Polish Americans

Polish Americans are Americans who have total or partial Polish ancestry. There are an estimated 9.5 million self-identified Polish Americans, representing about 3% of the U.S. population.[1][3]

Polish Americans are the largest Slavic ethnic group in the United States, second largest Central European group and the eighth largest immigrant group overall.

The first Polish settlers arrived at Walter Raleigh's failed Roanoke Colony in 1585.[4][5] In 1608 Polish settlers came to the Virginia Colony as skilled craftsmen.

Two early immigrants, Casimir Pulaski and Tadeusz Kościuszko, led armies in the Revolutionary War and are remembered as national heroes. Overall, more than one million Poles and Polish subjects have immigrated to the United States, primarily during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Exact immigration numbers are unknown. Many immigrants were classified as "Russian", "German" and "Austrian" by the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service as the Polish state did not exist from 1795 to 1918 and thus the former territories of Poland at this time were under Prussian, Austrian-Hungarian and Russian control. Complicating the U.S. Census figures further are the high proportion of Polish Americans who marry outside their ethnicity; in 1940, about 50 percent married other American ethnics and a study in 1988 found that 54 percent of Polish Americans three generations or higher had been of mixed ancestry. The Polish American Cultural Center places a figure of Americans who have some Polish ancestry at 19-20 million.

In 2000, 667,414 Americans over 5 years old reported Polish as the language spoken at home, which is about 1.4% of the census groups who speak a language other than English or 0.25% of the U.S. population.

Polish Americans
Polonia amerykańska
Poland United States
Polish ancestry in the USA and Canada
Polish Americans as % of population by state
Total population
9,500,000
U.S. Estimate, 2013, self-reported[1]
Around 3% of U.S. population
Regions with significant populations
Northeast (New York · New Jersey · Pennsylvania · Connecticut · Massachusetts)
Midwest (Michigan · Illinois · Wisconsin · Ohio · Minnesota · Indiana · North Dakota)
Languages
English (American English dialects), Polish
Religion
Christianity (Predominantly Roman Catholicism)[2]
Related ethnic groups
Polish diaspora, Polish Canadians, other West Slavic Americans (Czech Americans, Kashubian Americans, Silesian Americans, Slovak Americans and Sorbian Americans)

History

Their history is divided into three stages:

  1. From the colonial era down to 1870, small numbers of Poles and Polish subjects came to America as individuals or in small family groups, and they quickly assimilated and did not form separate communities. Some Jews from Poland even assimilated into cities which were Polish (and also other Slavic, and sometimes additionally Jewish) bastions in order to conceal their Jewish identities.[6]
  2. From 1870 to 1914, Poles and Polish subjects formed a significant part of the wave of immigration from Germany, Imperial Russia, and Austria Hungary. The Ethnic Poles and Jews in particular came in family groups, settled in and/or blended into largely Polish neighborhoods and other Slavic bastions, and aspired to earn relatively high wages compared to what they could earn back in Europe (thus why many took the ample job opportunities for unskilled manual labor in industry and mining). The main Ethnically-Polish-American organizations were founded because of high Polish interest in the Catholic church, parochial schools, and local community affairs. Relatively few were politically active.
  3. Since 1914, the United States has seen mass emigration from Poland, and the coming of age of several generations of fully assimilated Polish Americans. Immigration from Poland has continued into the early 2000s, and began to decline after Poland joined the European Union in 2004. The income levels have gone up from well below average, to above average. Poles became active members of the liberal New Deal Coalition from the 1930s to the 1960s, but since then, many have moved to the suburbs, and have become more conservative and vote less often Democratic.[7] Outside of Republican and Democratic politics, politics such as those of Agudath Israel of America have heavily involved Polish-Jewish Americans.

Family names

Name Number of Americans - 2000[8] Rank in Poland - 2010
Nowak 18,515 1 Nowak
Kowalski 18,134 2 Kowalski
Kaminski 14,190 3 Wiśniewski
Wisniewski 14,190 4 Wójcik
Zielinski 11,019 5 Kowalczyk
Kozlowski 10,373 6 Kamiński
Jankowski 9,060 7 Lewandowski
Grabowski 8,975 8 Zieliński
Szymanski 8,813 9 Woźniak
Wozniak 8,563 10 Szymański

Demographics

Number of Polish Americans
(self-reported) as per U.S. Census
Year Number
1900[9]
1,903,000
1970[10]
5,105,000
1980[11]
8,228,037
1990[12]
9,366,106
2000[13]
8,977,444
2010[14]
9,569,207

Occupations

Lopata (1976) argues that Poles differed from most other ethnic groups in America, in several ways. They did not plan to remain permanently and become "Americanized". Instead, they came temporarily, to earn money, invest, and wait for the right opportunity to return. Their intention was to ensure for themselves a desirable social status in the old world. However, many of the temporary migrants had decided to become permanent Americans.

Many found manual labor jobs in the coal mines of Pennsylvania and the heavy industries (steel mills, iron foundries, slaughterhouses, oil and sugar refineries), of the Great Lakes cities of Chicago, Pittsburgh, Detroit, Buffalo, Milwaukee, Cleveland, and Toledo.

U.S. Census

1922 Detroit store
Polish-American grocery, 1922, Detroit, Michigan.

The U.S. Census asked Polish immigrants to specify Polish as their native language beginning in Chicago in 1900, allowing the government to enumerate them as an individual nationality when there was no Polish nation-state.[15] No distinction is made in the American census between ethnically Polish Americans and descendants of non-ethnic Poles, such as Jews or Ukrainians, who were born in the territory of Poland and considered themselves Polish nationals. Therefore, some say, of the 10 million Polish Americans, only a certain portion are of Polish ethnic descent. On the other hand, many ethnic Poles when entering the US from 1795 to 1917, when Poland did not exist, did not identify themselves as ethnic Poles and instead identified themselves as either German, Austrian or Russian (this pertained to the nations occupying Poland from 1795 to 1917). Therefore, the actual number of Americans of at least partial Polish ancestry, could be well over 10 million. In the 2011 United States Census Bureau's Population Estimates, there are between 9,365,239 and 9,530,571 Americans of Polish descent, with over 500,000 being foreign-born.[16]

Historically, Polish-Americans have assimilated very quickly to American society. Between 1940 and 1960, only 20 percent of the children of Polish-American ethnic leaders spoke Polish regularly, compared to 50 percent for Ukrainians.[17] In the early 1960s, 3,000 of Detroit's 300,000 Polish-Americans changed their names each year. Language proficiency in Polish is rare in Polish-Americans, as 91.3% speak "English only".[16] In 1979, the 8 million respondents of Polish ancestry reported that only 41.5 percent had single ancestry, whereas 57.3% of Greeks, 52% of Italians and Sicilians, and 44% of Ukrainians had done so. Polish-Americans tended to marry exogamously in the postwar era in high numbers, and tended to marry within the Catholic population, often to persons of German (17%), Italian (10%), East European (8%), Irish (5%), French-Canadian (4%), Spanish-speaking (2%), Lithuanian (2%), and English (1%) ancestry.[18]

Income

By educational attainment, the U.S. Census estimates that 42.5% have bachelor's degrees or higher, whereas the American population as a whole is 32.0%.[19] The median household income for Americans of Polish descent is estimated by the U.S. Census as $73,452, with no statistically significant differences from other Slavic-American groups, Czech, Slovak, and Ukrainian. The median household income for those of Russian ancestry has been reported as higher on the U.S. Census, at $80,554.[16]

Socioeconomic indicators: 2017[16]
Ethnicity Household Income College degrees (%)
Russian $80,554 60.4
Polish $73,452 42.5
Czech $71,663 45.4
Serbian $79,135 46.0
Slovak $73,093 44.8
Ukrainian $75,674 52.2
White non-Hispanic $65,845 35.8
Total US Population $60,336 32.0

Polish-born population

Polish-born population in the US since 2010:[20]

Year Number
2010 475,503
2011 Decrease461,618
2012 Decrease440,312
2013 Decrease432,601
2014 Decrease424,460
2015 Decrease419,332
2016 Increase424,928
2017 Decrease418,775

Communities

The vast majority of Polish immigrants settled in metropolitan areas, attracted by jobs in industry. The minority, by some estimates, only ten percent, settled in rural areas.

