Political correctness

The term political correctness (adjectivally: politically correct; commonly abbreviated PC) is used to describe language, policies, or measures that are intended to avoid offense or disadvantage to members of particular groups in society.[1][2][3][4][5] Since the late 1980s, the term has come to refer to avoiding language or behavior that can be seen as excluding, marginalizing, or insulting groups of people considered disadvantaged or discriminated against, especially groups defined by sex or race. In public discourse and the media, it is generally used as a pejorative, implying that these policies are excessive or unwarranted.[6][3][7][8][9][10][11]

While earlier usage of the term referred to the strict adherence to political orthodoxy, the contemporary pejorative usage of the term emerged from conservative criticism of the New Left in the late 20th century. This usage was popularized by a number of articles in The New York Times and other media throughout the 1990s,[12][13][14][15][16][17] and was widely used in the debate about Allan Bloom's 1987 book The Closing of the American Mind,[7][9][18][19] and gained further currency in response to Roger Kimball's Tenured Radicals (1990),[7][9][20][21] and conservative author Dinesh D'Souza's 1991 book Illiberal Education, in which he condemned what he saw as liberal efforts to advance self-victimization and multiculturalism through language, affirmative action, and changes to the content of school and university curricula.[7][8][20][22]

Commentators on the political left in the United States contend that conservatives use the concept of political correctness to downplay and divert attention from substantively discriminatory behavior against disadvantaged groups.[20][23][24] They also argue that the political right enforces its own forms of political correctness to suppress criticism of its favored constituencies and ideologies.[25][26][27] In the United States the term has played a major role in the "culture war" between liberals and conservatives.[28]

History

The term "politically correct" was used infrequently until the latter part of the 20th century. This earlier use did not communicate the social disapproval usually implied in more recent usage. In 1793, the term "politically correct" appeared in a U.S. Supreme Court judgment of a political lawsuit.[29] The term also had use in other English-speaking countries in the 1800s.[30] William Safire states that the first recorded use of the term in the typical modern sense is by Toni Cade Bambara in the 1970 anthology The Black Woman.[31] The term probably entered modern use in the United Kingdom around 1975.[11]

Early-to-mid 20th century

In the early-to-mid 20th century, the phrase "politically correct" was used to describe strict adherence to a range of ideological orthodoxies. In 1934, The New York Times reported that Nazi Germany was granting reporting permits "only to pure 'Aryans' whose opinions are politically correct."[2]

As Marxist-Leninist movements gained political power, the phrase came to be associated with accusations of dogmatic application of doctrine, in debates between American Communists and American Socialists. This usage referred to the Communist party line which, in the eyes of the Socialists, provided "correct" positions on all political matters. According to American educator Herbert Kohl, writing about debates in New York in the late 1940s and early 1950s,

The term "politically correct" was used disparagingly, to refer to someone whose loyalty to the CP line overrode compassion, and led to bad politics. It was used by Socialists against Communists, and was meant to separate out Socialists who believed in egalitarian moral ideas from dogmatic Communists who would advocate and defend party positions regardless of their moral substance.

— "Uncommon Differences", The Lion and the Unicorn[3]

1970s

In the 1970s, the American New Left began using the term "politically correct".[32] In the essay The Black Woman: An Anthology (1970), Toni Cade Bambara said that "a man cannot be politically correct and a [male] chauvinist, too." Thereafter, the term was often used as self-critical satire. Debra L. Shultz said that "throughout the 1970s and 1980s, the New Left, feminists, and progressives... used their term 'politically correct' ironically, as a guard against their own orthodoxy in social change efforts."[7][32][33] PC is used in the comic book Merton of the Movement, by Bobby London, which was followed by the term ideologically sound, in the comic strips of Bart Dickon.[32][34] In her essay "Toward a feminist Revolution" (1992) Ellen Willis said: "In the early eighties, when feminists used the term 'political correctness', it was used to refer sarcastically to the anti-pornography movement's efforts to define a 'feminist sexuality'."[35]

Stuart Hall suggests one way in which the original use of the term may have developed into the modern one:

According to one version, political correctness actually began as an in-joke on the left: radical students on American campuses acting out an ironic replay of the Bad Old Days BS (Before the Sixties) when every revolutionary groupuscule had a party line about everything. They would address some glaring examples of sexist or racist behaviour by their fellow students in imitation of the tone of voice of the Red Guards or Cultural Revolution Commissar: "Not very 'politically correct', Comrade!"[36]

1980s and 1990s

Allan Bloom's 1987 book The Closing of the American Mind[18] heralded a debate about "political correctness" in American higher education in the 1980s and 1990s.[7][9][19][37] Professor of English literary and cultural studies at CMU Jeffrey J. Williams wrote that the "assault on ... political correctness that simmered through the Reagan years, gained bestsellerdom with Bloom's Closing of the American Mind."[38] According to Z.F. Gamson, Bloom's book "attacked the faculty for 'political correctness'."[39] Prof. of Social Work at CSU Tony Platt says the "campaign against 'political correctness'" was launched by Bloom's book in 1987.[40]

An October 1990 New York Times article by Richard Bernstein is credited with popularizing the term.[14][16][17][41][42] At this time, the term was mainly being used within academia: "Across the country the term p.c., as it is commonly abbreviated, is being heard more and more in debates over what should be taught at the universities".[12] Nexis citations in "arcnews/curnews" reveal only seventy total citations in articles to "political correctness" for 1990; but one year later, Nexis records 1,532 citations, with a steady increase to more than 7,000 citations by 1994.[41][43] In May 1991, The New York Times had a follow-up article, according to which the term was increasingly being used in a wider public arena:

What has come to be called "political correctness," a term that began to gain currency at the start of the academic year last fall, has spread in recent months and has become the focus of an angry national debate, mainly on campuses, but also in the larger arenas of American life.

