The Polish Navy (Polish: Marynarka Wojenna, "War Navy") is a military branch of the Polish Armed Forces responsible for naval operations. The Polish Navy consists of 48 ships and about 12,000 commissioned and enlisted personnel. The traditional ship prefix in the Polish Navy is ORP (Okręt Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, "Warship of the Republic of Poland").
Polish Navy's Eagle
|Active||24 March 1568 (Sea Commission)|
1626 (Commission of Royal Ships)
1918 (Polish Navy)
|Size||12,600 military (2016) |
|Part of||Polish Armed Forces|
|Engagements||Standing NRF Maritime Group 1|
War in Iraq
|Commander||Admiral Tomasz Mathea|
|Chief of Staff||Vice Admiral Ryszard Demczuk|
The Polish Navy has its roots in naval vessels that were largely used on Poland's main rivers in defense of trade and commerce. During the Thirteen Years' War (1454–66), this small force of inland ships for the first time saw real open sea combat. At the battle of Vistula Lagoon, a Polish privateer fleet defeated the Teutonic Knights Navy and secured permanent access to the Baltic Sea. The Second Peace of Thorn (1466) acquired for Poland the strategic naval city of Danzig (Gdańsk), and with it the means of maintaining a large fleet on the Baltic. In 1561, following a victory over Russian Naval forces in the Baltic, the Polish Navy acquired a second key port at Riga, in modern-day Latvia.
At that time, as the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania became involved in conflicts in Livonia, Polish king Sigismund II Augustus organized a Sea Commission (Komisja Morska) operating in the years 1568–1572 and supported the operations of privateers, but that met with opposition of the Poland's primary port, Gdańsk (Danzig), which saw them as a threat to its trade operations (see Hanseatic League). This led to the development of a privateer port in Puck. Around the start of the 17th century, Poland became ruled by the House of Vasa, and was involved in a series of wars with Sweden (see also dominium maris baltici). Vasa kings attempted to create a proper fleet, but their attempts met with repeated failures, due to lack of funds in the royal treasury (Polish nobility saw little need for the fleet and refused to raise taxes for its construction, and Gdańsk continued its opposition to the idea of a royal fleet). During the reign of Sigismund III of Poland, the most celebrated victory of the Commonwealth Navy took place at the Battle of Oliwa in 1627 against Sweden, during the Polish–Swedish War. The victory over Sweden fleet secured for Poland permanent access to the Atlantic, and laid the foundations for expeditions beyond Europe. The plans for the independent fleet fell through shortly afterwards due to a badly executed alliance with the Habsburgs who in 1629 took over the fleet.
The Commission of Royal Ships (Komisja Okrętów Królewskich) was created in 1625. This commission, along with the ultimate allocation of funds by the Sejm in 1637, created a permanent Commonwealth Navy. Władysław IV Vasa, Sigismund's son and successor who took the throne in 1632, purchased 12 ships and built a dedicated port for the royal navy called Władysławowo. The Fleet, however, was entirely destroyed in 1637 by Denmark, without a declaration of war. Support for this navy was weak and it largely withered away by the 1640s; the remaining ships were sold in the years 1641–1643, which marked the end of the Commonwealth Navy. A small privateer navy was also created by Augustus II the Strong in 1700 during the Great Northern War. The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, though the dominant force in Central and Eastern Europe during the 16th–18th centuries, never developed its navy to its full potential. The proportionally small Polish coastline and the limited access to the Atlantic never allowed for a massive buildup of naval forces to the level of colonial powers such as England and France. The Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century brought an end to the independent Polish Navy.
Following World War I, the Second Polish Republic on 28 November 1918, by the order of Józef Piłsudski, commander of the Armed Forces of Poland, founded the modern Polish Navy. The token naval force was placed under the command of Captain Bogumił Nowotny as its first chief. The first ships were acquired from a division of the Imperial German Navy (because of Great Britain's politics, it was very small part, limited to six torpedo boats).