Historian John Bukowczyk noted that Polish immigrants in America were highly mobile, and 40 to 60 percent were likely to move from any given urban neighborhood within 10 years.[21] The reasons for this are very individualistic; Bukowczyk's theory is that many immigrants with agricultural backgrounds were eager to migrate because they were finally freed from local plots of land as they had been in Poland. Others ventured into business and entrepreneurship, and the majority of them opened small retail shops such as bakeries, butcher shops, saloons, and print shops.[22]

Chicago

Gateway Theatre (Chicago)
The Gateway Theatre, seat of the Copernicus Foundation, in Jefferson Park, Chicago. The Baroque spire is modeled on the Royal Castle, Warsaw.
Polish Market in Chicago.jpeg
The deli counter at the former Bobak's Polish supermarket in Chicago.

One of the most notable in size of the urban Polish American communities is in Chicago and its surrounding suburbs. The Almanac of American Politics 2004 states that "Even today, in Archer Heights (a neighborhood of Chicago), you can scarcely go a block without hearing someone speaking Polish."

Chicago bills itself as the largest Polish city outside of Poland, with approximately 185,000 Polish language speakers,[23] making Polish the third most spoken language in Chicago. The influence of Chicago's Polish community is demonstrated by the numerous Polish-American organizations: the Polish Museum of America, Polish Roman Catholic Union of America (the oldest Polish American fraternal organization in the United States), Polish American Association, Polish American Congress, Polish National Alliance, Polish Falcons and the Polish Highlanders Alliance of North America. In addition, Illinois has more than one million people that are of Polish descent, the third largest ethnic group after the German and Irish Americans.

Chicago's Polish community is concentrated along the city's Northwest and Southwest Sides, along Milwaukee and Archer Avenues, respectively. Chicago's Taste of Polonia festival is celebrated at the Copernicus Foundation, in Jefferson Park, every Labor Day weekend. Nearly 3 million people of Polish descent live in the area between Chicago and Detroit, including Northern Indiana, a part of the Chicago metropolitan area. The community has played a role as a staunch supporter of the Democratic machine, and has been rewarded with several congressional seats. The leading representative has been Congressman Dan Rostenkowski, one of the most powerful members of Congress (1959 to 1995), especially on issues of taxation, before he went to prison.[24]

New York City Metropolitan Area / Northern New Jersey

Greenpoint Polish stores 02
Greenpoint, Brooklyn.

The New York City Metropolitan Area, including the borough of Brooklyn in New York City as well as Northern New Jersey, is home to the second largest community of Polish Americans[25] and is now closely behind the Chicago area's Polish population. Greenpoint, New York in Brooklyn is home to the Little Poland of New York City, while Williamsburg, Maspeth and Ridgewood also contain vibrant Polish communities. In 2014, the New York metropolitan area surpassed Chicago as the metropolitan area attracting the most new legal immigrants to the United States from Poland.[26][27][28]

Linden, New Jersey

Linden, New Jersey in Union County, near Newark Liberty International Airport, has become heavily first-generation Polish in recent years. 15.6% of the residents five years old and above in the city of Linden primarily speak the Polish language at home and a variety of Polish-speaking establishments may be found by the Linden station, which is a direct line to Manhattan. St. Theresa's Roman Catholic Church offers Polish-language Mass.

Other areas

In Hudson County, New Jersey, Bayonne houses New Jersey's largest Polish American community, while Wallington in Bergen County, New Jersey contains the state's highest percentage of Polish Americans and one of the highest percentages in the United States, at over 40%. However, within New Jersey, Polish populations are additionally increasing rapidly in Clifton, Passaic County as well as in Garfield, Bergen County.

Riverhead, New York, located on eastern Long Island, contains a neighborhood known as Polish Town, where many Polish immigrants have continued to settle since the World War II era; the town has Polish architecture, stores, and St. Isidore's R.C. Church, and Polish Town hosts an annual summer Polish Fair. LOT Polish Airlines provides non-stop flight service between JFK International Airport in the Queens borough of New York City, Newark and Warsaw.[29]

Kosciuszko Foundation is based in New York.

Wisconsin and Minnesota

Milwaukee's Polish population has always been overshadowed by the city's more numerous German American inhabitants. Nevertheless, the city's once numerous Polish community built a number of Polish Cathedrals, among them the magnificent Basilica of St. Josaphat and St. Stanislaus Catholic Church. Many Polish residents and businesses are still located in the Lincoln Village neighborhood. The city is also home to Polish Fest, the largest Polish festival in the United States, where Polish Americans from all over Wisconsin and nearby Chicago, come to celebrate Polish Culture, through music, food and entertainment.[30]

Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Nebraska represent a different type of settlement with significant Polish communities, having been established in rural areas. Historian John Radzilowski estimates that up to a third of Poles in Minnesota settled in rural areas, where they established 40 communities, that were often centered around a Catholic church.[31] Most of these settlers came from the Polish lands that had been taken by Prussia during the Partitions, with a sub-group coming from Silesia. The Kaszub minority, from Poland's Baltic coast, was also strongly represented among Polish immigrants to Minnesota, most notably in Winona.

Michigan

Michigan's Polish population of more than 850,000 is the third-largest among US states, behind that of New York and Illinois. Polish Americans make up 8.6% of Michigan's total population. The city of Detroit has a very large Polish community, which historically settled in Poletown and Hamtramck on the east side of Detroit, the neighborhoods along Michigan Avenue from 23rd street into east Dearborn, the west side of Delray, parts of Warrendale and several sections of Wyandotte downriver. The northern part of Poletown was cleared of residents, to make way for the General Motors Detroit/Hamtramck Assembly plant. Today it contains some of the most opulent Polish churches in America like St. Stanislaus, Sweetest Heart of Mary, St. Albertus, St. Josephat and St. Hyacinthe. Michigan as a state has Polish populations throughout. In addition to metropolitan Detroit, Grand Rapids, Bay City, Alpena and the surrounding area, the thumb of Michigan, Manistee, and numerous places in northern lower Michigan also have sizable Polish populations.