— "Political Correctness: New Bias Test?" – Robert D. McFadden[13]

The previously obscure far-left term became common currency in the lexicon of the conservative social and political challenges against progressive teaching methods and curriculum changes in the secondary schools and universities of the U.S.[8][44][45][46][47][48] Policies, behavior, and speech codes that the speaker or the writer regarded as being the imposition of a liberal orthodoxy, were described and criticized as "politically correct".[20] In May 1991, at a commencement ceremony for a graduating class of the University of Michigan, then U.S. President George H.W. Bush used the term in his speech: "The notion of political correctness has ignited controversy across the land. And although the movement arises from the laudable desire to sweep away the debris of racism and sexism and hatred, it replaces old prejudice with new ones. It declares certain topics off-limits, certain expression off-limits, even certain gestures off-limits."[49]

After 1991, its use as a pejorative phrase became widespread amongst conservatives in the US.[8] It became a key term encapsulating conservative concerns about the left in culture and political debate more broadly, as well as in academia. Two articles on the topic in late 1990 in Forbes and Newsweek both used the term "thought police" in their headlines, exemplifying the tone of the new usage, but it was Dinesh D'Souza's Illiberal Education: The Politics of Race and Sex on Campus (1991) which "captured the press's imagination."[8] Similar critical terminology was used by D'Souza for a range of policies in academia around victimization, supporting multiculturalism through affirmative action, sanctions against anti-minority hate speech, and revising curricula (sometimes referred to as "canon busting").[8][50] These trends were at least in part a response to multiculturalism and the rise of identity politics, with movements such as feminism, gay rights movements and ethnic minority movements. That response received funding from conservative foundations and think tanks such as the John M. Olin Foundation, which funded several books such as D'Souza's.[7][20]

Herbert Kohl, in 1992, commented that a number of neoconservatives who promoted the use of the term "politically correct" in the early 1990s were former Communist Party members, and, as a result, familiar with the Marxist use of the phrase. He argued that in doing so, they intended "to insinuate that egalitarian democratic ideas are actually authoritarian, orthodox, and Communist-influenced, when they oppose the right of people to be racist, sexist, and homophobic."[3]

During the 1990s, conservative and right-wing politicians, think-tanks, and speakers adopted the phrase as a pejorative descriptor of their ideological enemies – especially in the context of the Culture Wars about language and the content of public-school curricula. Roger Kimball, in Tenured Radicals, endorsed Frederick Crews's view that PC is best described as "Left Eclecticism", a term defined by Kimball as "any of a wide variety of anti-establishment modes of thought from structuralism and poststructuralism, deconstruction, and Lacanian analyst to feminist, homosexual, black, and other patently political forms of criticism."[21][38]

Liberal commentators have argued that the conservatives and reactionaries who used the term did so in effort to divert political discussion away from the substantive matters of resolving societal discrimination – such as racial, social class, gender, and legal inequality – against people whom conservatives do not consider part of the social mainstream.[7][23][51] Jan Narveson wrote that "that phrase was born to live between scare-quotes: it suggests that the operative considerations in the area so called are merely political, steamrolling the genuine reasons of principle for which we ought to be acting..."[6] Commenting in 2001, one such British journalist,[52][53] Polly Toynbee, said "the phrase is an empty, right-wing smear, designed only to elevate its user", and, in 2010, "the phrase 'political correctness' was born as a coded cover for all who still want to say Paki, spastic, or queer".[54] Another British journalist, Will Hutton,[55] wrote in 2001:

Political correctness is one of the brilliant tools that the American Right developed in the mid–1980s, as part of its demolition of American liberalism.... What the sharpest thinkers on the American Right saw quickly was that by declaring war on the cultural manifestations of liberalism – by levelling the charge of "political correctness" against its exponents – they could discredit the whole political project.

— "Words Really are Important, Mr Blunkett" —Will Hutton, 2001

Glenn Loury wrote in 1994 that: "to address the subject of "political correctness" when power and authority within the academic community is being contested by parties on either side of that issue, is to invite scrutiny of one's arguments by would-be "friends" and "enemies." Combatants from the left and the right will try to assess whether a writer is "for them" or "against them."[56]

Modern usage

Education

Much of the modern debate on the term was sparked by conservative critiques of liberal bias in academia and education,[7] and conservatives have used it as a major line of attack since.[8] University of Pennsylvania professor Alan Charles Kors and lawyer Harvey A. Silverglate connect speech codes in US universities to philosopher Herbert Marcuse. They claim that speech codes create a "climate of repression", arguing that they are based on "Marcusean logic". The speech codes, "mandate a redefined notion of "freedom", based on the belief that the imposition of a moral agenda on a community is justified", a view which, "requires less emphasis on individual rights and more on assuring "historically oppressed" persons the means of achieving equal rights."[57] Kors and Silverglate later established the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE), which campaigns against infringement of rights of due process, in particular "speech codes".[58] Similarly, a common conservative criticism of higher education in the United States is that the political views of the faculty are much more liberal than the general population, and that this situation contributes to an atmosphere of political correctness.[59]

As a conspiracy theory

Some conservative commentators in the West argue that "political correctness" and multiculturalism are part of a conspiracy with the ultimate goal of undermining Judeo-Christian values. This theory, which holds that political correctness originates from the critical theory of the Frankfurt School as part of a conspiracy that its proponents call "Cultural Marxism", is generally known as the Frankfurt School conspiracy theory by academics.[60] The theory originated with Michael Minnicino's 1992 essay "New Dark Age: Frankfurt School and 'Political Correctness'", published in a Lyndon LaRouche movement journal.[61] In 2001, conservative commentator Patrick Buchanan wrote in The Death of the West that "political correctness is cultural Marxism", and that "its trademark is intolerance".[62]