In the 1920s and 1930s the Polish Navy underwent a modernisation program under the leadership of Vice-Admiral Jerzy Świrski (Chief of Naval Staff) and Rear-Admiral Józef Unrug (CO of the Fleet). A number of modern ships were built in France, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Despite ambitious plans (including 2 cruisers and 12 destroyers), the budgetary limitations placed on the government by the Great Depression never allowed the navy to expand beyond a small Baltic force. The building of one submarine, ORP Orzeł, was partly funded by a public collection. One of main goals of the Polish Navy was to protect the Polish coast against the Soviet Baltic Fleet, therefore it put emphasis on fast submarines, large and heavily armed destroyers and mine warfare. By September 1939 the Polish Navy consisted of 5 submarines, 4 destroyers, big minelayer and various smaller support vessels and mine-warfare ships. This force was no match for the larger Kriegsmarine, and so a strategy of harassment and indirect engagement was implemented.
The outbreak of World War II caught the Polish Navy in a state of expansion. Lacking numerical superiority, Polish Naval commanders decided to withdraw main surface ships to Great Britain to join the Allied war effort and prevent them from being destroyed in a closed Baltic (the Peking Plan). On 30 August 1939, 3 destroyers (ORP Błyskawica, ORP Grom, and ORP Burza) sailed to the British naval base at Leith in Scotland. They then operated in combination with Royal Navy vessels against Germany. Also two submarines managed to flee from the Baltic Sea through the Danish straits to Great Britain during the Polish September Campaign (one of them, ORP Orzeł, made a daring escape from internment in Tallinn, Estonia, and traveled without maps). Three submarines were interned in Sweden, while remaining surface vessels were sunk by German aircraft.
During the war the Polish Navy in exile was supplemented with leased British ships, including two cruisers, seven destroyers, three submarines, and a number of smaller fast-attack vessels. The Polish Navy fought alongside the Allied navies in Norway, the North Sea, the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, and aided in the escort of Atlantic and Arctic convoys, in which ORP Orkan was lost in 1943. Polish naval vessels played a part in the sinking of the German battleship Bismarck, and in the landings in Normandy during D-Day. During the course of the war, one cruiser, four destroyers, one minelayer, one torpedo boat, two submarines and some smaller vessels (gunboats, mine hunters etc.) were sunk; in total, twenty-six ships were lost, mostly in September 1939. In addition to participating in the sinking of Bismarck, the Polish Navy sank an enemy destroyer and six other surface ships, two submarines and a number of merchant vessels.
After World War II, on 7 July 1945, the new Soviet-imposed Communist government revived the Polish Navy with headquarters in Gdynia. During the Communist period, Poland's navy experienced a great buildup, including the development of a separate amphibious force of Polish Marines. The Navy also acquired a number of Soviet-made ships, including 2 destroyers, 2 missile destroyers, 13 submarines and 17 missile boats. Among them was a Kilo-class submarine, ORP Orzeł and a modified Kashin-class missile destroyer, (ORP Warszawa). Polish shipyards produced mostly landing craft, minesweepers and auxiliary vessels. The primary role of the Warsaw Pact Polish Navy was to be Baltic Sea control, as well as amphibious operations along the entire Baltic coastline against NATO forces in Denmark and West Germany. The collapse of the Soviet Union, the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact, and the fall of Communism ended this stance.
Poland's entrance into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization has greatly changed the structure and role of the Polish Navy. Whereas before, most of Naval High Command was concerned with coastal defense and Baltic Sea Operations, the current mindset is for integration with international naval operations. The focus is on expansion of subsurface naval capabilities, and in the creation of a large submarine force. To facilitate these changes the Republic of Poland has undertaken a number of modernization programs aimed at creating a force capable of power projection around the world. This includes a number of foreign acquisitions, including the acquisition of four Kobben-class submarines from Norway, and two Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates from the United States. The Polish Navy has also one Kilo-class submarine (ORP Orzeł). The Naval air arm has also acquired a number of SH-2G Super Seasprite helicopters. Highly appreciated is a naval commando unit Formoza (since 2007 part of the Wojska Specjalne).
The Polish Navy has taken part in numerous joint force operations. In 1999 the naval base at Gdynia became the home base of all NATO submarine forces in the Baltic, codenamed "Cooperative Poseidon". That same year joint American-Polish submarine training manoeuvres codenamed "Baltic Porpoise" for the first time utilized the port in a multinational military exercise.