The Polish influence is still felt throughout the entire metropolitan Detroit area, especially the suburb of Wyandotte, which is slowly emerging as the major center of Polish American activities in the state. An increase in new immigration from Poland is helping to bolster the parish community of Our Lady of Mount Carmel and a host of Polish American civic organizations, located within the city of Wyandotte. Also, the Detroit suburb of Troy is home to the American Polish Cultural Center, where the National Polish-American Sports Hall of Fame has over 200 artifacts on display from over 100 inductees, including Stan Musial and Mike Krzyzewski.[32] St. Mary's Preparatory, a high school in Orchard Lake with historically Polish roots, sponsors a popular annual Polish County Fair that bills itself as "America's Largest High School Fair."

Ohio

Lagrange street Polish Festival items booth
Polish and Polish themed items booth at the Lagrange Street Polish Festival in Toledo, Ohio.

Ohio is home to more than 440,000 people of Polish descent, their presence felt most strongly in the Greater Cleveland area, where half of Ohio's Polish population resides.[33] The city of Cleveland, Ohio has a large Polish community, especially in historic Slavic Village, as part of its Warszawa Section. Poles from this part of Cleveland migrated to the suburbs, such as Garfield Heights, Parma and Seven Hills. Parma has even recently been designated a Polish Village commercial district.[34] Farther out, other members of Cleveland's Polish community live in Brecksville, Independence and Broadview Heights. Many of these Poles return to their Polish roots, by attending masses at St. Stanislaus Church, on East 65th Street and Baxter Avenue. Poles in Cleveland celebrate the annual Harvest Festival, which is usually held at the end of August. It features polka music, Polish food and all things Polish. Cleveland's other Polish section is in Tremont, located on Cleveland's west side. The home parishes are St. John Cantius and St. John Kanty. They also host Polish celebratory events in Cleveland.[35]

Poles, in Cleveland, were instrumental in forming the Third Federal Savings and Loan, in 1938. After seeing fellow Poles discriminated against by Cleveland's banks, Ben Stefanski formed Third Federal. Today the Stefanski family still controls the bank. Unlike Cleveland's KeyBank and National City Corp., which have their headquarters in Downtown Cleveland, Third Federal is on Broadway Avenue in the Slavic Village neighborhood. Third Federal Savings and Loan is in the top 25 saving and loan institutions in the United States. In 2003, they acquired a Florida banking company and have branches in Florida and Ohio.

Texas

Panna Maria, Texas was founded by Upper Silesian settlers on Christmas Eve in 1854. Some people still speak Texas Silesian. The Silesian language is a dialect of Polish. Cestohowa, Kosciusko, Falls City, Polonia, New Waverly, Brenham, Marlin, Bremond, Anderson, Bryan, and Chappell Hill were either founded or populated by the Poles.

Others

PolishimmigrationmarkerIndianolaTX
Marker of immigration from Silesia into Texas - Indianola, Texas

Other industrial cities, with major Polish communities, include: Buffalo, New York; Boston; Baltimore; New Britain, Connecticut; Dallas, Houston, Portland, Oregon; Minneapolis; Philadelphia; Columbus, Ohio; Erie, Pennsylvania; Rochester, New York; Syracuse, New York; Los Angeles; San Francisco; Seattle; Pittsburgh; central/western Massachusetts; and Duluth, Minnesota.

Luzerne County, in northeastern Pennsylvania, is the only county in the United States, where a plurality of residents state their ancestry as Polish. (See: Maps of American ancestries) This includes the cities of Wilkes-Barre, Pittston, Hazelton, and Nanticoke. Many of the immigrants were drawn to this area, because of the mining of Anthracite coal in the region. Polish influences are still common today, in the form of church bazaars, polka music, and Polish cuisine. It is widely believed that Boothwyn, Pennsylvania, has one of the fastest growing Polish communities in the United States.

In 2007, at the urging of Attorney Adrian Baron and the local Polonia Business Association, New Britain, Connecticut officially designated its Broad Street neighborhood as Little Poland, where an estimated 30,000 residents claim Polish heritage. Visitors can do an entire day's business completely in Polish including banking, shopping, dining, legal consultations, and even dance lessons. The area has retained its Polish character since 1890.

By state totals

Polish1346
Distribution of Polish Americans, according to the 2000 United States Census.

According to the 2000 United States Census, the U.S. states with the largest numbers of self-reported Poles and Americans of Polish ancestry are:

By percentage of total population

The bigger the symbol, the higher the percentage of Polish Americans in that state. For the purposes of this map Hawaii and Alaska were not included, however they are listed in the raw numbers below.

Polish Americans in the US.pdf
A map of the approximate number of Polish Americans in each one of the US states as percentage of its total population, labelled in increments between 1% and 10%.

Religion

St. Stanislaus Kostka Church Chicago
St. Stanislaus Kostka Church in Chicago, Illinois, the city's first Polish parish

As in Poland, the majority of Polish immigrants are Roman Catholic. Historically, less than 5% of Americans who identified as Polish would state any other religion but Roman Catholic. Jewish immigrants from Poland, largely without exception, self identified[36] as "Jewish" or "Russian Jewish" when inside the United States, and faced a historical trajectory far different from that of the ethnic Poles.[37] Anusim from Poland also varied in their self-identification,[38] but were more likely to identify as "Polish" in the United States.[39]

Polish Americans built dozens of Polish Cathedrals in the Great Lakes and New England regions and in the Mid-Atlantic States. Chicago's Poles founded the following churches: St. Stanislaus Kostka, Holy Trinity, St. John Cantius, Holy Innocents, St. Helen, St. Fidelis, St. Mary of the Angels, St. Hedwig, St. Josaphat, St. Francis of Assisi (Humboldt Park), St. Hyacinth Basilica, St. Wenceslaus, Immaculate Heart of Mary, St. Stanislaus B&M, St. James (Cragin), St. Ladislaus, St. Constance, St. Mary of Perpetual Help, St. Barbara, SS. Peter & Paul, St. Joseph (Back of the Yards), Five Holy Martyrs, St. Pancratius, St. Bruno, St. Camillus, St. Michael (South Chicago), Immaculate Conception (South Chicago), St. Mary Magdalene, St. Bronislava, St. Thecla, St. Florian, St. Mary of Częstochowa (Cicero), St. Simeon (Bellwood), St. Blase (Summit), St. Glowienke (Downers Grove), St. John the Fisherman (Lisle), St. Isidore the Farmer (Blue Island), St. Andrew the Apostle (Calumet City) and St. John the Baptist (Harvey), as well as St. Mary of Nazareth Hospital, on the Near West Side.

Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic Church, Little Falls, MN
Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic Church, Little Falls, Minnesota. Built in 1922 by Polish-American Immigrants

Poles established approximately 50 Roman Catholic parishes in Minnesota. Among them: St. Wojciech (Adalbert) and St. Kazimierz (Casimir) in St. Paul; Holy Cross, St. Philip, St. Hedwig (Jadwiga Slaska) and All Saints, in Minneapolis; Our Lady Star of the Sea and St. Casimir's in Duluth; and St. Kazimierz (Casimir) and St. Stanislaw Kostka in Winona. A few of the parishes of particular note, founded by Poles elsewhere in Minnesota, include: St. John Cantius in Wilno; St. Jozef (Joseph) in Browerville; St. John the Baptist in Virginia; St. Mary in Częstochowa; St. Wojciech (Adalbert) in Silver Lake; Our Lady of Mount Carmel in Opole; Our Lady of Lourdes in Little Falls; St. Stanislaus B&M in Sobieski; St. Stanislaus Kostka in Bowlus; St. Hedwig in Holdingford; Sacred Heart in Flensburg; Holy Cross in North Prairie; Holy Cross in Harding; and St. Isadore in Moran Township.