Media

In the US, the term has been widely used in books and journals, but in Britain, usage has been confined mainly to the popular press.[63] Many such authors and popular-media figures, particularly on the right, have used the term to criticize what they see as bias in the media.[6][20] William McGowan argues that journalists get stories wrong or ignore stories worthy of coverage, because of what McGowan perceives to be their liberal ideologies and their fear of offending minority groups.[64] Robert Novak, in his essay "Political Correctness Has No Place in the Newsroom", used the term to blame newspapers for adopting language use policies that he thinks tend to excessively avoid the appearance of bias. He argued that political correctness in language not only destroys meaning but also demeans the people who are meant to be protected.[65] Authors David Sloan and Emily Hoff claim that in the US, journalists shrug off concerns about political correctness in the newsroom, equating the political correctness criticisms with the old "liberal media bias" label.[66]

Satirical use

Political correctness is often satirized, for example in The PC Manifesto (1992) by Saul Jerushalmy and Rens Zbignieuw X,[67] and Politically Correct Bedtime Stories (1994) by James Finn Garner, which presents fairy tales re-written from an exaggerated politically correct perspective. In 1994, the comedy film PCU took a look at political correctness on a college campus.

Other examples include the television program Politically Incorrect, George Carlin’s "Euphemisms" routine, and The Politically Correct Scrapbook.[68] The popularity of the South Park cartoon program led to the creation of the term "South Park Republican" by Andrew Sullivan, and later the book South Park Conservatives by Brian C. Anderson.[69] In its Season 19 (2015), South Park introduced the character PC Principal, who embodies the principle, to poke fun at the principle of political correctness.[70]

The Colbert Report's host Stephen Colbert often talked, satirically, about the "PC Police".[71]

Science

Groups who oppose certain generally accepted scientific views about evolution, second-hand tobacco smoke, AIDS, global warming, race, and other politically contentious scientific matters have used the term "political correctness" to describe what they view as unwarranted rejection of their perspective on these issues by a scientific community they feel is corrupted by liberal politics.[72]

Usage in selected regions

Canada

Graham Good, an academic at the University of British Columbia, wrote that the term was widely used in debates on university education in Canada. Writing about a 1995 report on the Political Science department at his university, he concluded: "'Political correctness' has become a popular phrase because it catches a certain kind of self-righteous and judgmental tone in some and a pervasive anxiety in others – who, fearing that they may do something wrong, adjust their facial expressions, and pause in their speech to make sure they are not doing or saying anything inappropriate. The climate this has created on campuses is at least as bad in Canada as in the United States."[73]

Hong Kong

In Hong Kong, as the 1997 handover drew nearer, greater control over the press was exercised by both owners and the Chinese state. This had a direct impact on news coverage of relatively sensitive political issues. The Chinese authorities exerted pressure on individual newspapers to take pro-Beijing stances on controversial issues.[74] Tung Chee-hwa's policy advisers and senior bureaucrats increasingly linked their actions and remarks to "political correctness." Zhaojia Liu and Siu-kai Lau, writing in The first Tung Chee-hwa administration : the first five years of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, said that "Hong Kong has traditionally been characterized as having freedom of speech and freedom of press, but that an unintended consequence of emphasizing political 'correctness' is to limit the space for such freedom of expression."[75]

New Zealand

In New Zealand, controversies over PC surfaced during the 1990s regarding the social studies school curriculum.[76][77]

United States

Conservative political correctness

"Political correctness" is a label typically used to describe liberal terms and actions, but not for equivalent attempts to mold language and behavior on the right.[78] However, the term "right-wing political correctness" is sometimes applied by commentators,[79] especially when drawing parallels: in 1995, one author used the term "conservative correctness" arguing, in relation to higher education, that "critics of political correctness show a curious blindness when it comes to examples of conservative correctness. Most often, the case is entirely ignored or censorship of the Left is justified as a positive virtue. [...] A balanced perspective was lost, and everyone missed the fact that people on all sides were sometimes censored."[25]

In 2003, french fries and french toast were renamed "freedom fries" and "freedom toast" in three U.S. House of Representatives cafeterias in response to France's opposition to the proposed invasion of Iraq; this was described as "polluting the already confused concept of political correctness."[80] In 2004, then Australian Labor leader Mark Latham described conservative calls for "civility" in politics as "the new political correctness."[81]

In 2012, Paul Krugman wrote: "the big threat to our discourse is right-wing political correctness, which – unlike the liberal version – has lots of power and money behind it. And the goal is very much the kind of thing Orwell tried to convey with his notion of Newspeak: to make it impossible to talk, and possibly even think, about ideas that challenge the established order."[27]

After Mike Pence was booed at a November 2016 performance of Hamilton, president-elect Trump called it harassment and asked for a "safe and special place".[82] Chrissy Teigen commented that it was "the very thing him and his supporters make fun of as liberal political correctness."[83]

Alex Nowrasteh of the Cato Institute defined the right's own version of political correctness as "patriotic correctness".[84] Vox editor Dara Lind summarized the definition as "a brand of right-wing hypersensitivity that gets just as offended by insults to American pride and patriotism (like protests against the president-elect or "The Star-Spangled Banner") as any college activist gets over insults to diversity."[85] Jim Geraghty of National Review replied to Nowrasteh, stating that "There is no right-wing equivalent to political correctness."[86]