The Polish Navy is undergoing a full modernization. Initially planned as a 9 billion zloty project, the budget was reduced to 5 billion zloty in 2012 which caused projects delays or cancellations over the allotted time 2010 – 2018. The latest strategy for the navy considers larger warships as unsuitable for the Baltic Sea, however one Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigate will be upgraded to extend its operation life beyond 2020. 12 new ships worth around 10 billion PLN were to be acquired before 2026. The plan was updated in 2017 for 2013–2022 period to be worth 13 billion zloty and call to acquire 22 new vessels. This include three Coastal Defence Vessel, code name Miecznik with displacement of 2600 tons, three patrol/mine countermeasure vessel, code name Czapla with 1700 tons displacement. Three new submarines are planned with delivery expected in 2024–2025. Three Kormoran 2-class minehunters are planned. Other purchases include six tugboats, two tankers, two rescue ships, one ELINT, one logistical support ship and one Joint Support Ship. However some deliveries are expected up to 2026. Meanwhile, to reduce costs, serving vessels will be upgraded and overhauled to maintain operational status. Concerns have been risen about the Polish Navy, as more vessels are being withdrawn from service without being replaced in the near future. With the increased tension in the area surrounding Poland, plans have been put in place to potentially procure up to three new submarines with cruise missile launch capability. The cruise missiles carried are planned to have an 800 km (500 mi) range.
The Polish Navy has already acquired 36 Swedish RBS15 Mk3. and 50 (50/74) Norwegian Naval Strike Missiles for vessels and coastal defence units. It is planned to reinforce the Navy's helicopter fleet with four to eight ASW/SAR units. The Gawron-class corvettes program was cancelled with the sole surviving unit to be built as a patrol vessel. On 2 July 2015 ORP Ślązak was christened during official launching ceremony, becoming the first new Polish-built Navy ship in 21 years. In June 2013 the Coastal Missile Division (NDR) equipped initially with 12 Naval Strike Missiles and two TRS-15C radars achieved initial readiness.
The main mission of the Polish Navy is the defense of Poland's territorial waters, coastline and its interests abroad. Other missions include the support of NATO allied operations, and search and rescue operations throughout the Baltic Sea. In addition, the Polish Navy supplies nearly 40 ships as part of the NATO Rapid Reaction Force, designed to be a force projection and conflict response force around the world. The Polish Navy is organized into 2 separate Flotillas and a Naval Air Brigade. Until January 1, 2014 the service had a Chief of the Navy (a three-star Admirał floty) and a Naval Command. On that date the branch-specific Land Forces, Air Forces, Naval and Special Forces Commands were disestablished and combined into two new commands. The functions of the three-star Chief of the Navy were split between two two-star officers (vice-admirals in the Polish system of military ranks) - an Inspector of the Navy under the Armed Forces General Command, responsible for manpower, materiel and combat readiness and a Commander of the Seaborne Component Command, responsible for naval operations.
|Polish name||admirał||admirał floty1||wiceadmirał||kontradmirał||komandor||komandor
|Abbreviation||adm.||adm.fl.||wadm.||kadm.||kmdr||kmdr por.||kmdr ppor.||kpt.mar.||por.mar.||ppor.mar.|
1 introduced in 2002
Currently, the Polish Navy operates 48 ships, including: 3 submarines, 2 frigates, 1 corvettes, 1 Offshore patrol vessel, 3 fast-attack craft, 20 mine destroyers, 5 mine layers, 4 salvage ships, 6 auxiliary ships and 2 training vessels. Also, the navy operates 37 naval aircraft, including 9 maritime patrol planes, 4 transport planes, 10 search air-rescue helicopters, 8 anti-submarine warfare helicopters, 2 transport helicopters and 2 utility helicopters.