Poles in Cleveland established St. Hyacinth's (now closed), Saint Stanislaus Church (1873), Sacred Heart (1888–2010) Immaculate Heart of Mary (1894), St. John Cantius (Westside Poles), St. Barbara (closed), Sts Peter and Paul Church (1927) in Garfield Heights, Saint Therese (1927) Garfield Heights, Marymount Hospital (1948) Garfield Heights, and Saint Monica Church (1952) Garfield Heights. Also, the Polish Community created the Our Lady of Częstochowa Shrine on the campus of Marymount Hospital.[40]

Poles in South Bend, Indiana founded four parishes: St. Hedwig Parish (1877), St. Casimir Parish (1898), St. Stanislaus Parish (1907), and St. Adalbert Parish, South Bend (1910).

Circa 1897, in Pittsburgh's Polish Hill, Immaculate Heart of Mary, modeled on St. Peter's Basilica in Rome was founded.[41]

Czestochowska
Lady of Częstochowa, the "Black Madonna", a religious figure in Polish Catholicism

Polish Americans preserved their longstanding tradition of venerating the Lady of Czestochowa in the United States. Replicas of the painting are common in Polish American churches and parishes, and many churches and parishes are named in her honor. The veneration of the Virgin Mary in Polish parishes is a significant difference between Polish Catholicism and Catholicism; Polish nuns in the Felician Order for instance, took to Marianism as the cornerstone of their spiritual development, and Polish churches in the U.S. were seen as "cult-like" in their veneration of Mary.[42] Religious catechism and writings from convents found that Polish nuns in the Felician Sisters and The Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth were taught to have "a sound appreciation of Mary's role in the mystery of the Redemption and ...a filial confidence in her patronage," more explicitly, to be "a true daughter to the immaculate Virgin Mary". The Marianism that was taught in Polish parish schools in the United States was done independent of the Catholic Church, and demonstrated autonomy on the part of the nuns who taught Polish American youths. It is notable that there was a concurrent movement in Poland that eventually led to a separatist Catholic church, the Mariavite Church, which greatly expanded the veneration of the Virgin Mary in its doctrine. In Poland, the Virgin Mary was believed to serve as a mother of mercy and salvation for Catholics, and throughout the Middle Ages, Polish knights prayed to her before battle. Polish American churches featured replicas of the Lady of Częstochowa, which was on feature at the Jasna Góra Monastery and holds national and religious significance because of its connection to a victorious military defense in 1655. Several towns in America are named Częstochowa, in commemoration of the town in Poland.[42]

Though the majority of Polish Americans remained loyal to the Catholic Church, a breakaway Catholic church was founded in 1897 in Scranton, Pennsylvania. Polish parishioners founded the church to assert independence from the Catholic Church in America. The split was in rebellion from the church leadership, then dominated by Irish bishops and priests, and lacking in Polish language speakers and Polish church leaders. It exists today with 25,000 parishioners and remains independent from the authority of the Roman Catholic Church.

Poland is also home to followers of Protestantism and the Eastern Orthodox Church. Small groups of both of these groups also immigrated to the United States. One of the most celebrated painters of religious icons in North America today is a Polish American Eastern Orthodox priest, Fr. Theodore Jurewicz, who singlehandedly painted New Gračanica Monastery in Third Lake, Illinois, over the span of three years.[43]

A small group of Lipka Tatars, originating from the Białystok region, helped co-found the first Muslim organization in Brooklyn, New York, in 1907 and later, a mosque, which is still in use.[44]

Politics

Anti-Polonism

The Polish community was long the subject of anti-Polish sentiment in America. The word, Polack, has become a racial slur. This prejudice was partially associated with anti-Catholicism, and early 20th century worries about being overrun by Central European immigrants.

Culture

Cultural contributions of Polish Americans cover a broad spectrum including media, publishing industry, religious presence, artistic life, cuisine and museums as well as festivals.

Polish American flag
Polish American novelty flag.

Media

Among the most notable Polish American media groups are: the Hippocrene Books (founded by Polish American George Blagowidow); TVP Polonia; Polsat 2 International; TVN International; Polvision; TV4U New York; WPNA Radio Chicago; Polish Radio External Service (formerly Radio Polonia); Polonia Today and the Warsaw Voice. There are also Polish American newspapers and magazines, such as the Dziennik Związkowy, PL magazine,[45] Polish Weekly Chicago, the Super Express USA and Nowy Dziennik in New York and Tygodnik Polski and The Polish Times in Detroit, not to mention the Ohio University Press Series in Polish American Studies,[46] Przeglad Polski Online, Polish American Journal,[47] the Polish News Online,[48]Am-Pol Eagle Newspaper,[49] and Progress for Poland,[50] among others.

Cultural identity

Even in long-integrated communities, remnants of Polish culture and vocabulary remain. Roman Catholic churches built by Polish American communities often serve as a vehicle for cultural retention.

During the 1950s–1970s, the Polish wedding was often an all-day event. Traditional Polish weddings in Chicago metropolitan area, in areas such as the southeast side of Chicago, inner suburbs like Calumet City and Hegewisch, and Northwest Indiana suburbs, such as Whiting, Hammond and East Chicago, always occurred on Saturdays. The receptions were typically held in a large hall, such as a VFW Hall. A polka band of drums, a singer, accordion, and trumpet, entertained the people, as they danced traditional dances, such as the oberek, "Polish Hop" and the waltz. Always an important part of Slavic culture, food played a very important role. The musicians, as well as the guests, were expected to enjoy ample amounts of both food and drink. Foods, such as Polish sausage, sauerkraut, pierogi and kluski were common. Common drinks were beer, screwdrivers and highballs. Many popular Polish foods became a fixture in the American cuisine of today, including kiełbasa (Polish sausage), babka cake, kaszanka (kasanzka) and pierogi.

Polish American cultural groups include Polish American Arts Association and the Polish Falcons.

Among the many Polish American writers are a number of poets, such as Phil Boiarski, Hedwig Gorski, John Guzlowski, John Minczeski, Linda Nemec Foster, Leonard Kress (poet and translator), Cecilia Woloch, Kim Kikel and Mark Pawlak (poet and editor), along with novelists Leslie Pietrzyk, Thad Rutkowski, Suzanne Strempek Shea[51] and others.

Museums

Among the best known Polish American museums are the Polish Museum of America in Chicago's old Polish Downtown; founded in 1935, the largest ethnic museum in the U.S. sponsored by the Polish Roman Catholic Union of America. The Museum Library ranks as one of the best, outside of Poland. Equally ambitious is the Polish American Museum located in Port Washington, New York, founded in 1977. It features displays of folk art, costumes, historical artifacts and paintings, as well as bilingual research library with particular focus on achievements of the people of Polish heritage in America.[52][53] There is also the Polish Cultural Institute and Museum of Winona, Minnesota, known informally as "The Polish Museum of Winona." Formally established in 1979 by Father Paul Breza, the Polish Museum of Winona features exhibits pertaining to Winona's Kashubian Polish culture and hosts a wide range of events celebrating America's Polish-American heritage in general.