2016 US presidential election

In 2015 and 2016, leading up to the 2016 United States presidential election, Republican candidate Donald Trump used political correctness as a common target in his rhetoric.[85][87][24] According to Trump, Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton were willing to let ordinary Americans suffer because their first priority was political correctness.[88]

In the Huffington Post, Eric Mink characterized Trump's concept of "political correctness":

Political correctness is a controversial social force in a nation with a constitutional guarantee of freedom of expression, and it raises legitimate issues well worth discussing and debating. But that’s not what Trump is doing. He’s not a rebel speaking unpopular truths to power. He’s not standing up for honest discussions of deeply contentious issues. He’s not out there defying rules handed down by elites to control what we say. All Trump’s defying is common decency.[24]

Following the 2016 election, Los Angeles Times columnist Jessica Roy wrote that "political correctness" is one of the key terms used by the American alt-right, who refer to it as being "responsible for most of society's ills".[89]

False accusations

Left forces of "political correctness" have been blamed for censorship, with Time citing campaigns against violence on network television in the US as contributing to a "mainstream culture [which] has become cautious, sanitized, scared of its own shadow" because of "the watchful eye of the p.c. police", even though in John Wilson's view protests and advertiser boycotts targeting TV shows are generally organized by right-wing religious groups campaigning against violence, sex, and depictions of homosexuality on television.[90]

In the United Kingdom, some newspapers reported that a nursery school had altered the nursery rhyme "Baa Baa Black Sheep" to read "Baa Baa Rainbow Sheep" and had banned the original.[91] But it was later reported that in fact the Parents and Children Together (PACT) nursery had the children "turn the song into an action rhyme.... They sing happy, sad, bouncing, hopping, pink, blue, black and white sheep etc."[92] This story was widely circulated and later extended to suggest that other language bans applied to the terms "black coffee" and "blackboard".[93] Private Eye magazine reported that similar stories had been published in the British press since The Sun first ran them in 1986.[94]