|PZL M28B Bryza 1R||Poland||Maritime Patrol||M-28||9|
|PZL M28 Skytruck||Poland||Transport||M-28||4|
|Mil Mi-2||Poland||Command & Utility||Mi-2||4|
|Mil Mi-8/17||Soviet Union||Transport||Mi-17||2|
|Mil Mi-14||Soviet Union||ASW
|To be replaced by 8 ASW/SAR units.|
|SH-2G Super Seasprite||USA||ASW||SH-2G||4|
|PZL W-3 Sokół||Poland||SAR||W-3WARM
|2 W-3T upgraded to W-3WARM|
The list of naval and maritime flags of PolandList of ships of the Polish Navy
This is a list of ships of the Polish Navy from the outbreak of World War II to the present day.List of shipwrecks in September 1939
The list of shipwrecks in September 1939 includes all ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during September 1939. Most of the ships listed here were lost in connection with World War II.MT-class minesweeper
The MT class were a group of coastal minesweepers built for the Soviet Navy in the 1943-1945. The Soviet designation was Project 253L.ORP Bielik (2003)
ORP Bielik, formerly HNoMS Svenner (S309), is one of four Kobben-class submarines in service with the Polish Navy. The vessel and its sister ships were built in the period 1964–1967 by Rheinstahl Nordseewerke GmbH in Emden, West Germany for the Royal Norwegian Navy. The Kobben-class submarines were given to Poland in the 2002–2004 period after having been replaced by Ula-class submarines in Norway. Before entering active Polish service the boat was modified in Gdańsk.ORP Błyskawica
ORP Błyskawica (Lightning) is a Grom-class destroyer which served in the Polish Navy during World War II. It is the only Polish Navy ship to have been decorated with the Virtuti Militari, Poland's highest military order for gallantry, and in 2012 was given the Pro Memoria Medal. Błyskawica is preserved as a museum ship in Gdynia and is the oldest preserved destroyer in the world.
She was the second of two Grom (Thunderbolt)-class destroyers built for the Polish Navy by J. Samuel White, of Cowes, in 1935–37. The Grom class were two of the most heavily armed and fastest destroyers in World War II.ORP Dzik (P52)
ORP Dzik (Boar) was a U-class submarine built by Vickers-Armstrong at Barrow-in-Furness. She was laid down on 30 December 1941 as P-52 for the Royal Navy, but was transferred to the Polish Navy during construction. Launched on November 11, 1942, ORP Dzik was commissioned into the Polish Navy on December 12, 1942. Her name meant "Wild Boar" in Polish.
24 May 1943 Near Cape Spartivento, ORP Dzik fired a 4 torpedo salvo and damaged the Italian oil tanker Carnaro (8357 Brutto Register Tonnage). After the attack, two Italian corvettes dropped over 60 depth charges.
21 Sep 1943 ORP Dzik fired torpedoes in Bastia harbour, Corsica, France and sank the German tanker Nikolaus (6397, former Greek Nikolaou Ourania) and the German tug Kraft (333 Brutto Register Tonnage).
8 Jan 1944 ORP Dzik sank the Greek sailing vessel Eleni (200 Brutto Register Tonnage) with gunfire off Lesbos Island, Greece in position 39.37N, 25.43E.
ORP Dzik destroyed or damaged 18 surface ships both German and Italian with a total tonnage of 45,080 tons. She participated in Operation Husky, the Allied invasion of Sicily, and also engaged enemy surface ships with her 76 mm cannon three times and the crew boarded two enemy ships. The ORP Dzik earned the Jolly Roger.
In July 1946, the Polish Navy decommissioned her and returned her to the Royal Navy.
In 1947, the ship was transferred to the Royal Danish Navy. She sailed as HDMS U-1 and was later renamed to HDMS Springeren. She was returned to the Royal Navy in April 1958 and scrapped.ORP Fala
ORP Fala is a Polish patrol craft of the Project 912 class (NATO: Obluze Class). She was the first ship of a five-ship series, commissioned in 1965. Of a Polish design, they were built in Gdynia. Fala means 'the wave'.
She initially wore a number: OP-301, then: 321. Initially she served in the Border Brigade of the Polish Navy, then in 1991 she, along with the other four ships, was given to the Polish Border Guard (receiving a new livery).
After decommissioning in 1996, Fala was opened as a museum ship in Kolobrzeg, as part of the Muzeum Oręża Polskiego exhibition.ORP Generał Kazimierz Pułaski
ORP Generał Kazimierz Pułaski is one of two Oliver Hazard Perry-class guided-missile frigates of the Polish Navy. Formerly serving in the United States Navy as USS Clark, after her transfer to Poland she was named for Kazimierz Pułaski, an American Revolutionary War hero in the United States and an independence hero in Poland.
Clark was decommissioned and stricken on 15 March 2000. That same day, she was transferred to Poland. She is propelled by two General Electric LM-2500 gas turbines and two 350 horsepower (261 kW) electric drive auxiliary propulsion units.
She was renamed on 25 June 2000 in a ceremony attended by Madeleine Albright. Commander Marian Ambroziak was the first Polish Commanding Officer. Generał Kazimierz Pułaski is homeported at Gdynia (Oksywie), and has participated in numerous NATO exercises in the Baltic.ORP Generał Tadeusz Kościuszko
ORP Generał Tadeusz Kościuszko, the former USS Wadsworth (FFG-9), is one of two Oliver Hazard Perry-class guided-missile frigates in the Polish Navy. She is named for Tadeusz Kościuszko, an American Revolutionary War hero and hero of Poland's struggle for independence.