Festivals

2008 Pulaski Day Parade
Polish-American parade in New York City, 2008

There are a number of unique festivals, street parties and parades held by the Polish American community. The Polish Fest in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, which is a popular annual festival, takes place at the Henry Maier Festival Park. It is also the largest Polish festival in the United States. It attracts Polish Americans from all over Wisconsin and nearby Chicago, who come to celebrate Polish culture through music, food and entertainment. New York City is home to the New York Polish Film Festival, an annual film festival showcasing current and past films of Polish cinema. NYPFF is the only annual presentation of Polish films in New York City and the largest festival promoting and presenting Polish films on the East Coast.[54] The Polish Festival in Syracuse's Clinton Square has become the largest cultural event in the history of the Polish community in Central New York. There's also the Taste of Polonia festival held in Chicago every Labor Day weekend since 1979 at the Copernicus Cultural and Civic Center in the Jefferson Park area. The Polish Festival in Portland, Oregon is reported to be the largest in the Western United States.[55] One of the newest and most ambitious festivals is the Seattle Polish Film Festival organized in conjunction with the Polish Film Festival in Gdynia, Poland. Kansas City, Kansas is home to a large Polish population and for the last 31 years, All Saints Parish has hosted Polski Day [3]. And last, but not least, there's the Pierogi Fest in Whiting, Indiana with many more attractions other than Polish pierogi, and the Wisconsin Dells Polish Fest.[51]

Holidays

Polish Americans carried on celebrations of Constitution Day throughout their time in the United States without political suppression. In Poland, from 1940 to 1989, the holiday was banned by Nazi and Soviet occupiers.[56]

Contributions to American culture

Pomnik Czynu Zbrojnego 04
Monument of Andrzej Pityński "Contribution of Polish Americans to Polish-Soviet War 1920" founded in Warsaw by Polish-Americans

Polish-Americans have influenced American culture in many ways. Most prominent among these is that Jefferson drafting the Constitution of the United States was inspired by religious tolerance of the Warsaw Confederation,[57] which guaranteed freedom of conscience.

The Polish culture left also culinary marks in the USA - the inclusion of traditional Polish cuisine such as pierogi, kielbasa, golabki. Some of these Polish foods were tweaked and reinvented in the new American environment such as Chicago's Maxwell Street Polish Sausage.

Polish Americans have also contributed to altering the physical landscape of the cities they have inhabited, erecting monuments to Polish-American heroes such as Kościuszko and Pulaski. Distinctive cultural phenomena such as Polish flats or the Polish Cathedral style of architecture became part and parcel of the areas where Polish settlement occurred.

Poles' cultural ties to Roman Catholicism has also influenced the adoption of such distinctive rites like the blessing of the baskets before Easter in many areas of the United States by fellow Roman Catholics.

Architectural influence

Early Polish immigrants built houses with high-pitched roofs in the United States. The high pitched roof is necessary in a country subject to snow, and is a common feature in Northern and Eastern European architecture. In Panna Maria, Texas, Poles built brick houses with thick walls and high-pitched roofs. Meteorological and soil data show that region in Texas is subject to less than 1 inch of snow[58] and a meteorological study conducted 1960-1990 found the lowest one-day temperature ever recorded was 5 degrees Fahrenheit on January 21, 1986, highly unlikely to support much snow.[59] The shaded veranda that was created by these roofs was a popular living space for the Polish Texans, who spent much of their time there to escape the sub-tropical temperatures of Texas. The Poles in Texas added porches to these verandas, often in the southward windy side, which is an alteration to traditional folk architecture.[60] According to oral histories recorded from descendants, the verandas were used for "almost all daily activities from preparing meals to dressing animal hides."[60] The Poles in Texas put straw thatching on their roofs until the early 1900s, another European influence. The first house built by a Pole in Panna Maria is the John Gawlik House, constructed 1858. The building still stands and is visited as a historical attraction in the cultural history of Texas. In 2011, the San Antonio Conservation Society financed a replacement of the building's roof, identifying it as a "historically and architecturally significant building".[61]

Military

Organizations like the Polish Legion of American Veterans were organized to memorialize the Polish contribution to the American military.[62]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more ancestry categories reported 2010 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  2. ^ One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society , p. 120
  3. ^ U.S. Census Bureau. "Ancestry: 2000" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 September 2004. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
  4. ^ "Alliance News : 2008" (PDF). Polishtoledo.com. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
  5. ^ J. H. Retinger, Polacy w cywilizacjach swiata, p. 200, Warszawa, 1937.
  6. ^ See the reference to Anusim. Additionally, refer to the similar case of John Kerry's paternal grandfather, a Non-Polish subject whom immigrated to Boston and passed for a Czech-Austrian Hungarian Catholic
  7. ^ Victor Greene, "Poles" in Stephan Thernstrom, ed., Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic groups (Harvard University Press, 1980) pp 787-803
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ "Waclaw Kruszka, Historya Polska w Ameryce, Milwaukee 1905, p. 65 (in Polish)" (PDF). The Polish-American Liturgical Center. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  10. ^ Polish Americans, Status in an ethnic Community. by Helena Lopata, p. 89
  11. ^ "Rank of States for Selected Ancestry Groups with 100,00 or more persons: 1980" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
  12. ^ "1990 Census of Population Detailed Ancestry Groups for States" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. 18 September 1992. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
  13. ^ "Ancestry: 2000". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
  14. ^ "Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more ancestry categories reported 2010 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
  15. ^ "About the Population Census". Flps.newberry.org. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  16. ^ a b c d Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). "American FactFinder - Results". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  17. ^ Bukowczyck, p. 108
  18. ^ Bukowczyck, p. 109
  19. ^ Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). "American FactFinder - Search". Archived from the original on 12 February 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  20. ^ https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_15_1YR_B05006&prodType=table
  21. ^ Bukowczyk, pg. 35.
  22. ^ Bukowczyk, pg. 36.
  23. ^ The Polish Community in Metro Chicago:A Community Profile of Strengths and Needs, A Census 2000 Report, published by the Polish American Association June 2004, p. 18
  24. ^ Tomasz Inglot, and John P. Pelissero. "Ethnic Political Power in a Machine City Chicago's Poles at Rainbow's End." Urban Affairs Review (1993) 28#4 pp: 526-543.
  25. ^ "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2011 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
  26. ^ "Supplemental Table 2. Persons Obtaining Lawful Permanent Resident Status by Leading Core Based Statistical Areas (CBSAs) of Residence and Region and Country of Birth: Fiscal Year 2014". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved September 11, 2016.
  27. ^ "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2013 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved September 11, 2016.
  28. ^ "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2012 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Archived from the original on December 22, 2014. Retrieved September 11, 2016.
  29. ^ "POLISH AIRLINES LOT". LOT POLISH AIRLINES. Retrieved 2012-11-17.
  30. ^ Gauper, Beth (2007-05-27). "Polish for a day". MidwestWeekends.com. St. Paul Pioneer Press. Retrieved 2008-01-11.
  31. ^ John Radzilowski. Poles in Minnesota. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 2005. p. 6
  32. ^ "National Polish-American Sports Hall of Fame Artifacts on Display at the American Polish Cultural Center". National Polish-American Sports Hall of Fame. Retrieved 2009-02-23.
  33. ^ Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). "American FactFinder - Results". Factfinder2.census.gov. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  34. ^ "Polish Village In Parma Ohio". Facebook.com. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
  35. ^ "The Cleveland Society of Poles | Polish Foundation | Cleveland Ohio". Clevelandsociety.com. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
  36. ^ See "Jewish Surnames (Supposedly) Explained" in regards to name changes, self-identification, &c. as pertaining to Jewish and other immigrants at Ellis Island.
  37. ^ "Project MUSE - A Social History of Polish-American Catholicism". Muse.jhu.edu. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  38. ^ Contrary to popular understanding, Anusim were not just Sephardim. The Jewish Virtual Library explains this well.
  39. ^ Two case studies:
  40. ^ "Our Lady of Czestochowa Shrine". Marymount Hospital. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
  41. ^ No Author Listed. "A History of Polish Hill and the PHCA". Retrieved 2006-12-22.
  42. ^ a b Mary the Messiah: Polish Immigrant Heresy and the Malleable Ideology of the Roman Catholic Church, 1880-1930. John J. Bukowczyk. Journal of American Ethnic History. Vol. 4, No. 2 (Spring, 1985), pp. 5-32
  43. ^ "Serbian Monastery of New Gracanica – History". Newgracanica.com. Archived from the original on 21 February 2009. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
  44. ^ "Religion: Ramadan". Time. 1937-11-15. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
  45. ^ "PL - polsko-amerykański dwujęzyczny miesięcznik / Polish-American bilingual monthly". Plmagazine.net. Archived from the original on 2012-10-13. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
  46. ^ "Ohio University Press & Swallow Press". Ohioswallow.com. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
  47. ^ "Welcome to the Polish American Journal". Polamjournal.com. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
  48. ^ "Polsko Amerykański portal - Polish American portal". Polishnews.Com. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
  49. ^ "The Am-Pol Eagle". Ampoleagle.com. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
  50. ^ "Progress for Poland - Chicago: Fakty, Wiadomości, Opinie..." Progress for Poland. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  51. ^ a b "Polish American Historical Association - Resources and Supported Links". Polishamericanstudies.org. Archived from the original on 2017-11-25. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
  52. ^ Smithsonian Magazine, Polish American Museum at Smithsonian.com
  53. ^ James Barron, the New York Times, If you're thinking of living in:; Port Washington Published: August 8, 1982
  54. ^ "Święto polskiego kina w Nowym Jorku" (in Polish). Wirtualna Polska. 6 May 2009. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
  55. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-12-30. Retrieved 2016-02-08.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  56. ^ "May 3rd Polish Constitution Day". Ampoleagle.com. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  57. ^ Sandra Lapointe. The Golden Age of Polish Philosophy: Kazimierz Twardowski's Philosophical Legacy. Springer. 2009. pp. 2-3. [2]
  58. ^ "Intellicast - Panna Maria Historic Weather Averages in Texas (78144)". Intellicast.com. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  59. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-21. Retrieved 2013-04-10.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  60. ^ a b Francis Edward Abernathy (1 August 2000). Publications of the Texas Folklore Society. University of North Texas Press. pp. 132–. ISBN 978-1-57441-092-1. Retrieved 10 April 2013.
  61. ^ "mySouTex.com - Grant will replace roof of 1858 Panna Maria house". Mysoutex.com. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  62. ^ "PLAV History". Plav.org. Retrieved 28 August 2017.