See also

References

  1. ^ For definitions see:
    • "'politically correct' definition". Cambridge English Dictionary. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
    • "Definition of political correctness in English". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
    • "'Politically Correct' definition". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  2. ^ a b Gibson, Caitlin (13 January 2016). "How 'politically correct' went from compliment to insult". The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  3. ^ a b c d Kohl, Herbert (1992). "Uncommon Differences: On Political Correctness, Core Curriculum and Democracy in Education". The Lion and the Unicorn. 16 (1): 1–16. doi:10.1353/uni.0.0216. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  4. ^ Florence, Joshua (30 October 2015). "A Phrase in Flux: The History of Political Correctness". Harvard Political Review. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  5. ^ Chow, Kat (14 December 2016). "'Politically Correct': The Phrase Has Gone From Wisdom To Weapon". National Public Radio (NPR). Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  6. ^ a b c Friedman, Marilyn; Narveson, Jan (1995). Political correctness : for and against. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0847679867. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Schultz, Debra L. (1993). To Reclaim a Legacy of Diversity: Analyzing the 'Political Correctness' Debates in Higher Education (PDF). National Council for Research on Women. New York. ISBN 978-1880547137.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Whitney, D. Charles & Wartella, Ellen (1992). "Media Coverage of the "Political Correctness" Debate". Journal of Communication. 42 (2): 83. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.1992.tb00780.x.
  9. ^ a b c d Roberts, Peter (1997). "Paulo Freire and political correctness". Educational Philosophy and Theory: Incorporating ACCESS. 29 (2): 83–101. doi:10.1111/j.1469-5812.1997.tb00022.x.
  10. ^ Duignan, Peter; Gann, L.H. (1995). Political correctness. Stanford, [Calif.]: Hoover InstitutionStanford University. ISBN 978-0817937430. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
  11. ^ a b Hughes, Geoffrey (2011). "Origins of the Phrase". Political Correctness: A History of Semantics and Culture. John Wiley & Sons. "1975 – Peter Fuller". ISBN 978-1444360295.
  12. ^ a b Bernstein, Richard (28 October 1990). "Ideas & Trends: The Rising Hegemony of the Politically Correct". The New York Times.
  13. ^ a b McFadden, Robert D. (5 May 1991). "Political Correctness: New Bias Test?". The New York Times.
  14. ^ a b Berman, edited by Paul (1992). Debating P.C. : the controversy over political correctness on college campuses. p. Introduction. ISBN 978-0307801784.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  15. ^ Heteren, Annette Gomis van (1997). Political correctness in context : the PC controversy in America. Almería: Universidad de Almería, Servicio de Publicaciones. p. 148. ISBN 978-8482400839.
  16. ^ a b Smith, Dorothy E. (1999). Writing the social : critique, theory, and investigations (Repr. ed.). Toronto (Ont.): University of Toronto Press. p. 175. ISBN 978-0802081353. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
  17. ^ a b Schwartz, Howard S. (1997). "Psychodynamics of Political Correctness". Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. 33 (2): 133–49. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
  18. ^ a b Bellow, Allan Bloom ; foreword by Saul (1988). The closing of the American mind (1st Touchstone ed.). New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0671657154.
  19. ^ a b Robinson, Sally (2000). Marked men white masculinity in crisis. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 17, 55–86. ISBN 978-0231500364.
  20. ^ a b c d e f Wilson, John. 1995. The Myth of Political Correctness: The Conservative Attack on High Education. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. p. 26.
  21. ^ a b Kimball, Roger (1990). Tenured radicals : how politics has corrupted our higher education (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Row – Originally The University of Michigan. ISBN 978-0060161903.
  22. ^ D'Souza, Dinesh (1991). Illiberal education : the politics of race and sex on campus. New York: Free Press. ISBN 978-0684863849. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  23. ^ a b Messer-Davidow, Ellen (1995). "Manufacturing the Attack on Liberalized Higher Education: The Humanities and Society in the 1990s".
  24. ^ a b c Mink, Eric (2016-10-06). "Trump's Political-Correctness Con Job". Huffington Post. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  25. ^ a b "Conservative Correctness" chapter, in Wilson, John. 1995. The Myth of Political Correctness: The Conservative Attack on Higher Education. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. p. 57.
  26. ^ "Don Williams comments – Dixie Chicks Were Right". mach2.com. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
  27. ^ a b Krugman, Paul (26 May 2012). "The New Political Correctness". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
  28. ^ Kaufman, Scott Barry (20 November 2016). "The Personality of Political Correctness; The idea of political correctness is central to the culture wars of American politics". blogs.scientificamerican.com. Scientific American. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
  29. ^ Associate Justice James Wilson, of the U.S. Supreme Court comments: "The states, rather than the People, for whose sakes the States exist, are frequently the objects which attract and arrest our principal attention... Sentiments and expressions of this inaccurate kind prevail in our common, even in our convivial, language. Is a toast asked? 'The United States', instead of the 'People of the United States', is the toast given. This is not politically correct." Chisholm v. Georgia, 2 U.S. (2 Dall.) 419 (1793) Findlaw.com – Accessed 6 February 2007.
  30. ^ For two examples see:
    • "(London) Courier". (London) Courier. Middlesex: newspaperarchive.com. 18 August 1804. p. 2. In your paper on Monday [...] you offered some observations to your readers which were evidently well-meant though they were not politically correct
    • "Australian Mail And New Zealand Express". Australian Mail And New Zealand Express. 15 June 1861. Retrieved 29 November 2015. For to call it " a new colony " is only politically correct – the stress should be laid on the word "colony".
  31. ^ Safire, William (2008). Safire's political dictionary (Rev. ed.). New York [u.a.]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195343342.
  32. ^ a b c Ruth Perry, (1992), "A Short History of the Term 'Politically Correct'", in Beyond PC: Toward a Politics of Understanding, by Patricia Aufderheide, 1992, ISBN 978-1555971649
  33. ^ Schultz citing Perry (1992) p. 16
  34. ^ Bleifuss, Joel (February 2007). "A Politically Correct Lexicon". In These Times.
  35. ^ Willis, Ellen. "Toward a Feminist Revolution", in No More Nice Girls: Countercultural Essays (1992) Wesleyan University Press, ISBN 081955250X, p. 19.
  36. ^ Hall, Stuart (1994). "Some 'Politically Incorrect' Pathways Through PC" (PDF). S. Dunant (ed.) The War of the Words: The Political Correctness Debate. pp. 164–84.
  37. ^ Kamiya, Gary (22 January 1995). "Civilization & Its Discontents". San Francisco Chronicle Magazine. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
  38. ^ a b Williams, Jeffrey (2013). PC Wars: Politics and Theory in the Academy. Routledge. p. 11. ISBN 978-1136656231. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  39. ^ Gamson, Z.F. (1997). "The Stratification of the Academy". Academic Labor – Duke University Press. 51 (51): 67–73. doi:10.2307/466647. JSTOR 466647.
  40. ^ Platt, Tony. "Desegregating Multiculturalism: Problems in the Theory and Pedagogy of Diversity Education" (PDF). Pedagogies for Social Change. 29 (4 (90)). Retrieved 28 October 2015 – via Social Justice.
  41. ^ a b Valdes, Francisco; Culp, Jerome McCristal; Harris, Angela P., eds. (2002). Crossroads, directions, and a new critical race theory. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. pp. 59, 65. ISBN 978-1566399302.
  42. ^ Browne, Anthony (2006). "The Retreat of Reason: Political Correctness and the Corruption of Public Debate in Modern Britain Archived 3 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine". Civitas. ISBN 1903386500.
  43. ^ Cho, Sumi (1997). "Essential Politics". Harvard Law Review. 433.
  44. ^ D'Souza 1991
  45. ^ Berman 1992
  46. ^ Schultz 1993
  47. ^ Messer Davidow 1993, 1994
  48. ^ Scatamburlo 1998
  49. ^ See:
  50. ^ In The New York Times newspaper article "The Rising Hegemony of the Politically Correct", the reporter Richard Bernstein said that:

    The term "politically correct", with its suggestion of Stalinist orthodoxy, is spoken more with irony and disapproval than with reverence. But, across the country the term "P.C.", as it is commonly abbreviated, is being heard more and more in debates over what should be taught at the universities.

