democratic 92-59||Democratic||Democratic||Democratic 5||Democratic|
|Delaware||Democratic||Democratic||Democratic 12-9||Democratic 26-15||Democratic||Democratic||Democratic||Democratic|
|Florida||Republican||Republican||Republican 23-17||Republican 73-47||Republican||Republican||Republican 14-13||Democratic|
|Georgia||Republican||Republican||Republican 35-21||Republican 105-75||Republican||Republican||Republican 9-5||Republican|
|Hawaii||Democratic||Democratic||Democratic 24-1||Democratic 46-5||Democratic||Democratic||Democratic 2||Democratic|
|Idaho||Republican||Republican||Republican 28-7||Republican 56-14||Republican||Republican||Republican 2||Republican|
|Illinois||Democratic||Democratic||Democratic 40-19||Democratic 74-44||Democratic||Democratic||Democratic 13-5||Democratic|
|Indiana||Republican||Republican||Republican 40-10||Republican 67-33||Republican||Republican||Republican 7-2||Republican|
|Iowa||Republican||Republican||Republican 32-18||Republican 54-46||Republican||Republican||Democratic 3-1||Republican|
|Kansas||Republican||Democratic||Republican 27-11-1(a)-1(b)||Republican 84-41||Republican||Republican||Republican 3-1||Republican|
|Kentucky||Republican||Republican||Republican 28-10||Republican 61-39||Republican||Republican||Republican 5-1||Democratic|
|Louisiana||Republican||Democratic||Republican 25-14||Republican 62-39-3(a)||Republican||Republican||Republican 5-1||Democratic|
|Maine||Democratic||Democratic||Democratic 21-14||Democratic 89-57-5(a)||Republican||Independent(a)||Democratic 2||Democratic|
|Maryland||Democratic||Republican||Democratic 33-14||Democratic 99-42||Democratic||Democratic||Democratic 7-1||Democratic|
|Massachusetts||Democratic||Republican||Democratic 34-6||Democratic 127-32-1||Democratic||Democratic||Democratic 9-0||Democratic|
|Michigan||Republican||Democratic||Republican 22-16||Republican 58-52||Democratic||Democratic||Tied 7-7||Democratic|
|Minnesota||Democratic||Democratic||Republican 34-33||Democratic 75-59||Democratic||Democratic||Democratic 5-3||Democratic|
|Mississippi||Republican||Republican||Republican 33-19||Republican 74-46-2(b)||Republican||Republican||Republican 3-1||Republican|
|Missouri||Republican||Republican||Republican 24-10||Republican 116-47||Republican||Republican||Republican 6-2||Republican|
|Montana||Republican||Democratic||Republican 30-20||Republican 58-42||Democratic||Republican||Republican||Republican|
|Nebraska||Republican||Republican||Unicameral nonpartisan legislature(c)||Republican||Republican||Republican 3||Republican|
|Nevada||Democratic||Democratic||Democratic 13-8||Democratic 29-13||Democratic||Democratic||Democratic 3-1||Democratic|
|New Hampshire||Democratic||Republican||Democratic 14-10||Democratic 234-166||Democratic||Democratic||Democratic 2||Republican|
|New Jersey||Democratic||Democratic||Democratic 25-15||Democratic 54-26||Democratic||Democratic||Democratic 11-1||Democratic|
|New Mexico||Democratic||Democratic||Democratic 26-16||Democratic 46-24||Democratic||Democratic||Democratic 3||Democratic|
|New York||Democratic||Democratic||Democratic 40-23||Democratic 106-43-1(a)||Democratic||Democratic||Democratic 21-6||Democratic|
|North Carolina||Republican||Democratic||Republican 29-21||Republican 65-55||Republican||Republican||Republican 10-3||Democratic|
|North Dakota||Republican||Republican||Republican 37-10||Republican 79-15||Republican||Republican||Republican||Republican|
|Ohio||Republican||Republican||Republican 24-9||Republican 61-38||Democratic||Republican||Republican 12-4||Republican|
|Oklahoma||Republican||Republican||Republican 39-9||Republican 77-24||Republican||Republican||Republican 4-1||Republican|
|Oregon||Democratic||Democratic||Democratic 19-11||Democratic 38-22||Democratic||Democratic||Democratic 4-1||Democratic|
|Pennsylvania||Republican||Democratic||Republican 29-21||Republican 110-93||Democratic||Republican||Tied 9-9||Democratic|
|Rhode Island||Democratic||Democratic||Democratic 33-5||Democratic 66-9||Democratic||Democratic||Democratic 2||Democratic|
|South Carolina||Republican||Republican||Republican 27-19||Republican 80-44||Republican||Republican||Republican 5-2||Republican|
|South Dakota||Republican||Republican||Republican 30-5||Republican 59-11||Republican||Republican||Republican||Republican|
|Tennessee||Republican||Republican||Republican 28-5||Republican 73-26||Republican||Republican||Republican 7-2||Republican|
|Texas||Republican||Republican||Republican 19-12||Republican 83-67||Republican||Republican||Republican 23-13||Republican|
|Utah||Republican||Republican||Republican 23-6||Republican 59-16||Republican||Republican||Republican 3-1||Republican|
|Vermont||Democratic||Republican||Democratic 22-6-2(a)||Democratic 95-43-12(a)||Democratic||Independent(a)||Democratic||Democratic|
|Virginia||Democratic||Democratic||Republican 21-19||Republican 51-49||Democratic||Democratic||Democratic 7-4||Republican|
|Washington||Democratic||Democratic||Democratic 29-20||Democratic 57-41||Democratic||Democratic||Democratic 7-3||Democratic|
|West Virginia||Republican||Republican||Republican 20-14||Republican 59-41||Democratic||Republican||Republican 3||Democratic|
|Wisconsin||Republican||Democratic||Republican 19-14||Republican 63-36||Republican||Democratic||Republican 5-3||Democratic|
|Wyoming||Republican||Republican||Republican 27-3||Republican 50-9-1||Republican||Republican||Republican||Republican|
|U.S. House of
State Senate (2018)
State House (2018)
|Republican 306-232||Republican 53-47(a)||Democratic 235-200||Republican 27-23||Republican 32-18||Republican 30-19-1|
(a) The Alaska House of Representatives is controlled by a coalition of 15 Democrats, 8 Republicans and 2 Independent
(c) While the Nebraska Legislature is technically non-partisan the majority of the Senators are Republican.