Bibliography

  • Bukowczyk, John J. (1986). And My Children Did Not Know Me: A History of the Polish-Americans. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-30701-5. OCLC 59790559.
  • Bukowczyk, John J. (1996). Polish Americans and Their History: Community, Culture, and Politics. Pittsburgh, Pa: University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 0-8229-3953-3. OCLC 494311843.
  • Erdmans, Mary Patrice (1998). Opposite Poles: Immigrants and Ethnics in Polish Chicago, 1976–1990. University Park, Pa: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0-271-01735-X. OCLC 37245940.
  • Gladsky, Thomas S. (1992). Princes, Peasants, and Other Polish Selves: Ethnicity in American Literature. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 0-87023-775-6. OCLC 24912598.
  • Greene, Victor. "Poles" in Stephan Thernstrom, ed., Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic groups (Harvard University Press, 1980) pp 787–803
  • Jackson, David J. (2003). "Just Another Day in a New Polonia: Contemporary Polish-American Polka Music". Popular Music & Society. 26 (4): 529–540. doi:10.1080/0300776032000144986. ISSN 0300-7766. OCLC 363770952.
  • Lopata, Helena Znaniecka (1976). Polish Americans: Status Competition in an Ethnic Community. Ethnic groups in American life series. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13-686436-8. OCLC 1959615.
  • Majewski, Karen (2003). Traitors and True Poles: Narrating a Polish-American Identity, 1880–1939. Ohio University Press Polish and Polish-American studies series. Athens: Ohio University Press. ISBN 0-8214-1470-4. OCLC 51895984.
  • Nowakowski, Jacek (1989). Polish-American Ways. New York: Perennial Library. ISBN 0-06-096336-0. OCLC 20130171.
  • Pacyga, Dominic A. "Poles," in Elliott Robert Barkan, ed., A Nation of Peoples: A Sourcebook on America's Multicultural Heritage (1999) pp 428–45
  • Pienkos, Donald E. PNA: A Centennial History of the Polish National Alliance of the United States (Columbia University Press, 1984)
  • Pienkos, Donald E., "Of Patriots and Presidents: America's Polish Diaspora and U.S. Foreign Policy since 1917," Polish American Studies 68 (Spring 2011), 5–17.
  • Pula, James S. (1995). Polish Americans: An Ethnic Community. Twayne's immigrant heritage of America series. New York: Twayne Publishers. ISBN 0-8057-8427-6. OCLC 30544009.
  • Pula, James S. (1996). "Image, Status, Mobility and Integration in American Society: The Polish Experience". Journal of American Ethnic History. 16 (1): 74–95. ISSN 0278-5927. OCLC 212041643.
  • Pula, James S. "Polish-American Catholicism: A Case Study in Cultural Determinism", U.S. Catholic Historian Volume 27, #3 Summer 2009, pp. 1–19; in Project MUSE
  • Radzilowski, John. "A Social History of Polish-American Catholicism", U.S. Catholic Historian – Volume 27, #3 Summer 2009, pp. 21–43 in Project MUSE
  • Silverman, Deborah Anders (2000). Polish American Folklore. Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-02569-5. OCLC 237414611.
  • Thomas, William Isaac; Znaniecki, Florian Witold (1996) [1918–1920]. The Polish Peasant in Europe and America: A Classic Work in Immigration History. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-06484-4. OCLC 477221814.

Memory and historiography

  • Jaroszynska-Kirchmann, Anna D., "The Polish American Historical Association: Looking Back, Looking Forward," Polish American Studies, 65 (Spring 2008), 57–76.
  • Walaszek, Adam. "Has the" Salt-Water Curtain" Been Raised Up? Globalizing Historiography of Polish America." Polish American Studies 73.1 (2016): 47-67.
  • Wytrwal, Joseph Anthony (1969). Poles in American History and Tradition. Detroit: Endurance Press. OCLC 29523.
  • Zurawski, Joseph W. "Out of Focus: The Polish American Image in Film," Polish American Studies (2013) 70#1 pp. 5–35 in JSTOR
  • Zurawski, Joseph W. (1975). Polish American History and Culture: A Classified Bibliography. Chicago: Polish Museum of America. OCLC 1993061.