    — The Rising Hegemony of the Politically Correct, NYT (28 October 1990) Bernstein, Richard (28 October 1990). "Ideas & Trends: The Rising Hegemony of the Politically Correct". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
    Bernstein also reported about a meeting of the Western Humanities Conference in Berkeley, California, on the subject of "Political Correctness" and Cultural Studies that examined "what effect the pressure to conform to currently fashionable ideas is having on scholarship". Western Humanities Conference Archived 15 December 2012 at Archive.today
  51. ^ For commentary see:
    • Lauter, Paul (1993). "'Political Correctness' and the Attack on American Colleges".
    • Stimpson, Catharine R. (29 May 1991). "New 'Politically Correct' Metaphors Insult History and Our Campuses".
    • James, Axtell (1998). The Pleasures of Academe: A Celebration & Defense of Higher Education.
    • Scatamburlo, Valerie L. (1998). Soldiers of Misfortune: The New Right's Culture War and the Politics of Political Correctness.
    • Glassner, Barry (5 January 2010). The Culture of Fear: Why Americans Are Afraid of the Wrong Things: Crime, Drugs, Minorities, Teen Moms, Killer Kids, Mutant Microbes, Plane Crashes, Road Rage, & So Much More.
  52. ^ Tomlinson, Sally (2008). Race and education : policy and politics in Britain ([Online-Ausg.]. ed.). Maidenhead [u.a]: Open University Press. p. 161. ISBN 978-0335223077.
  53. ^ Dekker, Teun J. (2013). Paying Our High Public Officials: Evaluating the Political Justifications of Top Wages in the Public Sector. Research in Public Administration and Public Policy. Routledge. p. 119. ISBN 978-1135131265.
  54. ^ For Polly Toynbee see:
  55. ^ Regarding Will Hutton see:
  56. ^ Loury, G. C. (1 October 1994). "Self-Censorship in Public Discourse: A Theory of "Political Correctness" and Related Phenomena" (PDF). Rationality and Society. 6 (4): 428–61. doi:10.1177/1043463194006004002. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 November 2015. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  57. ^ Kors, A. C.; Silverglate, H (November 1998). "Codes of silence – who's silencing free speech on campus – and why". Reason Magazine. Archived from the original on 3 August 2004. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
  58. ^ Leo, John (Winter 2007). "Free Inquiry? Not on Campus". City Journal. Manhattan Institute for Policy Research. Retrieved 25 March 2008.
  59. ^ Hess, Frederick M.; Maranto, Robert; Redding, Richard E. (2009). The politically correct university : problems, scope, and reforms. Washington, D.C.: AEI Press. ISBN 978-0844743172.
  60. ^ For Cultural Marxism, see:
  61. ^ Jay, Martin (2010), "Dialectic of Counter-Enlightenment: The Frankfurt School as Scapegoat of the Lunatic Fringe". Salmagundi (Fall 2010–Winter 2011, 168–69): 30–40.
  62. ^ Buchanan, Patrick. The Death of the West, p. 89.
  63. ^ Lea, John (2010). Political Correctness and Higher Education: British and American Perspectives. Routledge. ISBN 978-1135895884. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  64. ^ McGowan, William (2003). Coloring the news : how political correctness has corrupted American journalism ([New postscript]. ed.). San Francisco, Calif.: Encounter Books. ISBN 978-1893554603.
  65. ^ See:
  66. ^ Sloan, David; Hoff, Emily (1998). Contemporary media issues. Northport: Vision Press, Indiana University. p. 63. ISBN 978-1885219107. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  67. ^ "TidBits: The PC Manifesto". Fiction.net. Retrieved 1 June 2009.
  68. ^ "Book – Buy Now". Capc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 30 May 2009. Retrieved 1 June 2009.
  69. ^ Anderson, Brian C. (Autumn 2003). "We're Not Losing the Culture Wars Anymore". City Journal. Manhattan Institute for Policy Research. Retrieved 9 November 2007.
  70. ^ For South Park's usage see:
  71. ^ For Colbert's usage see:
  72. ^ Bethell, Tom (2005). The Politically Incorrect Guide to Science. Washington, D.C: Regnery Publishing. ISBN 978-0895260314.
  73. ^ Good, Graham (2001). Humanism Betrayed: Theory, Ideology and Culture in the Contemporary University. McGill-Queen's Press – MQUP. p. 9. ISBN 9780773521872.
  74. ^ For information on Hong Kong see:
  75. ^ Siu-kai, Lau, ed. (2002). The first Tung Chee-hwa administration : the first five years of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press. p. 298. ISBN 978-9629960155. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  76. ^ Hunter, Philippa and Keown, Paul. "The New Zealand social studies curriculum struggle 1993–1997: An 'insider' analysis." Waikato Journal of Education (2001) 7:55–72
  77. ^ Openshaw, R. (1998). Benson, P.; Openshaw, R., eds. "Citizen who? The debate over economic and political correctness in the social studies curriculum". New Horizons for New Zealand Social Studies. Palmerston North: ERDC Press.
  78. ^ Adams, Joshua (12 June 2017). "Time for equal media treatment of 'political correctness'". Columbia Journalism Review. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  79. ^ For commentators see:
  80. ^ Regarding the fries and toast, see:
  81. ^ Latham, Mark (26 August 2002). "The New Political Correctness: Speech By Mark Latham". AustralianPolitics.com. Retrieved 1 June 2009.
  82. ^ Regarding Pence and Trump see:
  83. ^ For Chrissy Teigen see:
  84. ^ Nowrasteh, Alex (7 December 2016). "The right has its own version of political correctness. It's just as stifling". The Washington Post. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  85. ^ a b Lind, Dara (21 November 2016). "Donald Trump's feud with the cast of Hamilton, explained". Vox. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  86. ^ Geraghty, Jim (12 December 2016). "There Is No Right-Wing Equivalent to Political Correctness". National Review. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  87. ^ Swaim, Barton. "Donald Trump tries to kill political correctness – and ends up saving it". The Washington Post. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  88. ^ Weigel, Moira (30 November 2016). "Political correctness: how the right invented a phantom enemy". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  89. ^ Roy, Jessica (16 November 2016). "Analysis 'Cuck,' 'snowflake,' 'masculinist': A guide to the language of the 'alt-right'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 1 January 2017. Political correctness: Anything that challenges an alt-right person's right to say whatever they want, whenever they want, in any way they want to say it. According to the alt-right, political correctness is responsible for most of society's ills, including feminism, Islamic terrorism and overly liberal college campuses.
  90. ^ Wilson, John. 1995. The Myth of Political Correctness: The Conservative Attack on High Education. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. p. 7 ISBN 978-0822317135.
  91. ^ Blair, Alexandra (7 March 2006). "Why black sheep are barred and Humpty can't be cracked". The Times. London. Retrieved 5 October 2007.
  92. ^ "Nursery opts for 'rainbow' sheep". BBC News. 7 March 2006. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  93. ^ "Teen Ink – Bah, Bah, Rainbow Sheep". Archived from the original on 27 December 2007. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
  94. ^ "Obsolete: Baa Baa Rainbow Bollocks". septicisle.info. Retrieved 6 October 2007.