Generał Tadeusz Kościuszko is homeported in Gdynia Oksywie, and has participated in numerous NATO exercises in the Baltic Sea.ORP Gryf (1957)
ORP Gryf was a school and hospital ship of the Polish Navy, a second vessel to bear that name. She was built in German-occupied Denmark as a cargo ship in 1944, shortly before the end of World War II and initially named Irene Oldendorff. Soon after the capitulation of Germany, she was taken by the United Kingdom, passed to the Ministry of War Transport (MoWT) and renamed Empire Contees, but in 1946 it was given to the Soviet Union as part of that country's war reparations from Germany. Renamed Omsk (Омск), she served in the Soviet merchant fleet until 1947 when she was sold to Poland.
In 1950, she was acquired by the Polish Navy and rebuilt as a school and hospital ship. Initially named ORP Zetempowiec (after the Union of Polish Youth), in 1957 she was renamed Gryf after the notable WWII minelayer. In 1976 she was decommissioned and sold to the Port of Gdynia, where she served as a heating barge. Her role of a school ship was taken by a new ORP Gryf.ORP Jastrząb
ORP Jastrząb ("Hawk") was a former S-class submarine, originally of the United States Navy, in Polish service between 1941 and 1942, when she was lost to friendly fire.ORP Krakowiak (L115)
ORP Krakowiak was a British Type II Hunt-class destroyer escort, used by the Polish Navy during World War II. Initially built for the Royal Navy, it bore the name of HMS Silverton during British use.ORP Kujawiak (L72)
ORP Kujawiak was a British Type II Hunt-class destroyer escort, originally ordered as HMS Oakley.
Kujawiak was built by Vickers-Armstrongs at the company's High Walker yard on the River Tyne. Her keel was laid down on 22 November 1939 and she was launched on 30 October 1940 as HMS Oakley but on completion in June 1941 she was renamed and commissioned into the Polish Navy.
Kujawiak was sunk on 16 June 1942 after running into a mine near Malta while participating in Operation Harpoon. 13 Polish sailors died and 20 were wounded.ORP Orkan (G90)
ORP Orkan, formerly HMS Myrmidon was an M-class destroyer of the Polish Navy during World War II. The name translates as "windstorm". She was sunk by the German submarine U-378 on 8 October 1943. There were 179 dead and 44 survivors.ORP Piorun (G65)
ORP Piorun was an N-class destroyer operated by the Polish Navy in World War II. The word piorun is Polish for "Thunderbolt". Ordered by the Royal Navy in 1939, the ship was laid down as HMS Nerissa before being acquired by Poland, before completion, in October 1940.
In May 1941 ORP Piorun (Ship of the Polish Republic Thunderbolt) was the first Allied naval vessel to locate the German battleship Bismarck, and drew its deadly fire—nearly being destroyed—while other units of the Royal Navy task force caught up to sink the Bismarck.
After World War II, Piorun was returned to the Royal Navy and recommissioned as HMS Noble before being scrapped in 1955.ORP Sokół (2002)
ORP Sokół, formerly HNoMS Stord, is one of four Kobben-class submarines of the Polish Navy. The vessel was built by Rheinstahl Nordseewerke GmbH in Emden, Germany (known there as the Type 207) for the Royal Norwegian Navy as HNoMS Stord. The vessel served with the Royal Norwegian Navy from 1967 until it was given to Poland in 2002. Sokół was modified in Gdańsk after the handover.ORP Ślązak (L26)
ORP Ślązak (Polish for Silesian) was a World War II Hunt-class destroyer. Initially laid down in 1940 for the Royal Navy as HMS Bedale, in 1942 she was commissioned by the Polish Navy.
After World War II, she was leased to the Indian Navy in 1953, where she served as a training ship until 1976. She was scrapped in 1979.T43-class minesweeper
The T43 class were a group of minesweepers built for the Soviet Navy and Soviet allies in the 1950s and 1960s. The Soviet designation was Project 254.
|Land forces maritime component|
|Air forces maritime component|
|Maritime forces aviation|
|Land forces aviation|