External links

General Pulaski Memorial Day

General Pulaski Memorial Day is a United States public holiday in honor of General Kazimierz Pułaski (spelled Casimir Pulaski in English), a Polish hero of the American Revolution. This holiday is held every year on October 11 by Presidential Proclamation, to commemorate his death from wounds suffered at the Siege of Savannah on October 9, 1779 and to honor the heritage of Polish Americans. The observance was established in 1929 when Congress passed a resolution (Public Resolution 16 of 1929) designating October 11 as General Pulaski Memorial Day. Every President has issued a proclamation for the observance annually since (except in 1930).

This is separate holiday from the regional holiday in the Chicago area titled Casimir Pulaski Day that commemorates Pulaski's birth on March 4, 1746.

Gołąbki

Gołąbki [ɡɔˈwɔmpki] is the Polish name of a dish popular in cuisines of Central Europe, made from boiled cabbage leaves wrapped around a filling of minced pork or beef, chopped onions, and rice or barley.

Gołąbki is the plural form of gołąbek, the diminutive form of gołąb, meaning "pigeon", referring to the roll's shape.

Gołąbki are often served during the Christmas season and on festive occasions such as weddings. They are also a featured dish for family reunions amongst Polish Americans. An alternative to the dish are Jewish holishkes, served on Sukkot and Simchat Torah.

History of the Poles in Baltimore

The history of the Poles in Baltimore dates back to the late 19th century. The Polish community is largely centered in the neighborhoods of Canton, Fell's Point, Locust Point, and Highlandtown. The Poles are the largest Slavic ethnic group in the city and one of the largest European ethnic groups.

History of the Poles in the United States

The history of Poles in the United States dates to the American Colonial era. Poles have lived in present-day United States territories for over 400 years—since 1608. There are 10 million Americans of Polish descent in the U.S. today, making it the largest diaspora of Poles in the world. Polish Americans have always been the largest group of Slavic origin in the United States.

Historians divide Polish American immigration into three "waves", the largest from 1870 to 1914, a second after World War II, and a third after Poland's independence in 1989. Most Polish Americans are descended from the first wave, when millions of Poles fled Polish districts of Germany, Russia, and Austria. This group is often called the za chlebem (for bread) immigrants because most were peasants in Poland who did not own land and lacked basic subsistence. The Austrian Poles were from Galicia, unarguably the most destitute region in Europe at the time. Up to a third of the Poles returned to Poland after living in the United States for a few years, but the majority stayed. Substantial research and sociological works such as The Polish Peasant in Europe and America found that many Polish immigrants shared a common objective of someday owning land in the U.S. or back in Poland. Anti-Slavic legislation cut Polish immigration from 1921 to World War II, but opened up after World War II to include many displaced persons from the Holocaust. A third wave, much smaller, came in 1989 when Poland was freed from Communist rule.

Immigrants in all three waves were attracted by the high wages and ample job opportunities for unskilled manual labor in the United States, and were driven to jobs in American mining, meatpacking, construction, steelwork, and heavy industry—in many cases dominating these fields until the mid-20th century. Over 90% of Poles arrived and settled in communities with other Polish immigrants. These communities are called Polonia and the largest such community historically was in Chicago, Illinois. A key feature of Polish life in the Old World had been religion, and in the United States, Catholicism often became an integral part of Polish identity. In the United States, Polish immigrants created communities centered on Catholic religious services, and built hundreds of churches and parish schools in the 20th century.The Polish today are well assimilated into American society. Average incomes have increased from well below average to above average today, and Poles continue to expand into white-collar professional and managerial roles. Poles are still well represented in blue collar construction and industrial trades, and many live in or near urban cities. They are well dispersed throughout the United States, intermarry at high levels, and have a very low rate of language fluency (less than 5% can speak Polish).

History of the Polish Americans in Metro Detroit

As of 2001, the Metro Detroit area had the U.S.'s second largest Polish ethnic concentration after Chicago. As a whole, Michigan has the third-largest percentage of Polish ancestry of any U.S. state.

Jerzy Jan Lerski

Jerzy Jan Lerski (nom de guerre: Jur; also known as George Jan Lerski; was a Polish lawyer, soldier, historian, political scientist and politician. After World War II he emigrated to the United States, where he became a full professor at the University of San Francisco.

Kashubian Americans

Kashubian Americans are Americans of Kashubian descent.The two earliest Kashubian American settlements in the United States were in the Winona, Minnesota area, including the towns of Fountain City, Pine Creek, Dodge, and Trempealeau across the Mississippi River in Wisconsin, and in Portage County, Wisconsin, including the towns of Polonia, Sharon, and Hull. The Winona settlement is traditionally dated to 1855, but actually began in 1859; the Portage County settlement can definitely be traced back to 1858. Winona is dubbed "Kashubian Capital of America", because of the largest population of Kashubians there.After the American Civil War and the German Kulturkampf of the early 1870s, Kashubians emigrated to the United States in much larger numbers. While some headed for the Winona area and for Portage County, many Kashubians wound up living in major urban centers such as Buffalo, Detroit, Chicago, and Milwaukee. A smaller number of Kashubians settled in small farming communities scattered throughout Minnesota, North Dakota, and Montana. By the turn of the century, Kashubian Americans tended to identify themselves completely as Polish Americans, although in Winona (at least) the Kashubian language would survive for another generation or two.

List of Polish Americans

This is a list of notable Polish Americans, including both original immigrants who obtained American citizenship and their American descendants.

Michigan's 10th congressional district

Michigan's 10th congressional district is a United States congressional district in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, covering a region known as the Thumb. It consists of all of Huron, Lapeer, St. Clair, and Sanilac counties, as well as most of northern Macomb County and eastern Tuscola County.

District boundaries were redrawn in 1992, 2002, and 2012 due to reapportionment following the censuses of 1990, 2000, and 2010.

The current district is fairly conservative. Huron, Lapeer, St. Clair, and Sanilac counties tend to support Republican candidates, as do the northern townships in Macomb and the eastern townships in Tuscola. With 15.5%, this district has the largest proportion of Polish Americans in the country. The district is currently represented by Republican Paul Mitchell, who was first elected in 2016.

Michigan's 15th congressional district

Michigan's 15th congressional district is an obsolete congressional district in the state of Michigan.

Historically, the district's politics have been dominated by the Dingell family since its creation after the 1930 United States Census. Its first congressman, John D. Dingell, Sr., was elected in 1932 and served until his death in 1955. His son, John, Jr. won a special election to succeed him.

The 15th district historically had left-of-center voting tendencies. Its last Cook PVI rating was D+13, meaning it supported Democratic candidates at a rate of 13 percentage points greater than the national average.

This district became obsolete for the 113th Congress in 2013 as congressional district lines were redrawn to accommodate the loss of the seat due to redistricting as a result of the 2010 Census. Most of the district's territory, including Ann Arbor and Dingell's home in Dearborn, became part of the new 12th district, which had previously been based in Oakland, and Macomb Counties.

Along with the 1st district and the now-defunct 16th district, the 15th has been historically frequently represented by politicians of Polish descent. Three of the district's six elected representatives (Dingell Jr. was elected twice and before that he was a representative from 16th district, which was later dissolved) have been Polish-Americans.