Further reading

External links

Carl Benjamin

Carl Benjamin (born c. 1979) is a British YouTuber, political commentator, anti-feminist and polemicist better known by his online alias Sargon of Akkad. Benjamin grew to prominence through the Gamergate controversy. Since Gamergate he has covered topics such as identity politics, the alt-right, Brexit, and political correctness.

Cisgender

Cisgender (sometimes cissexual, often abbreviated to simply cis) is a term for people whose gender identity matches the sex that they were assigned at birth. Someone who identifies as a woman and was assigned female at birth is, for example, a cisgender woman. The term cisgender is the opposite of the word transgender..

Related terms include cissexism and cisnormativity.

Diversity (politics)

In sociology and political studies, diversity is the degree of differences in identifying features among the members of a purposefully defined group, such as any group differences in racial or ethnic classifications, age, gender, religion, philosophy, physical abilities, socioeconomic background, sexual orientation, gender identity, intelligence, mental health, physical health, genetic attributes, personality, behavior or attractiveness.

When measuring human diversity, a diversity index exemplifies the likelihood that two randomly selected residents have different ethnicities. If all residents are of the same ethnic group it's zero by definition. If half are from one group and half from another, it is .50. The diversity index does not take into account the willingness of individuals to cooperate with those of other ethnicities.

Elephant in the room

"Elephant in the room" is an American English metaphorical idiom for an obvious problem or risk that no one wants to discuss.It is based on the idea/thought that something as conspicuous as an elephant can appear to be overlooked in codified social interactions, and that the sociology/psychology of repression also operates on the macro scale.

Euphemism

A euphemism is an innocuous word or expression used in place of one that may be found offensive or suggest something unpleasant. Some euphemisms are intended to amuse, while others use bland, inoffensive terms for concepts that the user wishes to downplay. Euphemisms may be used to mask profanity or refer to taboo topics such as disability, sex, excretion, or death in a polite way.

Freedom of thought

Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience or ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, independent of others' viewpoints.

Gender-neutral language

Gender-neutral language or gender-inclusive language is language that avoids bias towards a particular sex or social gender. In English, this includes use of nouns that are not gender-specific to refer to roles or professions, as well as avoidance of the pronouns he, him and his to refer to people of unknown or indeterminate gender. For example, the words policeman and stewardess are gender-specific job titles; the corresponding gender-neutral terms are police officer and flight attendant. Other gender-specific terms, such as actor and actress, may be replaced by the originally male term; for example, actor used regardless of gender. Some terms, such as chairman, that contain the component -man but have traditionally been used to refer to persons regardless of sex are now seen by some as gender-specific. When the gender of the person referred to is unknown or indeterminate, the third-person pronoun he may be avoided by using gender-neutral alternatives – possibilities in English include singular they, he or she, or s/he.

Generation Snowflake

Generation Snowflake, or Snowflake Generation, is a neologistic term used to characterize the millennial generation as being more prone to taking offence and having less psychological resilience than previous generations, or as being too emotionally vulnerable to cope with views that challenge their own. The term is considered derogatory. It is one of several informal examples of usage of the word snowflake to refer to people.

Ideological repression

Ideological repression refers to forceful activities against competing ideologies and philosophies.

Alan Wolfe defines ideological repression as "the attempt to manipulate people's consciousness so they accept the ruling ideology, and distrust and refuse to be moved by competing ideologies".In the early days of the Soviet Union and in other countries, ideological repression was carried out by political repression of the carriers of competing ideologies.

Instruments of ideological repression are propaganda and censorship. During the days of "Marxism-Leninism" in the Soviet Union -around the early 1930s- students of this particular school of thought were given textbooks that encouraged one particular way of thinking (the Marxist way) as being paramount and the most scientific and true school of thought.

Through ideological repression and control of output information, the Soviet Union was attempting to keep social revolutions at bay.

Jordan Peterson

Jordan Bernt Peterson (born June 12, 1962) is a Canadian clinical psychologist and a professor of psychology at the University of Toronto. His main areas of study are in abnormal, social, and personality psychology, with a particular interest in the psychology of religious and ideological belief, and the assessment and improvement of personality and performance.Peterson studied at the University of Alberta and McGill University. He remained at McGill as a post-doctoral fellow from 1991 to 1993 before moving to Harvard University, where he was an assistant and then an associate professor in the psychology department. In 1998, he moved back to Canada as a faculty member in the psychology department at the University of Toronto, where, as of 2019, he is a full professor.

Peterson's first book, Maps of Meaning: The Architecture of Belief, published in 1999, examined several academic fields to describe the structure of systems of beliefs and myths, their role in the regulation of emotion, creation of meaning, and several other topics such as motivation for genocide. His second book, 12 Rules for Life: An Antidote to Chaos, was released in January 2018.In 2016 Peterson released a series of YouTube videos criticizing political correctness and the Canadian government's Bill C-16. The act added gender identity as a prohibited ground of discrimination, which Peterson characterised as an introduction of compelled speech into law. He subsequently received significant media coverage, attracting both support and criticism. Peterson is associated with the "Intellectual Dark Web".

Owen Benjamin

Owen Benjamin (born May 24, 1980) is an American comedian, pianist, and actor from Fulton, New York.