(d) Indicated partisan breakdown numbers are from the registration-by-party figures ("active" registered voters, when applicable) from that state's registered voter statistics (late 2014 party registration figures provided whenever possible).
(e) Indicated partisan breakdown numbers are from the Party Identification by State figures for 2014 from Gallup polling (note: Gallup figures have been rounded to two significant figures on the assumption that figures from polling are less accurate than registration-by-party figures).
(h) Partisans who are not caucusing with their own party in the chamber.
Local and regional political circumstances often influence party strength.
The following figure is for Governors as of January 2019:
The following figures for party control of state legislative chambers are as of January 2019:
|State Senate||State House|
The following is based on the results of the 2016 Presidential election:
The following are the current standings in the U.S. Senate and in the U.S. House as of the 116th Congress:
|Senate||House of Representatives|
|U.S. party percentages by state (2010)|
The following table shows how many state legislatures were controlled outright by each party.
The following table shows how many governorships were controlled outright by each party.
The following table describes how many state governments were fully controlled by either party or split.
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The United States House of Representatives elections in California, 1867 was an election for California's delegation to the United States House of Representatives, which occurred on September 6, 1867 for the 40th Congress. The Democrats gained two districts from the Republicans.1868 United States House of Representatives elections in California
The United States House of Representatives elections in California, 1868 were elections for California's delegation to the United States House of Representatives, which occurred as part of the general election of the House of Representatives on November 3, 1868. California's delegation remained at two Democrats and one Republican.1871 United States House of Representatives elections in California
The United States House of Representatives elections in California, 1871 were elections for California's delegation to the United States House of Representatives, which occurred on September 6, 1871. Republicans gained both Democratic districts.1875 United States House of Representatives elections in California
The United States House of Representatives elections in California, 1875 were elections for California's delegation to the United States House of Representatives, which occurred on September 7, 1875. Democrats gained two districts.1876 United States House of Representatives elections in California
The United States House of Representatives elections in California, 1876 was an election for California's delegation to the United States House of Representatives, which occurred as part of the general election of the House of Representatives on November 7, 1876. Republicans gained two districts.1879 United States House of Representatives elections in California
The United States House of Representatives elections in California, 1879 were elections for California's delegation to the United States House of Representatives, which occurred on September 3, 1879. California's delegation remained unchanged, at three Republicans and one Democrat.1886 United States House of Representatives elections in California
The United States House of Representatives elections in California, 1886 was an election for California's delegation to the United States House of Representatives, which occurred as part of the general election of the House of Representatives on November 2, 1886. Democrats gained one district.1888 United States House of Representatives elections in California
The United States House of Representatives elections in California, 1888 was an election for California's delegation to the United States House of Representatives, which occurred as part of the general election of the House of Representatives on November 6, 1888. Republicans and Democrats each swapped a district.1890 United States House of Representatives elections in California
The United States House of Representatives elections in California, 1890 was an election for California's delegation to the United States House of Representatives, which occurred as part of the general election of the House of Representatives on November 4, 1890. Republicans picked up one Democratic-held district.1898 United States House of Representatives elections in California
The United States House of Representatives elections in California, 1898 was an election for California's delegation to the United States House of Representatives, which occurred as part of the general election of the House of Representatives on November 8, 1898. Republicans took an open Democratic seat and defeated the two Populist incumbents.1996 California elections
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The 2004 California State Senate elections were held on November 2, 2004. Senate seats of odd-numbered districts were up for election. Senate terms are staggered so that half the membership is elected every two years. Senators serve four-year terms and are limited to two terms. As was expected, the Democratic Party held on to the majority of the seats.2004 California elections
California's state elections were held November 2, 2004. Necessary primary elections were held on March 2. Up for election were all the seats of the State Assembly, 20 seats of the State Senate, and sixteen ballot measures.2008 Iowa Senate election
The 2008 Iowa Senate election were held on November 4, 2008. The Senate seats for the twenty-five even-numbered districts were up for election. Senate terms are staggered such that half the membership is elected every two years, with each Senators serving a four-year term. Prior to the election, the Democrats were in the majority - marking the first time in 42 years that the Democrats had controlled both branches of the Iowa General Assembly and the Governor's Office. They expanded this majority by two seats in the 2008 elections.2009 Iowa special elections
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The Democratic Legislative Campaign Committee (DLCC) is the Democratic Party organization that works to elect Democrats to U.S. state legislatures. The committee was formed after the 1992 elections by a group of Democratic state legislators and then-DNC chair David Wilhelm.
In terms of the politics of the United States, the DLCC has a rival in the Republican State Leadership Committee (RSLC).
Political party strength in U.S. states