Michigan's 16th congressional district

Michigan's 16th congressional district is an obsolete United States congressional district in Michigan. It covered the communities of Dearborn, Downriver and Monroe County.The first Representative to Congress elected from the 16th district, John Lesinski, Sr., took office in 1933, after reapportionment due to the 1930 census. The district was dissolved following the 2000 census. The last Representative elected from the district, John Dingell, was subsequently elected from the 15th district. The only other Representative elected from the 16th district in its 70 years of existence was John Lesinski, Jr. It could be called a Polish district, because all three district's representatives were Polish-Americans.

Piotr S. Wandycz

Piotr Stefan Wandycz (September 20, 1923 – July 29, 2017) was a Polish-American historian, President of the Polish Institute of Arts and Sciences of America, and professor emeritus at Yale University, specializing in Eastern and Central European history.

Poles in Chicago

Poles in Chicago are made up of both immigrant Poles and Americans of Polish heritage living in Chicago, Illinois. They are a part of worldwide Polonia, the Polish term for the Polish Diaspora outside of Poland. Poles in Chicago have contributed to the economic, social and cultural well-being of Chicago from its very beginning. Poles have been a part of the history of Chicago since 1837, when Captain Joseph Napieralski, along with other veterans of the November Uprising first set foot there. As of the 2000 U.S. census, Poles in Chicago were the largest European American ethnic group in the city, making up 7.3% of the total population. However, according to the 2006–2008 American Community Survey, German Americans and Irish Americans each had slightly surpassed Polish Americans as the largest European American ethnic groups in Chicago. German Americans made up 7.3% of the population, and numbered at 199,789; Irish Americans also made up 7.3% of the population, and numbered at 199,294. Polish Americans now made up 6.7% of Chicago's population, and numbered at 182,064. Polish is the third most widely spoken language in Chicago behind English and Spanish.

Poles in Omaha

Poles in Omaha, Nebraska arrived relatively early in the city's history. The first Polish immigrants came in the 1870s, and the community grew past 1000 in the late 1890s. By the 1930s there were 10,000 of Polish descent, and Omaha claimed the largest such community of the Great Plains. According to the 2000 United States Census, Omaha had a total population of 390,112 residents, of whom 18,447 claimed Polish ancestry. The city's Polish community was historically based in several ethnic enclaves throughout South Omaha, including Little Poland and Sheelytown, first dominated by Irish immigrants.

Polish-American vote

Polish-Americans in the United States comprise a voting bloc sought after by both the Democratic and Republican parties. Polish Americans comprise 3.2% of the United States population, but were estimated at nearly 10% of the overall electorate as of 2012. The Polish-American population is concentrated in several swing states that make issues important to Polish-Americans more likely to be heard by presidential candidates. According to John Kromkowski, a Catholic University professor of political science, Polish-Americans make up an "almost archetypical swing vote". The Piast Institute found that Polish Americans are 36.5% Democrats, 33.2% Independents, and 26.1% are Republicans as of 2008. Ideologically, they were categorized as being in the more conservative wing of the Democratic Party, and demonstrated a much stronger inclination for third party candidates in presidential elections than the American public.Historically, Polish-American voters have swung from the Democratic and Republican parties depending on economic and social politics. In the 1918 election, Woodrow Wilson courted Poles through his promises of Polish autonomy. Upon his death and the failures of the proposed League of Nations, Polish-Americans shifted Republican, voting for Warren Harding, Calvin Coolidge, and Herbert Hoover because of their frustration with Wilson and the weakness of the nascent Polish state. The Democratic Party won over Polonia during the New Deal Coalition forged by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and gained strong support for the war effort by Polish-Americans who were fiercely against Nazi Germany. FDR consistently won over 90% of the Polish vote during his four terms. Polish-Americans founded the Polish American Congress (PAC) in 1944 to create strong leadership and represent Polish interests during World War II. FDR met with the PAC and assured Poles of a peaceful and independent Poland following the war. When this did not come to fruition, and with the publication of Arthur Bliss Lane's I Saw Poland Betrayed in 1947, Polish-Americans came to feel that they had been betrayed by the United States government. John F. Kennedy won a majority of the Polish vote in 1960, owing in part to his Catholicism and connection to ethnic communities and the labor movement. Since then, Polish voters have been tied to the more conservative wing of the Democratic Party, but shifted away from the Democrats over social issues such as abortion. Poland's liberation from Soviet occupation during the 1980s was championed to Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush, but Bill Clinton seized Polish voters through his expansion of NATO. The relevance of the "Polish-American vote" has been in question in recent elections, as Americans of Polish descent have assimilated to U.S. society and increased their rate of exogamous marriages.

In modern politics, the Polish-American vote continues to have influence in the United States. The American Polish Advisory Council, a politically-involved network of Polish organizations, has created a political platform and convention, and has shared its agenda with politicians, both at the state and federal level. In the 2012 elections, Polish-Americans have been courted by both the Republican and Democratic parties.

Polish American Congress

The Polish American Congress (PAC) is a U.S. umbrella organization of Polish-Americans and Polish-American organizations.

Its membership is composed of fraternal, educational, veterans, religious, cultural, social, business, and political organizations, as well as individuals.

As of January 2009, it lists 20 national organizations as members.

It is sub-divided into 41 divisions and chapters.

Traditionally, the PAC National President has also been the president of the largest Polish American fraternal organization, the Polish National Alliance (PNA).

Donald E. Pienkos noted that PAC is "one of the most important of all Polish American community (or Polonia) organizations". Stanislaus A. Blejwas wrote that it "has been for more than half a century "Polonia's" chief interest group". According to Blejwas, its creation was a "landmark in the history of Polish immigration to America."

Polish National Catholic Church

The Polish National Catholic Church (PNCC) is a Christian church based in the United States and founded by Polish-Americans. The PNCC is not in full communion with the Roman Catholic Church; it seeks full communion with the Holy See, although it differs theologically in several important respects. A sister church in Poland, the Polish Catholic Church, is a member of the Old Catholic Union of Utrecht and is also not in communion with the Holy See; at the same time, the PNCC is neither in communion with the Union of Utrecht, but rather the Union of Scranton. The Polish National Catholic Church welcomes people of all ethnic, racial, and social backgrounds.

The church has around 26,000 members in five dioceses in the United States and Canada. The five dioceses are: Buffalo-Pittsburgh, Central, Eastern, Western and Canada.

Richard C. Lukas

Richard C. Lukas (born 1937) is an American historian and author of books and articles on military, diplomatic, Polish, and Polish-American history. He specializes in the history of Poland during World War II. Lukas is best known for The Forgotten Holocaust: The Poles Under German Occupation, 1939-1944, a study of the wartime experiences of the Poles.

West Lawn, Chicago

West Lawn, one of Chicago's 77 official community areas, is located on the southwest side of the city. It is considered to be a "melting pot" of sorts, due to its constant change of races moving in and out of the area, as well as the diversity that exists there. It has a small town atmosphere in the big city. West Lawn is home to many Polish-Americans, Irish-Americans, Mexican-Americans, and other people of Latin American and Eastern European origin. The current Alderman of the West Lawn community is Alderman Marty Quinn.

Polish Americans by location
East Slavic
South Slavic
West Slavic
Central Europe
Eastern Europe
Northern Europe
Southeast Europe3
Southern Europe
Western Europe
Other Europeans
By region
West Slavic Americans
Historical
Diaspora
See also

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.