Politically Correct Bedtime Stories

Politically Correct Bedtime Stories: Modern Tales for Our Life and Times is a 1994 book written by American writer James Finn Garner, in which Garner satirizes the trend toward political correctness and censorship of children's literature, with an emphasis on humour and parody. The bulk of the book consists of fairy tales such as Little Red Riding Hood, the Three Little Pigs and Snow White, rewritten so that they supposedly represent what a "politically correct" adult would consider a good and moral tale for children.

The revisions include extensive usage of politically correct buzzwords (and parodies thereof), deliberately stiff moralizing dialogue and narration, inclusion of modern concepts and objects (such as health spas, mineral water, and automobiles), and often feature a plot twist that reverses the roles of the heroes and villains of the story (for example, the woodsman in Little Red Riding Hood is seen by Red Riding Hood not as a heroic saviour but as a "sexist" and "speciesist" interloper, and Snow White's evil stepmother ends up with a positive portrayal while the prince and the seven dwarves are portrayed as chauvinistic).

Politically Correct Bedtime Stories was Garner's first published book (or, in the words of his similarly satirical biography blurb from the book, "his first processed tree carcass"). More than 2.5 million copies have been sold in the United States and it has since been translated into 20 languages. Garner wrote two follow-up books: Once upon a More Enlightened Time: More Politically Correct Bedtime Stories and Politically Correct Holiday Stories: For an Enlightened Yuletide Season, the latter book satirizing political correctness during the Christmas holiday season. In 1998, the three books were compiled into an omnibus collection called Politically Correct: The Ultimate Storybook. All editions of the Politically Correct titles are currently out of print.

Quadrant (magazine)

Quadrant is an Australian literary and cultural journal. Quadrant reviews literature, as well as featuring essays on ideas and topics such as politics, history, universities, and the arts. It also publishes poetry and short stories.

Snowflake (slang)

Snowflake is a 2010s derogatory slang term for a person, implying that they have an inflated sense of uniqueness, an unwarranted sense of entitlement, or are over-emotional, easily offended, and unable to deal with opposing opinions. Common usages include the terms special snowflake, Generation Snowflake, and snowflake as a politicized insult. Broflake is a related term which the Oxford dictionary defines as "a man who is readily upset or offended by progressive attitudes that conflict with his more conventional or conservative views"; however, its usage is not limited to men and might apply more generally to those who claim to not be easily offended–yet often are.

Social justice warrior

Social justice warrior (SJW) is a pejorative term for an individual who promotes socially progressive views, including feminism, civil rights, and multiculturalism, as well as identity politics. The accusation that somebody is an SJW carries implications that they are pursuing personal validation rather than any deep-seated conviction, and engaging in disingenuous arguments.The phrase originated in the late 20th century as a neutral or positive term for people engaged in social justice activism. In 2011, when the term first appeared on Twitter, it changed from a primarily positive term to an overwhelmingly negative one. During the Gamergate controversy, the negative connotation gained increased use, and was particularly aimed at those espousing views adhering to social liberalism, cultural inclusivity, or feminism, as well as views deemed to be politically correct.The term has entered popular culture, including a parody role-playing video game, Social Justice Warriors, released in 2014.

South Park (season 19)

The nineteenth season of the American animated sitcom South Park premiered on Comedy Central on September 16, 2015, and ended on December 9, 2015, containing ten episodes. As with most seasons of the show, all episodes are written and directed by series co-creator and co-star Trey Parker. The Blu-Ray and DVD sets were released exclusively to Best Buy on August 16, 2016, and were available worldwide on September 6.Much like the previous season, this season features an episode-to-episode continuity, (which the creators called 'serialized lite') with political correctness as a recurring theme. This season introduced PC Principal as a new major character, replacing South Park Elementary's previous principal, Principal Victoria.

This season featured planned "dark weeks", weeks where no new episodes aired. These were after episode three, episode six, and episode eight.

Stunning and Brave

"Stunning and Brave" is the first episode in the nineteenth season of the American animated television series South Park. The 258th episode overall, it was written and directed by series co-creator Trey Parker. The episode aired on Comedy Central on September 16, 2015. The episode primarily parodies political correctness within society with a focus on the acceptance and praise of Caitlyn Jenner. The episode also lampoons Tom Brady and the Deflategate scandal.

The Problem with a Poo

"The Problem with a Poo" is the third episode of the twenty-second season of the American animated television series South Park. The 290th overall episode of the series, it aired on Comedy Central in the United States on October 10, 2018.

The episode explores modern political correctness as the people of South Park turn against longtime recurring character Mr. Hankey, and Vice Principal Strong Woman and PC Principal deal with the fallout from their fling at the end of the previous season. These themes are also seen in the episode's references to the documentary The Problem with Apu, the cancellation of Roseanne after controversial tweets by the show's eponymous actress, and the confirmation hearings of Supreme Court Justice Brett Kavanaugh.

Thoughtcrime

A thoughtcrime is an Orwellian neologism used to describe an illegal thought. The term was popularized in the dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four by George Orwell, first published in 1949, wherein thoughtcrime is the criminal act of holding unspoken beliefs or doubts that oppose or question Ingsoc, the ruling party. In the book, the government attempts to control not only the speech and actions, but also the thoughts of its subjects. To entertain unacceptable thoughts is known as crimethink (or wrongthink) in Newspeak, the ideologically purified dialect of the party. Crimestop is a way to avoid crimethink by immediately purging dangerous thoughts from the mind.

The term has been adopted into the English language to describe beliefs contrary to accepted norms and has retrospectively been used to describe some theological concepts such as disbelief or idolatry, or a rejection of strong philosophical or social principles.

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